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account of adultery, causes her to become an adultress; and he that shall marry her, commits adultery likewise.

33 Again, you have heard that it hath been said to the ancients, you shall not forswear yourselves, but you shall perform to the Lord the oaths you have made. 34 But I say unto you, swear not at all ; neither by heaven, because it is the throne of God; 35 Nor by the earth, because it is his footstool ; nor by Jerusalem, because it is the city of the great king. 36 Neither shall you swear by your head, seeing you are not

ver. 33. Exod. xx. 7. Lev. xix. 12. Deut. v. 11. xxiii. 21, 23. Numb. XXX. 3. V. 34. Jam. v. 12. Ecclus. xxiii. 9. xxvii. 15. Isai. lxvi. ). v. 35. Ps. xlviii. 2. V. 36. Matt. x. 30.

Causes her to become an adulteress. ] i. e. Is the occasion of her committing adultery, by setting her at liberty to marry another husband. See Matt. xix. 4, &c. and compare 1 Cor. vii. 39.

V. 33. You shall perform, &c. ] Gr. You shall perform unto the Lord

your oaths.

v. 34. Swear not at all.] Though this prohibition is expressed in & very general and absolute manner, it must notwithstanding admit of some restrictions, as must also several other passages of Seripture that are expressed in general terms. What Jesus Christ forbids here, is, 1. Swearing by the creatures. 2. All such rash and profane oaths as the Jews were wont to utter upon every trivial occasion, without any manner of necessity, but only out of an ill custom, or what is worse, with a design of deceiving. For it is manifest from several places of scripture, that swearing upon some occasions (as before a magistrate, or in the case of contracts and promises) is not only lawful, but also expedient and necessary. See Exod. xxii. 11. Ps. cx. 4. Rom. ix. 1, 2 Cor. i. 23. xi. 31. Gal. i. 20. Heb. vi. 16. Rev. x. 6.

Neither by heaven.] The Jews fancied that swearing by Ilearen, by Jerusalem, &c. was an insignificant thing, and not at all binding ; accordingly they accustomed themselves frequently to use such oaths, without any manner of scruple. But Jesus Christ tells them, that the heaven and the earth, &c. bąd so intimate a relation with God, that he was impiicitly named whenever the name of his creatures was used, and that oaths taken in their name, ought to be as strictly and religiously observed, as if they had been made in the name of God himself. Compare Matt. xxiii. 16 – 22. v. 35.

His footstool. ) Gr. the footstool of his feet. The earth is represented as the footstool of God's throne.

The city of the great king. ) i. e. of God, See Mal. i. 14. Ps. xlviii.


able to make one single hair white or black. 37 But let your words be yes, yes ;

no, no ; for whatever is more than these, proceeds from some evil. 38 You have heard that it hath been said, eye

for eye, and tooth for tooth : 39 But I

resist not him that does you evil ; on the contrary, if any one shall strike you on the right cheek, present him the other also.


say unto

ver. 37. 2 Cor. i. 17, 18. v. 38. Exod. xxi. 24. Deut. xix. 21. Lev. xxiv. 20. v. 39. Prov. xx. 22. xxiv. 29. Isai. 1. 6. Lamen. iii. 30. Luke vi. 29. Rom. xii. 17, 19. 1. Cor. vi. 7. 1 Thess. v. 15. I Pet. iii. 9.

v. 36. You are not able to make.] That is, your head and life are not in your power, or at your own disposal, that you sbould presume to bind and engage them by oaths.

v. 37. yes, no, no,-) i. e. You ought to be satisfied only with bare affirmations or denials, and go no farther. The meaning of this also may be, that we ought to be faithful and punctual, in the execution of our promises. The Jews have a proverb among them to this purpose, the yea of the just, is yea, and their nay, nay. That is, they are sincere, and perform whatever they say or promise, See Jam. v. 12.

From some evil.] From the devil ; or from evil, i. e. from a bad principle, that is, whatever goes beyond this is evil.

v. 38. Eye for eye, &c.] Deut. xix. 21. This is the law which God bad given as a rule whereby magistrates were to be directed in taking cognizance of the wrongs and injuries that were offered by one man to another; The Jews made a very ill use of this precept, by applying it to countenance and authorise private revenge.

v. 39. Resist not him.] Jesus Christ doth not forbid here all manner of resistance when we are unjustly attacked or oppressed, but only the rendering evil for evil, the avenging ourselves. Rom. xii. 17. See the force of the original word (avtiotal) 2 Tim. iii. 8. where, to resist the truih, is the same as, to endeavour to destroy it.

That does you evil.] Gr. the wicked. In the same sense, the LXX. have rendered the Hebrew word (rasha) or wicked by an injurious person.

If any one should strike you on the, &c.] This is alleged as an instance of the most heinous affront, Job xvi. 10. Ps. iii. 8.

Present him the other also.] This is an allusion to Isai. 1. 6. and the lamentation of Jer. iii. 30. The meaning is, that it is much better to bear repeated affroats, than to shew want of patience and meekness, which were virtues that our blessed Saviour made it his particular business to train up his disciples to, because they were to suffer abundance of persecutions and afflictions for his name's sake.

40 And if any one will go to law with you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 41 And if any one will compel you to go a mile with him, go

with him two. 42 Give to him that asks yoll, and from him that would borrow of you, turn not away.

43 You have heard that it hath been said, you shall love your neighbour, and hate your enemy; 44 But

ver. 40. Luke vi. 29. 1 Cor. vi. 7. v. 42. Deut. xv. 8. Luke vi. 30. Rom. xii. 20. Ecclus, iv. 5. xxix. 1, 2.

v. 40. Your coat.] Gr. Tunick. We have no very proper terms in our language to convey an idea of the Jewish garments; and the words used here, in the original admit of different senses. It may however be observed, that the coat here mentioned, is the under garment, the shirt ; and the cloak, the upper garment, which was commonly more costly ; this may serve to give some notion of Jesus Christ's meaning, which is to this effect : If any one will extort a thing of a small value from you, suffer him patiently to go away with it, and even yield him rather more, than continue in contention with him.

Let him have your cloak also.] All these, and the like maxims in the gospel, must necessarily admit of some limitation : our Saviour's design in them, not being to render his disciples defenceless and exposed to all the affronts and indignities which wicked persons will think fit to inflict upon them, nor oblige them to suffer themselves to be stripped of all their goods. But, that justice ought to give way to, and be regulated by charity ; that we are not always strictly to insist upon our own rights ; and, that it is much better patiently to bear some inconsiderable loss, than fall into violent contentions, or come to law suits, 1 Cor. vi. 7.

V. 41. Compel you to go a mile.] The Gr. word (áyyapverv) which we have rendered to compel, is taken from a Persian custom, which was also in use in Judæa, and the Roman empire. Namely, tbat the posts and public messengers were wont to press the carriages and horses they met on the road, if they had occasion for them, and even forced the drivers or riders to go along with them. See the same word used Matt. xxvii. 32.

A mile.] Gr. One mile.

v. 42. Turn not away.] Or, do not send back. This precept of charity is to be regulated by the circumstances of the giver, and the wants of the person that asks.

v. 43. Your eighbour.] See what sen put by the Jewish doctors on this word, in the note on ver. 22.

And hate your enemy.] These words are not to be found in the law, and even the contrary is plainly and expressly enjoined therein, Exod.


love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who injure and persecute you ; 45 that you may be children of


father which is in heaven, for he causes his sun to rise on the wicked and on the good, and sends rain upon the just and unjust. 46 Indeed if you love those only, who love you, what reward shall you have ? Do not the publicans themselves do as much ? 47 And if you salute only your brethren what extraordinary thing is it? Do not even the publicans do the

ver. 44. Luke vi. 27. xxiii. 34. Acts vii. 6. Rom. xii. 14, 20, 21. 1 Cor. iv, 12. 1 Pet. iii. 9. V. 45. Luke vi. 35. Ecclus. iv. 10, 11. Eph. v. 1. V. 46. Luke vi. 36,

xxiii. 4, 5. Lev. xix. 17, 18. Prov. xxv. 21. But the Jewish doctors pretended they could draw such an inference from Exod. xxxiv. 11, 12. from Deut. vii. 1, 24. and xxxiii. 6. And accordingly the Jews have been charged by some heathen authors, and particularly by Tacitus, as being haters and enemies of mankind.

v. 44. Bless.] To bless, here signifies to be kindly affected to, as, on the contrary, to curse, is to wish ill, Rom. xii. 14. Who curse you.]

Slander you.

This is the meaning of the Gr. word (étenpeasóvtwv.) See 1 Pet. iii. 6. Or else abuse, and revile you.

v. 45. The children.] i. e. may imitate him, and become heirs of his heavenly kingdom. See v. 9. and 48 of this chapter.

V. 46. The publicans.] These were the Roman tax-gatherers ; some of which were Jews ; these were more extremely odious to their countrymen, than those that were heathens. The other Jews would have no manner of communication with them, Luke iii. 13. Mark ii. 16. Luke vii. 34. They looked upon the profession as scandalous, and all publicans were to them very hateful upon account of their extortions. See Matt. ix. 10. xviii. 17.

v. 47. Salute] The Gr. word (aondonode) denotes all outward signs of friendship, such as kissing, embracing, wishing well, &c. It is the word that is used by the apostles in their salutations, Rom. xvi. &c. The meaning of it here, seems to be the same as that of the word to bless, v. 44. See Matt. x. 12. and compare Luke x. 5. which will ex. plain St. Matthew's meaning.

Your brethren.] Some copies read, your friends, which seems to have been added by way of explanation. The Jews embraced their own countrymen, and welcomed them as brethren. But the Gentiles they thought unworthy of that honour. Jesus Christ teaches here his disciples, to make their charity extend to all men. See Rom. xii. 17, 18.

same? 48 Be you therefore perfect, as your Father is in heaven, is perfect.


The continuation of the sermon on the mount. Privacy

in alms and prayers, 1-6. Vain repetitions condemned, 7, 8. The Lord's prayer, 9–13. To forgive in order to be forgiven, 14, 15. Privacy in fasting, 16–18. Treasure in heaven, 19-21. Eye simple, 22, 23. To serve God, and not mammon, 24. To trust in providence, 25-32. To seek the kingdom of God ; not to be solicitous about the future, 33, 34.

i Be careful not to give your alms before men, to be seen of them ; otherwise you shall receive no reward

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v. 48. Be perfect, &c.] That is, practise charity in as perfect a manner as doth your heavenly Father, without any regard to friends or enemies. Compare Luke vi. 36. Eph. v. 1, 2. This perfection here is opposed to the imperfection of the righteousness of the Pharisees, v. 20.

v. 1. Be careful.] The several precepts contained in this chapter are found in the xi. xii. and xvith chapters of St. Luke. It must therefore be supposed that Jesus Christ gave the same precepts, more than once, and that the Evangelists did not always take care to set down our Saviour's very words, nor to place his discourses in the same order they were delivered. See the note on chap. viii. 2.

You shall receive, &c. ) Gr. You have not, in the present tense. The present is here put for the future, which is common in the sacred writings.


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