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to him, and he healed them.

25 And a great multitude of the people followed him from Galilee, Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judæa, and from the country about Jordan.

CHAPTER V.

Sermon on the mountain. The beatitudes, 1--12. Dis

ciples, salt and light of the earth, 13–16. Perfection of the law, 17—20. Glosses of the Pharisees concerning murder rejected, 21-26. and likewise concerning adultery and divorce, 27-33. Concerning oaths, 33–37. and love of our neighbour, 38--17. Charity the perfection of a Christian, 48.

1 Jesus seeing the great multitude of people, went up into a mountain, and when he was sat down, his disciples drew near him. 2 Then taking up the discourse, he taught them in the following manner :

if at all, from the falling sickness. Yet the Syriac version hath rendered the original Greek word by the sons of the field, i. e. Men that lived abroad Jike beasts. So that, according to this, the lunatics here mentioned were crazy and melancholy persons that rambled about the woods and fields. Comp. Luke viii. 26. Mark v. 2, 3.

v. 25. Decapolis.] A country of Palestine, so called, because it contained ten cities, about the names of which the learned are not agreed. It bordered upon Syria, and extended upon both sides Jordan, and the lake of Tiberias. You have a description of it in Josephus of the wars of the Jews, 1. iii. 16. and in his life, p. 1025. and in Pliny's Nat. Hist. 1. v. c. 18.

v. 1. Into a mountain.] Compare Luke vi. 12, 17. from which passages it will appear that Jesus went up to the top of a mountain to pray, and coming down from thence, he stood on a plain and even part of the same mountain, from whence he could easily be heard.

Was sat down.] As the Jewish doctors did, when they taught. See Lake vi. 16, 20.

His disciples.] That is, not only the twelve apostles, but all those in general that followed Jesus Christ. See Luke vi. 13. John ix. 27. and in most places in the Acts, the Christians are called disciples. The Pharisees styled themselves the disciples of Moses.

3 Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

4 Blessed are those who are in affliction, for they shall be comforted.

5 Blessed are those who are meek, for they shall possess the earth.

ver. 3. Luke vi. 20, 24. Matt. xi. 5, 25. xix. 23, 24. Jam. ü. 5. v. 4. See v. 11, 12, of this chap. Luke vi. 21, 25. John xvi. 20. 2 Cor. i. 4, 7. James i. 12. Rev. vii. 14, 17. xxi. 7. v. 5. Ps. xxxvii. 11.

A rich person

v. 2. Taking up the discourse.] Gr. Opening his mouth.] This is a Hebrew expression signifying to speak. See Matt. xiii. 35.

V. 3. Blessed.] All the following beatitudes have some reference to the precepts that are delivered by Jesus Christ afterwards, and include not only the blessings of the gospel, but also the qualifications of a true disciple of Christ. In this first beatitude, our Saviour had an eye to those obstacles which the immoderate love of riches was likely to bring to the observance of the precepts of the Gospel. See ver. 40, 41, 42, of this chapter, and comp. James v. 1.

Poor.] St. Luke applies this to the poor properly so called, vi. 20.

In spirit.] That is, those that are endued with the spirit and virtues poverty requires, and are free from pride, covetousness, and the cares and anxieties riches are commonly attended with. may be happy, provided he is thus disposed, i Tim. vi. 17. This is the sense Clemens of Alexandria hath put upon this passage in his treatise entitled, Quis dives salvetur, p. 42. By the poverty of spirit recommended here, we may also understand humility, as Ps. xxxii. 18. Prov. xxix. 33. Isai. lxvi. 2.

Theirs is the kingdom of heaven.] i. e. The blessings of the kingdom of heaven, or of the gospel, namely, the remission of sins, eternal life, &c. See below ver. 20. That is, because they are better disposed than other men to receive these blessings. V. 4.

Those who are in affliction.] Or, that mourn, namely, upon the account of the gospel. See 11 and 12 verses. John xvi. 20, 21,

Rom. v. 35. viii, 37. v. 5. Meek.] This word includes gentleness, equity, patience, and kindness or benignity. Which virtues are all most conspicuous in Jesus Christ and the gospel, xi. 29. xxi. 5. Jer. xi. 19. Gal. v. 22, 1 Cor. xiii. 4. James iii. 13, &c.

They shall possess the earth.] The Grek word (ainpovouéw) properly signifies to inherit, but it is also sometimes taken for possessing.

22, 23.

6 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.

7 Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. 8 Blessed are those who of

pure

heart for they shall see God.

9 Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be called the children of God.

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ver. 6. Luke i. 53. vi. 21, 25. John iv. 14. vi. 35. vii. 37, 38. Isai. xli. 17. lv. l. Jer. xxxi. 25. v. 9. Rom. xii. 18. 2 Cor. xiii. 11. 2 Thess. iii. 16. Jam. iii. 17, 18.

This expression is borrowed from Ps. xxxvii. 11. and applied by Jesus Christ, in a spiritual sense, to all the advantages of our future everlasting inheritance. See Heb. x. 34, 36. xi. 16. Isai. lx. 21. See also what promises are made to the meek, Ps. cxlvii. 6. cxlix. 4. lxxvi. 10, 11. and xlv. 4. according to the Septuag. Ver.

v. 6. Hunger and thirst.] St. Luke's words are, vi. 21. that hunger now. Those that are here said to hunger and thirst, are those that earnestly longed for, and were sensible of the want of that salyation which the Messiah was to procure, such as were Zacharias, Simeon, and other devout persons that waited for the consolation of Israel. To such persons as these it was that Jesus Christ addressed himself, when he said : come to me, &c. Matt. xi. 28, 29, 30.

After righteousness.] i. e. That holiness which the gospel teaches and recommends, in opposition to the righteousness of the Pharisees, Matt. v. 20. and vi. 33.

v. 7. The merciful.] Those that relieve the poor, as below, v. 42. Rom. xii. 8. and freely forgive the wrongs and injuries they receive from others, or have compassion on the miserable and unfortunate. See chap, yi. 14. xviii. 32, 33. Mark xi. 25. James ii. 13. Ecclus. xxviii. 2.

V, 8. Of a pure heart.] That have a conscience void of offence, and lead holy and virtuous lives, free from all hypocrisy. See Ps. xxiv. 3, 4. wbere purity of heart is joined with innocency of life.

They shall see God.] It is to such persons as these, the holy scripture promises they shall see God. See the Psalm just now quoted, ibid. and Ps. lxxiii. 1. Heb. xii. 14. To see God, is to enjoy his favour and protection in a most particular manner. See Isai. xxxiii. 15, 16, 17. this will be fulfilled especially in the life to come.

v. 9. The peace-makers.] Those that are lovers of peace, or promote it, This hath a relation to the precept contained in v. 25. See Jamn. iii. 18.

you falsely

10 Blessed are those who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

11 Blessed shall you be, when for my sake, men shall reproach and persecute you, and say

of all manner of evil. 12 Then rejoice and be exceeding glad, for great shall be your reward in heaven, for thus they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

13 You are the salt of the earth, but if the salt should become insipid, how should its virtue be restored? It is no longer good for any thing but to be cast out

ver. 10. Luke vi. 22. Rom. v. 3, 2 Cor. iv, 8. viii, 14, 16, 17.2 Tim. ii. 12. 1 Pet. iii. 14. Jam. i. 2. v. 11. Luke vi. 22. 1 Pet. iv. 14. v. 12. Luke vi. 23. Acts v. 41. Rom. v, 3. Phil. i. 29. Coloss. i. 24. v. 13. Mark ix, 49, 50. Luke xiv. 34, 35.

They shall be called the children of God.] As God is the God of peace, Rom. xvi. 20. 1 Cor. xiv. 33. 2 Thess. iii. 16. Heb. xiii. 20. the peacemakers are the children of God, because they follow his example in this respect. Compare Eph. v. 1, 2. Luke vi. 35. 1 John iii. 1, v. 45. of this chapter. There is here the same Hebraism as hath been observed before, chap. i. 23. they shall be called, that is, they shall be.

v. 10. For the sake of righteousness.] That is chiefly upon the account of the righteousness of the kingdom of God, for their professing the doctrine of Christ, and observing his commands. See the parallel places in the margin above. This may also be applied to all those who when they suffer unjustly, bear it patiently. See 1 Pet. iv. 14, &c.

v. 11. All manner of evil.] Gr. Evil word. Hereby may be understood the unjust sentences and decrees that were passed against the Christians, both by Jews and Gentiles ; compare the Hebrew with the Septuagint in the following passages, Isai. xv. 1. and xvii. 1.

v. 12. Who were before you.] As Moses, Samuel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Zechariah, &c. See Matt. xxiii. 29, &c. Acts vii. 52. 1 Thess. ii. 15. Jam. v, 10. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 16. Nehem. ix. 26.

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v. 13. You are.] i. e. You ought to be. This relates to all the disciples that were there present, Luke xvi. 36. and also to all Christians in general, 1 Thess. v. 5. Phil. ii. 15. but especially to the Apostles.

The salt of the earth.] Salt is the emblem of wisdom, and it serves also to save things from putrefaction. Now the first disciples of Christ were appointed to diffuse the wisdom of the gospel throughout the whole world, and to promote virtue and holiness among men by their doctrine and good examples. The meaning therefore of these words is this, “Who could instruct and reform you, if you should happen to fall into error or vice ; you that are to be intrusted withi the sanctification and instruc. tion of others.” compare Mark ix. 49. Coloss. iv. 6.

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and trod under foot. 14 You are the light of the world. A city built upon a hill cannot be hid.

15 And when a candle is lighted, it is not set under a bushel, but on a candlestick, to give light to all those who are in the house. 16 Even so let your light shine before men, that seeing your good works, they may glo

father which is in heaven. 17 Think not that I am come to abolish the law or the prophets. I am not come to abolish but to fulfil

rify your

ver. 14. Luke xvi. 8. John xii. 36. Eph. V. 8. i Thess. V. 5. Phil. ii. 15. v. 15. Mark iv. 21. Luke viii. 16. xi. 33.

v. 14. The light of the world.] This name was given by the Jews to their wise men and doctors. See John v. 33. 2 Pet. i. 19. Jesus Christ bestows it on his disciples, because they were appointed to preach the gospel, Phil. ii. 15. and to reveal to mankind the knowledge of Christ, who is the true light of the world, John i. 49. This is also applicable to all Christians in general.

A city built, &c.] The meaning of this comparison is, That the disciples of Jesus Christ, and all Christians, being appointed to profess and preach the gospel, the eyes of all men would be upon them, and so their faults being, by this means known, and observed, might stop the progress of the gospel. Compare Phil. iii. 17. 1 Pet. v. 13. and the parallel places.

v. 15. When a candle is lighted, &c.] This seems to be a proverbial expression. See the application Jesus Christ makes of it on another occasion. Mark iv. 12. Luke viii. 16. xi. 33. They formerly used lamps only, instead of candles, and the candlestick was the foot on which they were set up. The meaning of this comparison is the same as that of the aforegoing. The disciples and Christians being the lights of the world, were designed to light men out of the ways of ignorance and vice, into the paths of holiness and virtue. v. 16.

They may glorify.) To glorify God, is not only to praise him, as Luke ii. 20. and elsewhere; but also to acknowledge the truth of the gospel. See Luke xxiii. 47. 1 Pet. ii. 12. Comp. 1 Cor. xiv, 25. Rom, ii. 23. 24. This expression, to glorify God, includes edification, as opposed to the giving of offence.

In heaven.] Gr. in the heavens. The Jews reckoned three heavens, the air, the firmament, and the third heaven, or the heaven of beavens, the usual place of God's residence, 2 Cor. xii. 2. 1 Kings viii. 27. Chron. ii. 6. vi. 18.

v. 17. To abolish the law.] i. e. either to transgress and violate it myself, John v. 19. vii. 23. or to adulterate the sense of it by wrong interpretations, and disannul its authority by giving precepts contrary to

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