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long, and an inch distant from one another; spines 9- 15 lines long. Flowers 2 inches long, characterized by a very slender, constricted tube, very different from the wide tube of the foregoing species. Seeds fully 14 lines long, larger than those of any other Mamillaria examined by me : embryo with some albumen, curved; cotyledons foliaceous ! approaching the structure of the seed of most Echinocacti.

18. M. RECURVISPINA, E. in B. C. R.: simplex, depresso-globosa ; tuberculis ovatis profunde sulcatis confertis ; areolis obliquis ovatis, aculeis radialibus 12 - 20 rigidis recurvis intertextis albidis corneisve, aculeo centrali singulo (raro binis) robustiore longiore decurvato; floribus flavicantibus extus fuscatis ex axillis junioribus villosissimis.

Sonora : fl. July. Single heads 3 – 8 inches in diameter; tubercles 5 – 6 lines long; spines 4 - 9 lines long, upper ones often a little longer than the lower ones ; central spine 6 - 10 lines long, darker. Flowers 13 inches long. — This plant bears the closest resemblance to the next species, and must perhaps be classed with it ; but in the dry specimen before me the flowers are not exactly vertical, as in that species. * * Densiflora. (Flowers and fruit remain central in the very

woolly vertex of the plant, no new tubercles being developed before the fruit falls off ; berries of all the species known to me oval, green ; seeds brown, smooth.)

19. M. COMPACTA, E. in Wisl. Rep. : simplex, depresso-globosa ; tuberculis abbreviato-conicis sulcatis confertis ; areolis ovato-lanceolatis, aculeis radialibus 13-16 rigidis recurvis intertextis albidis corneisve, aculeo centrali erecto plerumque deficiente ; floribus flavis extus fuscatis minoribus.

Cosiquiriachi, west of Chihuahua : Al. June and July. Plant 2-4 inches in diameter; distinguished from the last species by the acutish (not obtuse) tubercles, the more elongated areola, the erect central spine, which however is wanting in most specimens, and principally by the smaller and truly vertical flowers. Spines 5 – 10 lines long; flower 11-14 inches long and wide; seed 0.7 line long.

20. M. PECTINATA, E. in B. C. R.: simplex, globosa ; tuberculis conicis abbreviatis, summis floriferis teretibus longioribus sulcatis ; are. olis oblongis ; aculeis 16 – 24 rigidis recurvis intertextis subæqualibus s. in tuberculis summis superioribus longioribus fasciculatis omnibus radiantibus corneis s. albidis ; floribus magnis sulphureis.

On the Pecos River, in Western Texas : A. July. — Plant 1 - 2

inches in diameter. Lower tubercles 2-3, floriferous ones 5-6 lines long; spines 3 - 5, upper fasciculated ones 6 - 9 lines long. Flower 21 - 3 inches in diameter ; seed 0.9 line long.

21. M. Echinus, E. 1. c.: simplex, globosa ; tuberculis tereticonicis; areolis orbiculatis ; aculeis rectis s. paullo curvatis intertextis albidis ; radiantibus 16 - 30 summis paullo longioribus, centralibus 3 4, inferiore robustissimo subulato porrecto, superioribus 2 - 3 et cum radiantibus erectis; floribus magnis.

With the former.- Plant 11-24 inches in diameter ; tubercles 5-6 lines long; lower and lateral spines 4-6, upper ones 6 – 10 lines long ; upper central spines of the same length, and the lower central one a little shorter. This last one is unusually stout, subulate from a very thick base, and perpendicular on the centre of the plant, which gives it a very peculiar aspect. Flowers apparently about 11 or 2 inches long.

22. M. ScoLYMOIDES, Scheidw. (1841): globosa s. ovata, subsimplex; tuberculis conicis, superioribus elongatis incurvis imbricatis ; aculeis radiantibus 14-20 rectis s. plerumque recurvis albidis s. corneis, superioribus longioribus, centralibus 1-4 longioribus obscuriori. bus curvatis, superioribus sursum versis cum radialibus implicatis, inferiore robustiore longiore decurvo.

South of the Rio Grande ; not yet discovered in our territory. Plant 2-3 inches high ; tubercles 5 - 8 lines long; radial spines 5 10 lines, the central ones 9 – 16 lines long. Flowers yellow, 2 inches long. — Perhaps this and both the foregoing species are only forms of the Mexican M. cornifera, of De Candolle. Only a close examination of these plants in their native wilds will enable us to decide this point.

23. M. CALCARATA, E. in Pl. Lindh. 2, 1850 (M. sulcata, E. in Pl. Lindh. 1, 1845. M. strobiliformis, Muhlenpf.? non Scheer): globosa, prolifera, cæspitosa ; tuberculis e basi dilatata ovatis conicis; aculeis albidis, radialibus 8 – 10 rigidis subulatis rectis s. paullo recurvis, additis subinde ex summa areola aculeis adventitiis 3 - 5 fas. ciculatis tenuioribus, centrali singulo robustiore subulato recurvato, in plantis junioribus deficiente; floribus magnis sulphureis intus basi rubicundis.

Texas, from the Brazos to the Nueces rivers : fl. May. – Larger heads 2-24 inches in diameter ; cæspitose masses a foot or more large; tubercles spreading, or in older flowering plants often somewhat adpressed and imbricate, 7 - 9 lines long ; spines 4-8 lines

long. Flower 24 -24 inches long, and of same diameter. Seeds a line long.

§ 3. Rubriflora.

* Sepalis integerrimis. 24. M. CONOIDEA, DC. (M. strobiliformis, E. in Wisl. Rep. non Scheer): found only south of the Rio Grande.

* * Sepalis fimbriatis. 25. ? M. Pottsii, Scheer: cylindrica, subramosa ; tuberculis ovatis obtusis levissime sulcatis, axillis sublanuginosis ; aculeis radialibus numerosissimis gracilibus albis, centralibus 6 – 12 validioribus expansis basi nodulosis apice sphacelatis ; Aoribus magnis e viridi rubellis ; baccis roseis.

Texas, on the Rio Grande, below Laredo, and from there to Chihuahua. — I have not seen this plant; the description is taken from Salm and Poselger.

26. M. TUBERCULOSA, E. in B.C. R.: ovata s. ovato-cylindrica, simplex s. ad basin parce prolifera ; tuberculis e basi rhomboidea ovatis abbreviatis obtusis profunde sulcatis demum suberosis persistentibus confertis, axillis villosissimis ; aculeis exterioribus 20 - 30 rigidis albi. dis, interioribus 5-9 robustioribus cæsio-purpureis sphacelatis, superioribus longioribus erectis, infimo breviore robusto porrecto s. deflexo; floribus in vertice densissime tomentoso centralibus pollicaribus dilute roseis ; baccis elongato-ovatis rubris ; seminibus minimis scrobiculatis.

On the mountains near El Paso, and eastward. : A. May and June. Plant 2 – 5 inches high; tubercles 24 - 3 lines long, dry and hard, not · fleshy unless very young, nor shrivelling when old, but losing the spines and covering the lower part of the plant like corky protuberances. Outer spines usually 2 - 4, rarely 5 or 6, lines long; interior spines 4 - 9 lines long; those of the upper tubercles forming a tuft of grayish-purple color on top of the plant. Flowers very pale purple, one inch in diameter. Berry red, three fourths of an inch long, one fourth of an inch thick, crowned with the remains of the flower. Seeds short, thick, about half a line long. — The short, corky tubercles, with very deep grooves, and very woolly when young, together with the long red fruit, distinguish our species from all the allied forms.

27. M. DASYACANTHA, E. in B.C. R. : simplex, subglobosa ; tuberculis teretibus laxis leviter sulcatis ; axillis subvillosis; aculeis rectis tenuibus setaceis patulis, exterioribus 25 – 35 albidis, interioribus 7 – 13 longioribus purpureo-fuscis, centrali infero æquilongo; baccis centralibus ovatis ; seminibus obovato-globosis nigricantibus scrobiculatis.

El Paso and eastward. — Specimens before me are 11 -21 inches high, and a Ifttle less in diameter ; tubercles 4-5 lines long; spines more slender and soft than in the allied species, often capillary, spreading, but not radiating, 6 - 12 lines long, only the lower exterior ones a little shorter. Seeds about half a line long. Very nearly allied to the next.

28. M. VIVIPARA, Haw. : simplex s. cæspitosa ; tuberculis teretibus laxis leviter sulcatis ; aculeis rectis rigidis, exterioribus patentissime radiantibus albidis 12 - 36, centralibus 3 – 12 robustioribus longioribus obscurioribus, singulo robustiore porrecto deflexove, ceteris sur. sum divergentibus; floribus subcentralibus purpureis magnis ; baccis sublateralibus ovatis viridibus ; seminibus obovatis scrobiculatis fulvis.

Var. 2. VERA: depresso-globosa, simplex s. plerumque prolifera, cæspitosa ; aculeis radialibus 14 – 20, centralibus 3–8.

Var. ? B. RADIOSA: ovata s. subcylindrica, simplex s. e basi ramosa ; aculeis radialibus 12 - 36, centralibus 3 – 12. Subvar. a. RADIOSA BOREALIS : subglobosa ; aculeis radialibus albidis 12 - 20, centralibus 3 - 6 purpureo-maculatis ; floribus minoribus. — 6. RADIOSA NeoMexicana: ovata ; aculeis radialibus albidis 20 – 36, centralibus 3 – 12 supra purpurascentibus sphacelatis; floribus majoribus. C. RADIOSA Texans: ovato-cylindrica ; aculeis radialibus albidis 2030, centralibus 4-5 flavis s. fulvis ; floribus seminibusque magnis. M. radiosa, E. in Plant. Lindh. 2. 1850.

In the Western plains, and on the Rocky Mountains : var. a. on the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers ; B. a. in Northern New Mex. ico; B. b. from Western Texas to New Mexico and Sonora ; B. c. in Texas, west of New Braunfels. — The extreme forms are certainly very unlike one another, but the transitions are so gradual that I cannot draw strict limits between them. Even the proliferous growth of the original M. vivipara is not constant, and I have seen many simple specimens from the Upper Missouri. The simple ones seem to flower better than the proliferous ones, which are often sterile. — Plants from 1 to 5 inches high, 11 - 2 inches in diameter; tubercles 4-6 lines long ; spines always rigid, 3 – 10 lines long. Flowers different in size, 11-24 inches in diameter, beautifully purple, with numerous narrowly lanceolate acuminate petals. Seeds - 1 line long.

29. M. MACROMERIS, E. in Wisl. Rep. (M. dactylothele, Lab.): simplex s. e basi ramosa, ovata ; tuberculis magnis patulis, laxis, tenu. iter ultra medium sulcatis ; aculeis tenuibus elongatis rectis s. paullo curvatis exterioribus 10 - 17 albidis, centralibus sub-4 longioribus robustioribus subangulatis, fuscis s. nigricantibus; floribus ex areolis supra-axillaribus in tuberculo ipso oriundis magnis ; bacca subglobosa viridi ; seminibus parvis lævibus fuscis.

In the valley of the Rio Grande, from Southern New Mexico to the middle course of the river near Presidio, and even lower down: fl. July and August. — A most remarkable species in many respects, and forming a transition to Echinocactus, though the mamillate form is so very striking. Plant 2 - 4 inches high; tubercles variable, 6-8 or 10 – 12 and even 15 lines long. Radial spines 1-11 inches long; central ones often 11 - 24 inches in length. Axils always naked. Flower springing from the lower end of the groove, which runs down about two thirds of the tubercle, 22 -3 inches in diameter, rose-colored or purple ; not rarely with a few sepaloid scales on the ovary (and fruit). Seeds thick, but only 0.6 – 0.8 line long.

Subgen. 3. ANHALONIUM. (Gen. Anhalonium, Lem. Ariocarpus, Scheidw.) Flores e basi tuberculorum hornotinorum triangularium subinermium vel in vertice ipso oriundi: ovarium emersum.

30. M. FISSURATA, E. in B. C. R.: simplex, depresso-globosa s. applanata ; tuberculis e basi applanata crassis extus infraque lævibus, supra sulco centrali villoso lateralibusque glabris profunde quadripartitis sulcisque transversalibus superficialiter multifidis, inermibus ; floribus e villo longo sericeo centralibus roseis ; baccis ovatis vires. centibus in lana densa occultis ; seminibus nigris tuberculatis.

On the limestone hills, near the junction of the Pecos with the Rio Grande : A. October. Heads 2-44 inches in diameter; tubercles 6 10 lines long, and a little less broad; central longitudinal groove in the very young ones bearing dense silky wool over half an inch long, which by age becomes dirty and matted, and finally disappears entirely in the very old ones. The lower end of the groove, which only extends down as far as the rough or verrucose part of the tubercle goes (about two thirds downward), bears the flower and fruit, very much like the floriferous areola of the last-mentioned species. Flower about one inch long and wide. Seed very roughly tuberculated, different from that of any other Mamillaria examined by me, but quite similar to that of other Anhalonia.

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