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junioribus solum lana laxa vestitis ; aculeis setiformibus cinereis pluriseriatis, in plantis junioribus sub 20 æqualibus lineam longis, radiantibus in tuberculis floriferis 30 – 40 undique stellato-porrectis, superioribus 6 – 8 longioribus clavatis ; floribus minimis subcentralibus.

Var. B. GREGGII: major, tuberculis majoribus aculeis paucioribus rigidioribus,

From El Paso eastward to the San Pedro River. Var. B. near Saltillo. From to 14 inches in diameter; B. often 2 inches or even more in diameter; tubercles } - 1 line long, spines 1 - 14 lines long, in ß. 1 - 2 lines long ; uppermost spines of each areola in the fully developed plant 3 to 4 times as long as the others, and strongly clavate, surrounded by long and loose wool, which, together with the upper part of the long spines, breaks or falls off after fructification. Flowers (and even fruits) nearly central, 3 lines in diameter, light pink. — Near M. microthele, Muhlenp., which, however, has 2 central spines.

2. M. LASIACANTHA, E. 1. c.: parvula, simplex, globosa ; tuberculis teretibus ; aculeis setiformibus pilosulis s. denudatis 40 - 80 pluriseriatis omnibus radiantibus ; floribus lateralibus albidis.

On the Pecos River, in Western Texas : fl. in May. — Plant į to 1 or even 11 inches high, and scarcely less in diameter; tubercles 2-3 lines long, spines 1} – 21 lines long. Flower whitish or very pale pink, 6 lines long. — M. Schiedeana, Ehrenb. seems to be similar, but is much larger, and has large tubercles with woolly axillæ, etc.

§ 2. Crinita, Salm.

A. Aculeis centralibus rectis. 3. M. PUSILLA, DC., var. TEXANA, E. 1. c.: ovato-globosa, prolifera, cæspitosa ; tuberculis teretibus axilla longe-lanatis; aculeis pluri-seriatis, extimis 30 – 50 capillaceis crispatis, interioribus 10 – 12 rigidioribus brevioribus albidis, intimis 5 - 8 longioribus rigidis rectis versus apicem fuscatis ; floribus lateralibus rubellis.

On the Rio Grande, near Eagle Pass and southward : fl. April – June. — Plant 1-2 inches high ; spines 3 - 6 lines, flowers 7 - 10 lines, long. — Seems scarcely distinct from the well-known West Indian M. pusilla.

B. Aculeis centralibus uno alterove uncinato. 4. ? M. BARBATA, E. in Wisl. Rep. : aculeis radialibus biseriatis, centrali singulo deorsum hamato ; floribus subcentralibus ; seminibus tenuiter scrobiculatis.

Cosiquiriachi, west of Chihuahua. This species has borne flower and fruit with me, and my notes and my recollections indicate that they were central : hence the mark of doubt above, as to the proper position of this species here, where all the other closely allied forms belong.

5. M. PHELLOSPERMA, E. in B. C. R. (M. tetrancistra, E. in part, Sill. Jour. Nov. 1852): ovata, subsimplex; tuberculis teretibus axilla lanata setigeris ; aculeis radiantibus 40 – 60 biseriatis, exterioribus brevi. oribus tenuioribus, centralibus 3-4 robustioribus atrofuscis inferiore s. pluribus hamatis ; floribus lateralibus; bacca pyriformi subsicca coccinea ; seminibus globosis rugosis nigris massa fusca suberosa majore arilliformi auctis.

From the Gila to the eastern slope of the California mountains. — The name originally given had to be altered, because very rarely, if ever, are 4 hooked spines seen. In the original description this and the next species were confounded. — Plant 2-4 inches high. Radial spines 4-6 lines, central ones 5 - 9 lines long. — Apparently near M. ancistroides, Lem., which, however, has the radial spines all homogeneous.

6. M. GRAHAMI, E. I. c.: subglobosa, simplex s. demum e basi ramosa ; tuberculis ovatis, axilla nudis; aculeis radiantibus 20 - 30 uniseriatis, centrali sursum hamato fuscato, additis sæpe 1 - 2 superioribus rectis; floribus lateralibus rubicundis; bacca ovata virescente ; seminibus minutis scrobiculatis nigris.

Mountains from El Paso southward and westward to the Gila and Colorado, and up the latter river: A. from June or July to August. Plant 1 – 3 inches high; hooks much longer than the radial spines, which are 3-6 lines long. Flowers below the top, nearly one inch in diameter. Berry and seed small, the latter only 0.4 line long.

7. M. WrightII, E. I. c.: depresso-globosa, simplex ; tuberculis teretibus axilla nudis; aculeis radiantibus sub 12 albidis ; centralibus sub-binis uncinatis fuscis vix longioribus ; floribus lateralibus (?) purpureis; bacca subgloboso-ovata majuscula ; seminibus scrobiculatis nigris.

New Mexico, on the Pecos and near the Copper Mines. — Plants 11 -3 inches in diameter. Spines 4-6 lines long. Flowers fully one inch in diameter, bright purple, with narrow acuminate petals. Berry large and purple : seed 0.7 line long.

8. M. GOODRICHII, Scheer: ovato-globosa, subsimplex ; tuberculis

brevi-ovatis axilla lanata setigeris ; aculeis radiantibus 11 - 15 albidis, centralibus 3-4 fusco-atris, inferiore paulo longiore deorsum uncinato; floribus lateralibus.

San Diego, California. — Two or three inches high. Radial spines 2} - 3} lines long; the lower central spine a little longer. Flowers apparently yellowish-white, and half an inch in diameter.

§ 3. Setosa, Salm. 9. M. BICOLOR, Lehm.: depressa, ovata, s. cylindracea, prolifera ; axillis lanatis ; tuberculis parvulis conicis; aculeis exterioribus 16 - 20 tenuissimis recurvato-radiantibus, centralibus' 2 - 4 rigidis, majoribus albis apice nigris interdum subpollicaribus, supremo plerumque longis. simo incurvo ; floribus parvulis purpureis ; stigmatibus 5.

Abundant on the calcareous hills of the Rio Grande below Laredo, Texas, Dr. Poselger : A. June and July. — Plant 3 – 12 inches high, the larger specimens 2-3 inches in diameter ; radial spines 1-2, lower central ones 4-5, the upper 6 – 10 lines long. Flower about 9 lines long. Ś 4. Centrispine, Salm. (All our species are simple and

have a milky juice.) 10. M. HEYDERI, Muhlenpf. (1848): simplex, depresso.globosa ; tuberculis elongatis pyramidatis subquadrangulatis ; aculeis radiantibus 10 - 20 rectis, inferioribus longioribus, centrali singulo breviore ; floribus lateralibus sordide rubellis ; baccis elongato-clavatis ; semini. bus parvis rugulosis fulvis.

Var. a. APPLANATA (M. applanata, E. in Pl. Lindh. 1850): vertice applanato s. depresso, aculeis radialibus 15 – 22.

Var. B. HEMISPHÆRICA (M. hemisphærica, E. I. c.): vertice convexo, aculeis radialibus 9- 12.

From San Antonio and New Braunfels, Texas, to Matamoras and westward to El Paso : fl. April, May. – Var. a. is the Northern and Western, and B. the Southern form. — M. declivis, Dietr. seems to belong here ; but I have never met with a description of this plant.

11. M. MEIACANTHA, E. in B.C. R.: hemisphærica ; tuberculis quadrangulato-pyramidatis compressis ; aculeis paucis (5-9) rigidis rectis s. recurvatis, inferioribus paulo longioribus, centrali singulo erecto s. sursum flexo et cum cæteris radiante; foribus et baccis præcedentis.

Western Texas and New Mexico. — Very similar to the last ; but tubercles larger, more compressed, more loosely arranged; the spines fewer and stouter; perhaps only a variety of it.

12. M. GUMMIFERA, E. in Wisl. Rep. Similar to the last two, but stouter ; flower larger, darker, but otherwise little different. Radial spines 10 - 12; the lower ones much stouter and longer than the upper ones : central spines 1 or 2, shorter.

$ 5. Longimamma, Salm. 13. M. SPHÆRICA, Dietr. : prolifera, cæspitosa ; tuberculis ovato. elongatis acutatis ; aculeis setaceis radialibus 12 - 14, centrali singulo subbreviore vix robustiore ; floris magni tubo supra ovarium emersum constricto elongato; petalis flavis acuminato-aristatis.

Hill-sides on the Rio Grande near Eagle Pass; also Corpus Christi, on the Gulf. – Single specimens clavate, but often forming dense hemispherical masses. Tubercles 6 – 8 lines ; spines 3 - 5 lines long. Flower 11 - 2 inches long. Fruit not seen.

Subgen. 2. CORYPHANTHA. Flores e basi tuberculorum hornotinorum aculeiferorum sulcatorum, vel in vertice ipso oriundi : ovarium emersum.

§ 1. Albiflora. 14. M. PAPYRACANTHA, E. in Pl. Fendl. (Mem. Amer. Acad. 1849). This interesting plant has been collected only in a single specimen, near Santa Fé, which, together with the dried flowers, is in my possession. Shape of tubercles not well distinguishable, doubtful whether sulcate or not; the lower ones proliferous. Spines compressed, flexible, of the consistency of stiff paper; 8 radiating and 3 or 4 central ; the lowest one of these longest and broadest. Flowers white, central, an inch or more in length and width. Fruit not seen.

§ 2. Flaviflora. * Laxiflora. (The originally central flowers are pushed aside by

the continuous development of new tubercles.) 15. M. NUTTALLII, E.: simplex s. prolifera, cæspitosa ; aculeis radialibus 10 - 17 setaceis rectis plerumque puberulis albidis, centrali singulo robustiore sæpius deficiente ; sepalis fimbriatis et petalis flavidis apice parce denticulatis lanceolatis, s. lineari-lanceolatis acutis ; stigmatibus 2 – 8 erectis vel patulis ; bacca subglobosa tuberculis breviore coccinea ; seminibus globosis scrobiculatis nigris.

Var. a. BOREALIS (M. Nuttallii, E. 1.c. Cactus mamillaris, Nutt. Gen., 1818, non Linn.): subsimplex ; aculeis setaceis 13 – 17 cum centrali sæpe deficiente puberulis; stigmatibus 2-5; baccis seminibusque minoribus.

Var. B. CESPITOSA (M. similis, E. in Pl. Lindh. 1845): cæspitosa ; aculeis radialibus 12 - 15 puberulis, centrali plerumque deficiente ; floribus baccis seminibusque majoribus ; stigmatibus 5 patulis.

Var. Y. ROBUSTIOR, E. in Pl. Lindh. 1850 : subsimplex ; tuberculis longioribus laxioribus, aculeis robustioribus lævibus, radialibus 10– 12, centrali singulo; floribus majoribus; stigmatibus 7 - 8 patulis ; seminibus ut in ß.

Plains east of the Rocky and New Mexican Mountains. Var. a. on the Upper Missouri ; B. from Kansas River to New Braunfels in Texas ; y from the Canadian River to the Colorado of Texas. The heads are one or two inches in diameter; the cæspitose masses of ß. often a foot broad ; spines 3-8 lines long. Flowers 1-2 inches long and wide, of a greenish or reddish or pure pale yellow color. Seeds 0.8-1.1 lines in diameter, more regularly globose than in most other Cactacæ.

16. M. SCHEERII, Muhlenpf. 1847; B. ? VALIDA, E. in B. C. R. : magna, ovato-globosa, subsimplex, glaucescens ; tuberculis remotis patulis magnis e basi lata subcylindricis supra sulco profundo glandulis paucis munito (juniore lanato) subbilobis ; areolis junioribus dense lanatis ; aculeis 10 - 20 rectis robustis basi bulbosis albidis s. citrinis apice fuscatis, radialibus 9 – 16; centralibus 1 - 5 validioribus angulatis ; foribus flavis ex axillis junioribus tomentosissimis.

Sandy ridges in the valley of the Rio Grande near El Paso : A. July. The largest of our Northern Mamillariæ, 7 inches high and 5 in diameter ; tubercles 1-14 inches long; spines 10 – 18 lines in length, very stout, especially the central and lower radial ones. Flower 2 inches long, yellow. Fruit not seen. — M. Scheerii from Chihuahua, according to Prince Salm's description, is a smaller plant, with single central spines one inch in length, and 8 - 11 much shorter radial spines ; the areolæ are described as naked :— nevertheless our plant is probably only the northern form of this species.

17. M. ROBUSTISPINA, A. Schott, in litt. : simplex s. cæspitosa ; tuberculis patulis teretibus magnis sulcatis ; areolis junioribus dense tomentosis ; aculeis radialibus 12 - 15 robustis inferioribus robustioribus sæpe curvatis, superioribus rectis fasciculatis paullo tenuioribus, centrali singulo valido compresso recurvato, omnibus subpollicaribus corneis apice atratis ; floribus luteis ex axillis junioribus tomentosissimis ; seminibus magnis obovatis fuscis lævibus.

Sonora, on grassy prairies : fl. July. Tubercles nearly an inch VOL. III.

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