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from your Father who is in heaven. 2 When therefore you give an alms, let not the trumpet be sounded before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues, and streets, that they may have the applause of men. I tell you
for certain, they have their reward. 3 But when you bestow an alms, let not your left hand know what your right hand does, 4 to the end your alms may be secret. And your
Father who beholds what you do in secret, will reward you openly.
5 So likewise when you pray, be not like the
ver. 2. Luke vi. 24. John v. 44. xii. 43.
V. 4. Luke xiv. 14.
v. 2. Let not the trumpet be sounded.) The Jews were wont to assemble the people by sounding the trumpet, see Joel i. 15. But it must not be supposed that the Pharisees actually did it when they gave alms. Our Saviour's design was only to denote the unaccountable vanity of the Pharisees, in affecting to do acts of charity in the most open and public places. Compare Matt. xxiii. 5.
In the synagogues. ] Or in public assemblies in general, and so ver. 5.
They have their reward.] Or, they hinder their reward, they deprive themselves of it. It all comes to the same ; but though the Greek word (átéžovol) admits of this last signification, it bath also in the Septuagint, that which we have given it here. Compare the Hebrew and Greek. Numb. xx. 12, 19. See also Luke vi. 24. Phil. iv. 8. Philem. 15. V. 3.
Let not your left hand know, &c.] This is a kind of proverbial expression, which may be explained to this effect ; Let no one, no not even your most intimate acquaintance, know what you do. Be ignorant of it yourselves, if possible, or forget it immediately. Jesus Christ doth not condemn here alms-giving or praying in public, but the performing those duties with no other view but to be seen and applauded by men. We ought to do them only for God's glory, and not for our own. See Matt. y. 16.
V. 4. Openly.] In the sight of men and angels, at the day of judgment. Luke xiv. 14. See 1 Cor. iv. 5. Matt. xxv. 31, &c. V. 5.
Standing. ] The affectation that is here blamed in the Jews, was not their standing up when they prayed, for that was their usual posture at the time of prayer, as appears from Mark xi. 25. Luke xviii. 11. 13. And even in their style, to stand up praying, meant no more than to pray, for they never kneeled but in times of extraordinary humiliation, Dan. vi. 10. Their affectation therefore consisted in praying in the streets, and in making use of private prayers in the synagogues, instead of the public set of forms.
hypocrites, for they love to pray standing in the synagogues, and corners of the streets, to be seen of men; I assure you, they have their reward. 6 But
you pray, enter into your closet, and having shut the door, pray to your Father who is with you in your retirement. And your Father who beholds what
you do in secret, will openly reward you.
7 Use not vain repetitions in your prayers as the heathens do, who imagine they shall be heard for their multiplicity of words. 8 Do not imitate them, because your Father knows what you stand in need of, before you ask him.
9 After this manner therefore ought you to pray,
ver. 7. Ecclesiastes v. 2. and Ecclus. vii. 14. v. 18. See ver. 32. of this chap. v. 9. Luke xi. 2. Ps. viii. 1. xi. 4. cxi. 9. Isa. lxvi. ).
Into your closet. ] The Greek word (rauietor) denotes the most private and retired part of the house. See Isa. xxvi. 20. according to the Seventy.
v. 7. Use not vain repetitions.] Or, do not use long and vain speeches, for the Greek word (Bartoloynonté) signifies either the absurdity and vanity of repetitions, or of an excessive length. But we must carefully distinguish the repetitions and long prayers that are condemned here, from perseverance in prayer, recommended Luke vi. 12. Rom. xii. 12. 1 Tim. v. 5, &c.
As the heathens do.] Who were wont to fill their prayers with abundance of synonymous names which they bestowed on their gods, making therein to consist the praises and prerogatives of those deities. The Jews were also guilty of the same faults, (viz. repetitions and immoderate length) reckoning that they were very prevailing, as appears from their writings and forms of prayer. V. 8.
Your father knows, &c.] This argument would make against all prayer in general, if prayer was considered only as a means of making our wants known to God ; whereas it is no more than an act of obedience to our heavenly Father, who hath commanded us to pray to him, Matt. vii. 7. and made it the condition of his favours ; an expression of our trust in bim, and dependance on his goodness, whereby we acknowledge that all the benefits we receive, come from him, and that to him we must apply for the obtaining of them.
v. 9. After this manner.] Jesus Christ gives here his disciples a form of prayer, as was usually done by the Jewish masters. John the Baptist had taught his disciples to pray, Luke xi. 1. It is to be
Our Father, which art in heaven, hallowell be thy name; 10 Thy kingdom come, thy will be done on
observed, that the three first petitions of the Lord's prayer, are taking from a prayer in use among the Jews, and by them called Kadesh, or the holy, which our blessed Saviour bath adopted into this form, with some few alterations. And to this he would have his disciples confine themselves, instead of using vain repetitions, which the Jews, in imitation of the heathens, were apt to run into.
Our Father which art, &c.] This name was commonly given by the Jews to God ; and is also ascribed to him by Jesus Christ in this chapter. See Matt. xviii. 35.
Hallowed be thy name.] To hallow, or sanctify the name of God, is to sanctify God himself : as to call on the name of the Lord, to trust in the name of the Lord, signifies to call upon, and trust in him. See 2 Sam. vii. 26. Matt. xii. 21. Now to sanctify God, is to acknowledge his holiness, and all his attributes and perfections in general, to honour him alone by faith, fear, and religious worship; in a word, to glorify him. See Isai. xxix. 23. where to sanctify the holy one of Jacob, is afterwards expressed by fearing the God of Israel. By comparing Deut. xxxii. 51. with Numb. xx. 12. 24. xvii. 14. it will appear, that not to sanctify God, is to deny his infinite power and veracity ; to distrust his promises, and rebel against him. See also Lev. x, 3. Isai. viii. 13.
v. 10. Thy kingdom come.] The kingdom of God being universal and everlasting, Ps. cxlv. 13. these words cannot be understood of it; but of the kingdom of the Messiah, which is also called the kingdom of God. See Matt. iii. 2. There are in the coming of this kingdom, several steps to be observed. The resurrection of Jesus Christ, bis ascension, and the sending down of the Holy Ghost, were the beginnings of it, Acts ii. 32, 36. The preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles, extended it beyond the bounds of Judea, especially, when after the destruction of Jerusalem, and the utter extirpation of the ceremonial law, the earthly kingdom of Judea, over which God presided, entirely ceased, and the gospel came to be preached ail over the world, Ps, ii. 8. See Matt. xvi. 28. comp. with Mark ix. 1. Luke ix. 27. This kingdom hath ever since enlarged its bounds, as the gospel hath been by degrees received in the world ; and will continue to enlarge itself, till God hath brought all our blessed Saviour's enemies under his feet, 1 Cor. xy. 24, &c. What we desire or pray for, in this petition, is the advancement and progress of the gospel, obedience to the faith, or doctrine of Christ, and his appearance in glory. See 2 Tim. iv. 8. Rom. viii. 19, &c. Rev. xxii. 17, 21.
Thy will be done, &c.] i. e. Grant that all men may obey thy will with proportionable sincerity and constancy, as do the angels in heaven. Compare Ps. ciii, 20, 21. We also acknowledge in this petition, the wisdom of God's proceedings, and acquiesce in the dispensations of his providence, Matt. xxvi. 42, Acts xxi. 14.
earth, as it is in heaven. 11 Give us this day our daily bread. 12 Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. 13 And lead us not into temptation ; but deliver us from the evil one ; for to thee belongs, throughout all ages, the kingdom, power, and glory. Amen.
ver. 11. Luke xi. 3. Prov. xxx. 8. 1 Tim. vi. 8. v. 12. Matt. xviii. 21, 22. Luke xi. 4. Eccl. xxviii. 2. V. 13. Matt. xxvi. 41 Luke xi. 4. xxii. 40, 46. 1 Cor. x. 13. Rev, vii. 10. 1 Pet. v. 8. 2 Cor. xii. 7, 9.
v. 11. This day.) i. e. Every day, as appears from Luke xi. 3.
Daily.] Thus hath the ancient Latin translator rendered the Gr. word (é mlovolov) which is no where else to be found, neither in the Septuagint version, nor in any Greek author, nor in any other place in the New Testament, but in this part of the Lord's prayer. This word is formed from another, signifying the next day, and according to the Hebrew style, the time to come. This signification of it is confirmed by what St. Jerom relates, that he found in the copy of St. Matthew's gospel for the use of the Nazarenes, the Hebrew word Mahar, which signifies the morrow, or the time to come. See the note on ver. 34. The meaning of it then is this, give us every day the bread (or such a portion of the things of this world) as may be sufficient for our subsistence, during the remaining part of our lives. See and compare Exod. xvi. 16, 21. Prov. xxx. 8. xxxi. 15. 2 Kings xxv. 30. Job xxxiii. 18. 1 Tim. vi. 6. 8. Jam. ii. 15.
v. 12. Our debts.] This is a Syriac expression signifying our sins. See Luke xi. 4. xiii. 2, 4.
As we forgive.] i. e. As we are bound, and as we engage ourselves to forgive them. Matt. v. 23, 24.
v. 13, Lead us not into temptation.] Gr. And bring us not into temptation. Thus the Evangelists have expressed in Greek what Jesus Christ spoke in Hebrew or Syriac. The Jews were wont to beg of God in their prayers, that he would not deliver them into the hand of temptation, whereby they did not desire that he would keep them from falling into temptation, but that he would not give them up to it, or suffer them to yield thereto. And indeed to enter into temptation, Matt. xxvi. 41. is to be overcome by it ; as to lead or cause to enter into temptation, is to suffer men to fall a prey to it ; for, after all, God never suffers us to be tempted above what we are able, Jam. i. 13. comp. 1 Cor. x. 13.
From evil.] i. e. The devil, the tempter, Matt. iv. 3. v. 37. Luke xxii. 31. We may also render the word (acovnpon) from evil, for it admits of either sense. The Jews were used to entreat God to the same purpose, that he would deliver them from evil.
For to thee belongs. ] These last words are left out in several ancient manuscripts, and in most versions. St. Luke likewise hath them not, chap. xi. 4. But the Jews joined them at the end of their prayers.
head, and to men to you in your
14 If you forgive men their offences, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 15 But if you forgive not men their offences, neither will your heavenly Father forgive yours.
16 When you fast, put not on a sad look, like the hypocrites, who disfigure their faces, that they may appear to men to fast. I assuredly tell you, they have their reward ; 17 But you, when you fast, anoint your
chat you d
19 Lay and the rus through an treasures in sume not, steal. 21 heart be als
v. 16. Matt. ix. 14.
ver. 14. Matt. xviii. 23, &c. Mark xi. 25. Luke xviii. 12, 14. Isa. lviii. 5. Joel ii. 13.
ver. 19. Lu T. 20. Matt. xi xü. 34. v. 22,
Amen.] See Matt. v. 18. The Jews added this word at the end of their prayers, and it was commonly the people that said Amen, at the conclusion of the Chasan's or minister's prayer. See 1 Cor. xiv. 16. Deut. xxvii. 15. i Chron. xvi. 36, &c. The same word is found at the end of Ps. xli. and lxxii.
14. If you forgire.] Gr. For if you forgive. We have left out the for, because it is sometimes redundant. If it is to be expressed, then these words must relate to the fifth petition of the Lord's prayer, as if they were a consequence of them.
themselves with festivals. See R did it on fast-da v. 18.
Who Verse 6.
Their offences.] i. e. If you forgive them the injuries they have done you, and pass over their other failings,
v. 16. Put not on sad looks.] The Gr. word (TKvēpu noi) properly denotes a fretful and angry countenance ; but here it signifies, gloomy and dejected looks, a face disfigured with mortification and fasting. The LXX. have used the same word, Gen. lx. 7. to express a sad countenance. See Prov. xv. 13. according to the same translation.
Like the hypocrites.] That is, the Pharisees. Jesus Christ reflects here on their private and voluntary fastings, for in public fasts it was lawful for men to put on melancholy and sorrowful looks, and use all other signs of repentance and humiliation. The Pharisees fasted on Mondays and Thursdays ; those that would be thought more devout than the rest, fasted besides on Tuesdays and Fridays, and abstained from all kind of food, till sun-setting.
Who disfigure their faces.] The Greek word apavíkovot, signifies to cause to disappear or vanish, to destroy. It is the same word that bath been rendered in the 19th and 20th verses, by consuming, spoiling. It signifies here no more than a pale countenance, disfigured by fasting, and austerities, and by an affected sorrow; or else, that is nasty and dirty ; for in all probability, the Pharisces were wont to sprinkle ashes on their head, in token of sorrow and repentance.
v. 17. Anoint your head.] i. e. affect nothing that is uncommon; and rather than putting on a sad countenance, which may shew that you fast, wash, on the contrary, your face, and anoint your head. Excepting times of affliction, the Jews were wont to wash and rub
1, 19. The We have renderei that signifies a instance, see Luk observed, that the the note on Matt. and the like.
S is what gave Jes termine consume th
1. 21. For wh Terses. The meai as your true riches and keeping them, upon the kingdom
cals happiness, yo and will never rent
v. 22. The lig properly a good a la a figurative sen mind free and diser irom the 19, 20, 21 cundemas here cov