Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

It was

priests received the blood into a vessel, which was handed by the priests or Levites to the high-priest, by whom it was poured at the bottom of the altar. When any person happened to be unqualified for offering this sacrifice, by reason of some uncleanness he had contracted, it was then performed by the Levites ".

7. After the lamb was slain, the blood sprinkled, and the fat consumed upon the altar, the lamb was returned to the person by whom it had been offered, who carried it to the place where it was to be eat. necessary that it should be thoroughly roasted, and not broiled, or half done. The occasion of this last institution is not well known ; the reasons that are alleged for it, would undoubtedly seem too far-fetched to the generality of our readers, we therefore judge it more proper to own our ignorance in this particular, than to advance any thing uncertain about it. St. John assures us, that the prohibition of not breaking a bone of the paschal lamb, was typical of what happened to our Saviourt,

8. After the lamb was thus dressed, it was eaten in every family, * by all sorts of persons, freemen and slaves, men as well as women. It was necessary there. should be as many persons as could eat the whole lambtu. And therefore when the family was not large enough, the master of the house invited his friends. The assemblies that were invited to this feast, were named brotherhoods, and the guests, companions or friends. The reproof which Jesus Christ gave Judas, by calling him friend or companion.", was both just and cutting, because he betrayed him after having eat the passover with him.

9. It was a very ancient custom among the eastern

(r) Philo de vit. Mos. l. iii. (s) Exod. xii. 9. 2 Chron. xxxv. 13. John xix. 36.

* The strangers that came up to Jerusa. lem from all parts of the land to celebrate the passover, were furnished with lodgings gratis. + The Thalmudists tell us, that they were not to be under ten, and might be twenty. (u) See Joseph. de Bell. Jud. l. vii, c. 17, (2) Matt. xxvi. 50.

nations to wash jer er lein deus sent per
ther return im I mine",
reasons te IS "ISTM. Tas per summa
on foot, enos mi ter simpel
the top. STE METE. FH 4 Baircu.
that tber ware LS Fu II Va der eine se
paschal . Igre zerg ine PRIDO.
the state ad C III. Sata umeen
personas 2 cm M II 2 arun bu
Jests CHEST VIS e ceir rascais
to give sber. Eru í mn 2 cm 1:
is to were steeris van doe during
tbe

pascal est bien.

10. The car je sudoa benis round a tate, cc ***: sih bitter herbs, unlearedetizai Diza and of sauce or thick mixture, reserved the bread and herbs ||. Tas per unes in which Judas dipped with Jests Christ, of which we read in the gospels. It was very como abang the eastern nations to lie on beds whes tres to their meals, as is evident from sacred as well as profane history; but, as the Thalmudist pretend', this posture was then absolutely necessary at the eatisg of the paschal lamb, as being a fit emblem of that rest and freedom, which God had granted the children of Israel, by bringing them out of Egypt, because a slave doth not commonly take his meals with so much ease and comfort, and that besides they were obliged to eat it standing in Egypt. This custom of leaning at table over one another's bosom, was a sign of equality and strict union between the guests. which serves to explain several passages of scripture,

(y) Gen. xviii. 4. xix. 2. xxiv. 32. Judg. xix. 21.

(2) John xii. 4, 5. || This the Jews called charossel, in remembrance of the mortar which they had used when making bricks in the land of Egypt. They made it at first with dates and dried figs : but the modern Jews make it with chesnuts, apples, &c. See Basnaye Hist. des Juifs, tom. 3. p. 622. (a) Matt. xxvi. 23.

(b) Maimon. de Azymis. I. vii.

as what is said of Abraham's bosom', and of the son's being in the bosom of the fatherd. When the guests were thus placed round the table, the master of the family, or some other person of note, took a cup full of wine mixed with water, and after he had given God thanks, drank it up, after which he gave one round to every one there present; who were all obliged to drink thereof. Hence the words of Jesus Christ, drink ye all of it. Afterwards they eat of the bitter herbs and unleavened bread, which they dipped in the mixture before mentioned. Then the master of the family drank another cup, that was accompanied with several thanksgivings, after which, they began eating again as before. Lastly, they eat the paschal lamb, and drank the third cup, which was called the cup of blessing, or thanksgiving". The whole ceremony ended with the fourth cup, and the singing of some psalm *. This is what by St. Mark is termed an hymns. It cannot exactly be determined, whether JESUS CHRIST observed all these particulars. It is very probable that he did, and we meet with some tracts of it in the Gospel". St. Luke speaks only of two cups in the account he gives of the institution of the Lord's supper

God enjoined the Israelites, under pain of death, not to touch any leavened bread, as long as the passover lasted. Several reasons may be assigned for this institution, but there is only one set down in scripture, viz. that it was to put them in mind of their forefathers coming out of Egypt, in such haste, that they had no time, so much as to get their dough leavened k. But

[ocr errors]

(c) Luke xvi. 22. (d) John i. 18. compared with Philip. ii. 6. See John xiii. 23. (e) Matt. xxvi. 27. (f) 1 Cor. x. 16.

During the ceremony, they sung at several times the following psalms. i Psal. cxiii. cxiv. 2 Psal. cxvi. cxvii. cxviii. or cxxxvi. This last singing was termed the hallel, or praise. The master of the family, or the reader, explained and gave an account of every ceremony.

(9) Mark xiv. 26. (h) See Matt. xxvi. &c. (i) Luke xxii, 17. 20. (k) Exod. xxii. 34. 39. Deut. xvi. 3.

one may suppose, by the metaphorical sense that is commonly put upon the word leaven, and which is used by Jesus Christ and St. Paul', that this prohibition had a moral view, and that the divine legislator's design in giving it, was to cleanse their minds from malice, envy, animosity, and hypocrisy: in a word, from the leaven of Egypt 1. However it be, the Hebrews took a very particular care to search for all the leaven that might be in their houses, and to fling it either into the fire or water. Their descendants have carried this point to a superstitious nicety. Though the passover was to be celebrated at Jerusalem, yet they that were not able to go thither, might eat the unleavened bread in their own houses.

As there was no other sort of bread in that city, when Jesus Christ instituted his last supper, it cannot be questioned but that he made use of it. And yet the Greek Church, which hath retained leavened bread in the eucharist, imagined that JESUS CHRIST used it; and the better to support their opinion, they have asserted, that he celebrated the passover one day before the Jews. We shall hereafter examine this matter. The Latins have, on the other hand, supposed, that the better to conform themselves with JESUS CHRIST's institution, they ought to celebrate the Lord's supper with unleavened bread. This was one of the occasions of the schism between the eastern and western churches ; which, after all, was a very slight one, and consequently very scandalous, since after the abrogating of the ceremonial law, it ought to be reckoned an indifferent matter, whether we communicate with leavened or unleavened bread, and since Jesus CHRIST, by giving no directions about it, hath left the church entirely at liberty in this respect.

The next day after the feast of unleavened bread, that is, the sixteenth day of Nisan, they offered up to

(1) Matt. xvi. 6. 1 Cor. v. 7.

Leavened bread was likewise forbidden the Romans, upon some particular occasions, Aulus Gel. l. x. 15.

as what is said of Abraham's bosom', and of the son's being in the bosom of the father. When the guests were thus placed round the table, the master of the family, or some other person of note, took a cup full of wine mixed with water, and after he had given God thanks, drank it up, after which he gave one round to every one there present; who were all obliged to drink thereof. Hence the words of Jesus Christ, drink

ye all of it. Afterwards they eat of the bitter herbs and unleavened bread, which they dipped in the mixture before mentioned. Then the master of the family drank another cup, that was accompanied with several thanksgivings, after which, they began eating again as before. Lastly, they eat the paschal lamb, and drank the third cup, which was called the cup of blessing, or thanksgiving'. The whole ceremony ended with the fourth cup, and the singing of some psalm *. This is what by St. Mark is termed an hymns. It cannot exactly be determined, whether Jesus Christ observed all these particulars. It is very probable that he did, and we meet with some tracts of it in the Gospel". St. Luke speaks only of two cups in the account he gives of the institution of the Lord's supper.

God enjoined the Israelites, under pain of death, not to touch any leavened bread, as long as the passover lasted.

Several reasons may be assigned for this institution, but there is only one set down in scripture, viz. that it was to put them in mind of their forefathers coming out of Egypt, in such haste, that they had no time, so much as to get their dough leavened k. But

(c) Luke xvi. 22. (d) John i. 18. compared with Philip. ii. 6. See John xiü. 23. (e) Matt. xxvi. 27. (f) i Cor. x. 16.

* During the ceremony, they sung at several times the following psalms. i Psal. cxiii. cxiv. 2 Psal. cxvi. cxvii. cxviii. or cxxxvi. This last singing was termed the hallel, or praise. The master of the family, or the reader, explained and gave an account of every ceremony. (9) Mark xiv. 26.

(h) See Matt. xxvi. &c. (i) Luke xxii, 17. 20. (k) Exod. xxii. 34. 39. Deut. xvi. 3.

« AnteriorContinuar »