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better represent the great holiness of Jesus Christ than this great plenty of oil used in the consecration of Aaron, and it was undoubtedly with allusion to this anointing, that Jesus Christ is styled in scripture the holy one, by way of eminence.
3. He represented Jesus Christ by his being on that day a mediator between God and the people. For though Moses be called a mediator in the New Testament, yet it is certain that the high-priest was invested with this office on the day of expiation. Moses must indeed be acknowledged as a mediator, God having by his means made a covenant with the children of Israel. But as they were very apt to transgress the law, it was necessary there should be a mediator, who by his intercession and sacrifice, might reconcile them to God. Now this was the high-priest's function. So that Moses and Aaron were exact iypes of the two-fold mediation of Jesus Christ. By him was the new covenant made, and by his own blood hath he for ever reconciled God to mankind.
4. The entrance of Jesus Christ into heaven once for all, there to present his own blood to God, as an atonement for our sins, was very clearly typified by the high-priest's going, once a year into the Holy of Holies with the blood of the victims.
As for the two goats, we learn from the epistle of St. Barnabas, as quoted above, that they were even then looked upon as typical. They both represented the same thing, but under different ideas. The offering of the one was a manifest token ofthe people's iniquities being remitted and forgiven ; and the sending of the other into the wilderness shewed, that they were carried away, or blotted out of God's remembrance. To which there seeins to be an allusion in the prophet Isaiah', when it is said, that God casts sins behind his back, and in the bottom
(c) Acts iii. 14. Res. iii. 7. (e) Isa. xxxviii. 17.
(d) Heb. ix, 12, 24.
of the sea. The sacrifice of Jesus CHRIST
be considered under these two different views, he hath done away our sins, hath taken them upon himself, and nailed them to his crossf. It hath been already observed that the only fast appointed by the law, was the
day of expiation. Theinstitution of the other Jewish fast is however of a very ancient date. We find mention in the prophet Zechariah of a fast of the fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth month, From whence the Jews undoubtedly took an occasion of celebrating four solemn fasts in remembrance of some particular calamities or misfortunes. That which was kept on the 17th of June, for instance, was, to put them in mind of Moses's breaking the two tables of the law, and of other mischances that happened on the same day". The fast that fell on the 9th of July, was appointed upon account of the temple's having first been burnt on that day by Nebuchadnezzar, and afterwards by Titus. This fast was the most solemn of the four, and which every person was obliged to observe. The next sabbath after it, the fortieth chapter of Isaiah was read, which begins with these words, Comfort ye my people, &c. From whence the consolation of Israel came to be used to denote the coming of the Messiah. On the fast which was kept the third day of September, they mourned for the death of Gedaliah, who had been appointed ruler over the Jews that remained in the land of Israel, when the rest were carried away captive to Babylon, and who was murdered by Ishmael at Mizpahk. That on the tenth of December was in commemoration of the siege of Jerusalem, which was by Nebuchadnezzar begun upon that day!
Besides these fasts that were fixed to particular days, there were others, and those either public, enjoined in the time of any general calamity, or private,
(f) i Pet. ii. 24. (i) Luke ii. 25.
(9) Zech. viii. 1. 9.
(h) Exod. xxxii. 19. (1) 2 Kings xxv.
appointed for particular occasions, such as were those of David, Daniel, Nehemiah, &c. Notice was given of the first by the sound of the trumpet, that all the people might gather themselves together. And then the chest or ark, wherein the law was kept, was brought out of the synagogue, in the presence of the whole assembly, and strewed with ashes, in token of sorrow and affliction. Ali persons were obliged to appear in sack-cloth. And one of the presidents of the synagogue made a speech suitable to the day and occasion, which was accompanied with several ejaculations and prayers.
. When particular persons fasted, they were wont likewise to cover themselves with sack-cloth and ashes, and to shew all other signs of grief, as to forbear washing, and anointing their bodies with oil, &c. The Pharisees having made an ill use of these outward expressions of sorrow, Jesus Christ ordered his disciples to take quite a different method when they should fast, that their fasting might be concealed from men". Particular persons fasted not only in the times of affliction ; but the more devout sort were used to do it twice a week, on Mondays and Thursdays, as we find the Pharisee boasting in the gospel.
Fasting was unlawful at some certain times, as on festivals and sabbath-days, unless the day of expiation fell upon
either of them. This custom seems to be of a very ancient date, since we find it related in the book of Judith, that she fasted all the days of her widowhood, except the sabbaths, and new moons, with their eves, and the feasts and solemn days of the house of Israel”. It is a maxim among the Rabbins, that fasting was to
coming of the Messiah. If it be of any great antiquity, as most of the Jewish sayings are, the disciples of John the Baptist, as well as the Pharisees, ought from thence to have learned that Jesus was the
(m) 2. Sam. xii. 16. Psalm xxxv. 13. Dan. X. 2. Neh. i. 4. (n) Matt. vi. 16. (0) Luke xviii. 12. (p) Judith viii. 6.
tions which they had so often put up to heaven, at the feast of the tabernacles“. They walked every day, as long as the feast lasted, round the altar with the forementioned branches in their hands *, singing Hosanna. To this last ceremony there seems to be an allusion in the Revelations, wherein St. John describes the saints, as walking round the throne of the Lamb, with palms in their hands, and singing the following hymn, Salvation cometh from God and the Lamb.
4. One of the most remarkable ceremonies performed on this feast, was the libations, or pouring out of the water, which was done every day. A priest went and drew some water † at the pool of Siloam, and carried it into the temple, where he poured it on the altar ||, at the time of the morning sacrifice, the people singing in the mean time these words out of the prophet Isaiah“, With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation. As, according to the Jews themselves, this water was an emblem of the Holy Ghost, Jesus Christ manifestly alluded to it, when on the last day of the feast of tabernacles, he cried out to the people, If any man thirst, &cd.
We must not forget to observe, that during the whole solemnity, the Jews used all imaginable expressions of an universal joy, (still keeping within the bounds of innocence) such as feasting, dancing, continual music, and such vast illuminations, that the whole city of Jerusalem was enlightened with them g. The
(a) Matt. xxi. 8, 9. * During which ceremony the trumpets sounded on all sides. On the seventh day of the feast, they went seren times round the altar, and this was called The great Hosanna. Lamy, p. 136. (6) Rev. vii. 9. + In a golden vessel, ibid.
|| Whilst the members of the sacrifice were upon it. But first he mixed some wine with the water. Ibid.
(c) Isai. xii. 3. lv. 1. The ancient Latin translator hath properly enough rendered the last words of the first passage here quoted, by, The wells of the Saviour, (d) John vii. 37.
$ It is supposed that these rejoicings were performed in the court of the women, that they might partake of the public mirth.
greatness of these rejoicings, and their happening in the time of vintage, hath made some authors believe, that the Jews were wont to sacrifice to Bacchus.
OF THE SABBATH.
Of the sabbath.
THERE were three sorts of sabbaths, or times of rest', among the Jews; the sabbath properly so called, that is, the seventh day in each week; the sabbatical year, or every seventh year ; and the jubilee, which was celebrated at the end of seven times seven years.
We shall give an account in the first place of the sabbath properly so called.
The sabbath is a festival instituted by God, in commemoration of the creation of the world, which was finished on the sixth day, as appears from the book of Genesis e, and also from the law", wherein it is said, that in six days God made the heaven and the earth, and rested on the seventh day. This institution was appointed chiefly for the two following reasons; first, To keep in men's minds the remembrance of the creution of the world, and thereby to prevent idolatry, and the worshipping of creatures, by setting that day apart for the service of the Creator of all things : and secondly, to give man and beast one day of respite and rest every week. Besides these two general views, the sabbath was established for a more particular end, with regard to the children of Israel, namely, to celebrate the memory of their deliverance out of Egypt, as we find it expressly recorded in the book of Deuteronomy'. Hence the sabbath is called in scripture, a sign between God and the Israelites".
(e) Plutarch, Symp. I. iv, 5. Tacit. Hist. 1. v.
(5) The Hebrew word sabbath signifies rest. Vide Bp. Watson's Coll. of Tracts, vol. 1. p. 28, &c.
(9) Gen. ii. 1, 2, 3. (h) Exod. xx, 10, 11, (i) Deut. v. 15. (k) Exod. xxxi. 13, 16, 17.