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Our Father, which art in heaven, hallowel be thy name; 10 Thy kingdom come, thy will be done on
observed, that the three first petitions of the Lord's prayer, are taking from a prayer in use among the Jews, and by them called Kadesh, or the holy, which our blessed Saviour bath adopted into this form, with some few alterations. And to this he would have his disciples confine themselves, instead of using vain repetitions, which the Jews, in imitation of the heathens, were apt to run into.
Our Father which art, &c.] This name was commonly given by the Jews to God ; and is also ascribed to him by Jesus Christ in this chapter. See Matt, xviii. 35.
Hallowed be thy name.] To hallow, or sanctify the name of God, is to sanctify God himself : as to call on the name of the Lord, to trust in the name of the Lord, signifies to call upon, and trust in him. See 2 Sam. vii. 26. Matt. xii. 21. Now to sanctify God, is to acknowledge his holiness, and all his attributes and perfections in general, to honour him alone by faith, fear, and religious worship; in a word, to glorify him. See Isai. xxix. 23. where to sanctify the holy one of Jacob, is afterwards expressed by fearing the God of Israel. By comparing Deut. xxxii. 51. with Numb. xx. 12. 24. xvii. 14. it will appear, that noi to sanctify God, is to deny his infinite power and veracity ; to dis. trust his proinises, and rebel against him. See also Lev. X. 3, Isai. viii. 13.
v. 10. Thy kingdom come.] The kingdom of God being universal and everlasting, Ps. cxlv. 13. these words cannot be understood of it; but of the kingdom of the Messiah, which is also called the kingdom of God. See Matt. iii. 2. There are in the coming of this kingdom, several steps to be observed. The resurrection of Jesus Christ, bis ascension, and the sending down of the Holy Ghost, were the beginnings of it, Acts ii. 32, 36. The preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles, extended it beyond the bounds of Judea, especially, when after the destruction of Jerusalem, and the utter extirpation of the ceremonial law, the earthly kingdom of Judea, over which God presided, entirely ceased, and the gospel came to be preached ail over the world, Ps. ii. 8. See Matt. xvi. 28. comp. with Mark ix. 1. Luke ix. 27. This kingdom hath ever since enlarged its bounds, as the gospel hath been by degrees received in the world ; and will continue to enlarge itself, till God hath brought all our blessed Saviour's enemies under his feet, i Cor. xv. 24, &c. What we desire or pray for, in this petition, is the advancement and progress of the gospel, obedience to the faith, or doctrine of Christ, and his appearance in glory. See 2 Tim. iv, 8. Rom. viii. 19, &c. Rev. xxii. 17, 21.
Thy will be done, &c.] i. e. Grant that all men may obey thy will with proportionable sincerity and constancy, as do the angels in heaven, Compare Ps. ciii. 20, 21. We also acknowledge in this petition, the wisdom of God's proceedings, and acquiesce in the dispensations of his providence, Matt. xxvi. 42, Acts xxi. 14.
earth, as it is in heaven. 11 Give us this day our daily bread. 12 Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. 13 And lead us not into temptation ; but deliver us from the evil one ; for to thee belongs, throughout all ages, the kingdom, power, and glory. Amen.
ver. 11. Luke xi. 3. Prov. xxx. 8. 1 Tim. vi. 8. v. 12. Matt. xviii, 21, 22. Luke xi. 4. Eccl. xxviii. 2. v. 13. Matt. xxvi. 41 Luke xi. 4. xxii. 40, 46. 1 Cor. x. 13. Rev. vii. 10. 1 Pet. v. 8. 2 Cor. xii. 7, 9.
v. 11. This day.] i. e. Every day, as appears from Luke xi. 3.
Daily.] Thus hath the ancient Latin translator rendered the Gr. word (émiovolov) which is no where else to be found, neither in the Septuagint version, nor in any Greek author, nor in any other place in the New Testament, but in this part of the Lord's prayer. This word is formed from another, signifying the next day, and according to the Hebrew style, the time to come. This signification of it is confirmed by what St. Jerom relates, that he found in the copy of St. Matthew's gospel for the use of the Nazarenes, the Hebrew word Mahar, which signifies the morrow, or the time to come. See the note on ver. 34. The meaning of it then is this, give us every day the bread (or such a portion of the things of this world) as may be sufficient for our subsistence, during the remaining part of our lives. See and compare Exod. xvi. 16, 21. Prov. xxx. 8. xxxi. 15. 2 Kings xxv. 30. Job xxxiii. 18. 1 Tim. vi. 6. 8. Jam. ii. 15.
v. 12. Our debts.] This is a Syriac expression signifying our sins. See Luke xi. 4. xiii. 2, 4.
As we forgive.] i. e. As we are bound, and as we engage ourselves to forgive them. Matt. v. 23, 24.
v. 13, Lead us not into temptation.] Gr. And bring us not into temptation. Thus the Evangelists have expressed in Greek what Jesus Christ spoke in Hebrew or Syriac. The Jews were wont to beg of God in their prayers, that he would not deliver them into the hand of temptation, whereby they did not desire that he would keep them from falling into temptation, but that he would not give them up to it, or suffer them to yield thereto. And indeed to enter into temptation, Matt. xxvi. 41. is to be overcome by it ; as to lead or cause to enter into temptation, is to suffer men to fall a prey to it ; for, after all, God never suffers us to be tempted above what we are able, Jam. i. 13. comp. 1 Cor. x. 13.
From evil.] i. e. The devil, the tempter, Matt. iv. 3. v. 37. Luke xxii. 31. We may also render the word (Tornpoo) from evil, for it admits of either sense. The Jews were used to entreat God to the same purpose,
that he would deliver them from evil. For to thee belongs.] These last words are left out in several ancient manuscripts, and in most versions. St. Luke likewise hath them not, chap. xi. 4. But the Jews joined them at the end of their prayers.
14 If you forgive men their offences, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 15 But if you forgive not men their offences, neither will your heavenly Father forgive yours.
16 When you fast, put not on a sad look, like the hypocrites, who disfigure their faces, that they may appear to men to fast.
I assuredly tell you, they have their reward ; 17 But
17 But you, when you fast, anoint your
v. 16. Matt. ix. 14.
ver. 14. Matt. xviii. 23, &c. Mark xi. 25. Luke xviii. 12, 14. Isa. lviii. 5. Joel ii. 13.
Amen.] See Matt. v. 18. The Jews added this word at the end of their prayers, and it was commonly the people that said Amen, at the conclusion of the Chasan's or minister's prayer. See 1 Cor. xiv. 16. Deut. xxvii. 15. i Chron. xvi. 36, &c. The same word is found at the end of Ps. xli. and lxxii.
v. 14. If you forgire.] Gr. For if you forgive. We have left out the for, because it is sometimes redundant. If it is to be expressed, then these words must relate to the fifth petition of the Lord's prayer, as if they were a consequence of them.
Their offences.] i. e. If you forgive them the injuries they have done you, and pass over their other failings.
v. 16. Put not on sad looks.] The Gr. word (1kvēpu noi) properly denotes a fretful and angry countenance ; but here it signifies, gloomy and dejected looks, a face disfigured with mortification and fasting. The LXX. have used the same word, Gen. lx. 7. to express a sad countenance. See Prov. xv. 13. according to the same translation.
Like the hypocrites.] That is, the Pharisees. Jesus Christ reflects here on their private and voluntary fastings, for in public fasts it was lawful for men to put on melancholy and sorrowful looks, and use all other signs of repentance and humiliation. The Pharisees fasted on Mondays and Thursdays ; those that would be thought more devout than the rest, fasted besides on Tuesdays and Fridays, and abstained from all kind of food, till sun-setting.
Who disfigure their faces.] The Greek word apavišovoi, signifies to cause to disappear or vanish, to destroy. It is the same word that hath been rendered in the 19th and 20th verses, by consuming, spoiling. It signifies here no more than a pale countenance, disfigured by fasting, and austerities, and by an affected sorrow; or else, that is nasty and dirty ; for in all probability, the Pharisces were wont to sprinkle ashes on their head, in token of sorrow and repentance.
v. 17. Anoint your head.] i. e. affect nothing that is uncommon; and rather than putting on a sad countenance, which may shew that you fast, wash, on the contrary, your face, and anoint your head. Excepting times of affliction, the Jews were wont to wash and rub
head, and wash your face, 18 That you may not appear to men to fast, but only to your Father, who is with you in your retirements; and your Father, who beholds what you
do in secret, will reward you openly. 19 Lay not up treasures upon earth, where the moth and the rust do consume, and where thieves break through and steal. 20 But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where the moth and the rust consume not, and where thieves break not through nor steal. 21 For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. 22 The eye is the light of the body;
ver. 19. Luke xii. 33. 1 Tim. vi. 9. 17. Heb. xiii. 5. Jam. v. 2. v. 20. Matt. xix. 21. Luke xviii. 22. Tobit iv. 9. v. 21. Luke xii. 34. v. 22, 23. Luke xi. 34, 36.
themselves with oil, which was commonly perfumed, especially on festivals. See Ruth iii. 3. Judith x. 3. Luke vii. 73. But they never did it on fast-days. See Dan. x. 3.
v. 18. Who is with you in your retirements.] See the note on verse 6. Openly) See the same note.
19. The moth.) The Gr. word ons, literally signifies a moth. We have rendered it by the general name of vermine ; because the word that signifies a species, is often put for the whole kind. For an instance, see Luke xii. 24. comp. with Matt. vi. 26. Here it is to be observed, that the ancients were wont to lay up in their treasures, (See the note on Matt. ii. 11.) not only gold and silver, but also rich clothes, and the like. See Ezra ii. 69. Job xxvii. 16. James v. 2, 3. This is what gave Jesus Christ an occasion of saying that the moth and vermine consume those treasures.
v. 21. For where, &c.] This is a reflection made on the two last verses. The meaning of which is : if you consider this world's goods as your true riches, you will be wholly taken up with the care of getting and keeping them, 1 Tim. vi. 9, 10. But if, on the contrary, you look upon the kingdom of God, and its righteousness as your supreme and only happiness, you will make it your whole business to obtain them, and will never renounce or forsake tbem. Compare Coloss. iii. 2, 3.
v. 22. The light.] Gr. The lamp. Eye be simple. A simple eye is properly a good and sound eye ; in opposition to a bad or weak eye. In a figurative sense, which is that of Jesus Christ here, it signifies a mind free and disengaged from the love of this world, for it is manifest from the 19, 20, 21, and 24th verses of this chapter, that Jesus Christ condemns here covetousness. He hath made use of the words single, and evil eye, agreeably to the scripture style, which calls the love of riches, the lust of the eye. [1 John ii. 16. comp. Ecclus. v. 11.] which denotes liberality, by the word singleness or simplicity (atlórns) (Rom. xii. 8. 2 Cor. viii. 2.] and which uses the words evil eye, not only to signify envy; but also avarice and hardheartedness to the poor. See Deut. xv. 18. Prov. xxiii. 6, &c. Thus Prov. xxii. 9. A good eye is a kind and merciful disposition.
if then your eye be simple, your whole body will be enlightened. 23 But if your eye is bad, your whole body will be dark. If therefore what is light in you be but darkness, how great will that darkness be? 24 No man can serve two masters. For either he will hate the one and love the other; or he will be attached to the one and neglect the other. You cannot serve God and mammon. 25 For this reason I tell
be not solicitous with regard to your life, about what you shall eat, or what you shall drink; nor as to your body, about what you shall
ver. 24. Luke xvi. 13. v. 25. Luke xii. 22, 23. Tim. iv. 8. 1 Pet. v. 7. Ps. lv. 23.
V. 23. If therefore what is light, &c.] This is to be understood of the heart, which in the Hebrew style is taken for the mind and will. This is what Jesus Christ calls here the light of man. The meaning of this passage then is ; if the heart, which is to regulate and direct you, be erroneous and corrupted, what will your actions, and the general course of your life be ?
v. 24. Two masters.] i. e. Of contrary dispositions.
He will hate.] To hate, here is not to mind, to have a less value; and to love is to have a greater regard for; as appears from the remaining part of the verse, and from Matt. x. 37. compared with Luke xii. 26.
Mammon.] We have retained this word, which is Syriac, and sig. nifies riches or treasures, because the Evangelists have retained it, when writing in Greek, as have also some ancient versions; and that besides Jesus Christ hath represented riches here as a kind of false deity. V. 25.
Be not solicitous.-] Our blessed Saviour condemns here only that immoderate carefulness, which is occasioned by the love of this world, and of its advantages and enjoyments, and proceeds from distrust, and incredulity. See Phil. iv. 6. 1 Pet. v. 7. St. Luke hath made use of the word uetewpiśw, which signifies to have a wavering and doubtful mind, disquieted, or tossed about with mistrust and fear, ch. xii. 29.