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II. ECHINOCACTUS, Link. & Otto.

Ovarium emersum baccaque sepalis stipata. Semina sæpe albuminosa. Cotyledones plus minus foliaceæ plerumque hamatæ. — Plantæ subglobosæ, costatæ; inflorescentia verticali.

§ 1. Hamati, Salm. 1. E. SCHEERII, Salm : globosus s. ovatus ; costis 13 obtusis interruptis ; tuberculis supra ad medium sulcatis ; aculeis radialibus 15 18 setaceis, centralibus 3 – 4 angulatis variegatis, superioribus rectis longioribus sursum divaricatis, inferiore robustiore breviore hamato; floribus minoribus flavo-virescentibus ; bacca virescente ; seminibus fuscis.

About Eagle Pass, on the Rio Grande : A. August to October. — A most elegant little species, lj-2 inches high; larger spines black and white variegated; radial ones 3-6, central ones 6-12 lines long; floriferous areola united by a groove of 1-2} lines in length with the spines, resembling the groove of the Coryphantha, especial. ly of Mamillaria macromeris. Green flower an inch long, much less in diameter.

2. E. BREVI-HAMATUS, E. in B. C. R. : obovato-globosus; costis 13 compressis obtusis interruptis ; tuberculis supra usque ad basin sulcatis; aculeis radialibus 12 teretibus albidis, centralibus 4 complanatis, lateralibus rectis sursum versis paullo longioribus, summo debiliore et infimo robustiore deorsum hamato brevioribus ; floribus minoribus roseis.

On the San Pedro, and about Eagle Pass : Al. April. - Very similar to the last; but larger, 3 - 4 inches high, with fewer spines, the lower central usually hardly longer than the upper radial ones, about one inch long; lower radial spines shorter, and upper central ones longer. The rose-colored flowers are 12 – 16 lines long, much less wide. Fruit unknown.

3. E. WHIPPLEI, E. & B. in Pacific R. R. Rep. : ovato-globosus ; costis 13 - 15 interruptis ; aculeis radialibus 7 compressis albidis, centralibus 4 longioribus robustioribus compresso-quadrangulatis, summo latiore longiore, infimo robustiore deorsum hamato ; seminibus magnis nigris.

On the Colorado-Chiquito, in Western New Mexico. — Plant 3-5 inches high ; exterior spines 6 - 9 lines, upper central spine 12- 18

lines long, and {-1} lines broad; other central spines a little shorter. Seed very large, over 1} lines in the longest diameter. — Principally characterized by the few radial spines and the very broad upper central one, which with the former forms an almost regular circle.

4. E. POLYANCISTRUS, E. & B. I. c. : ovatus, s. ovato-cylindricus ; costis 13 - 17 interruptis ; aculeis radialibus sub-19 complanatis albis, superioribus latioribus longioribus, inferioribus setaceis, centralibus difformibus, summo complanato elongato sursum curvato albo, reliquis 5 – 10 teretiusculis purpureo-fuscis, superioribus 2 rectis, ceteris uncinatis.

Eastern slope of the California mountains, at the head of the Mojave River. — Plant 4 - 10 inches high, 3-4 in diameter; radial spines 1-2 inches long; upper central spine 3 – 5, the others 11 - 31 inches long, the lowest shorter than the others. The number of the hooked spines varies from 3 to 7, according to age and development.

5. E. UNCINATUS, Hopf., var. ? WRIGHTII, E. in B. C. R. : glaucescens, ovatus ; costis 13 interruptis ; tuberculis usque ad basin sulcatis ; aculeis radialibus 8, inferioribus 3 uncinatis fuscis, reliquis 5 rectis, centrali singulo angulato complanato flexuoso hamato elongato erecto stramineo apice fusco; floribus fusco-purpureis minoribus.

Near El Paso and on the Rio Grande below : Al. March and April.. - Plant 3 - 6 inches high, 2 – 31 inches in diameter; the tuft of long, erect, straw-colored spines is very characteristic. Lower hooked radial spines about an inch long; upper ones a little longer; central spine 2- 4 inches long. Flowers 1-1} inches long. Berry fleshy, scaly. Seeds much compressed. — The Mexican E. uncinatus has 7 – 8 radial spines, similarly arranged, and 4 central spines; the three upper ones not much longer than the upper radial ones and straight, the lower one elongated and hooked. The flower and seed differ also to some extent.

6. E. SETISPINUS, E. in Pl. Lindh. 1845 : globosus, ovatus s. subcylindricus; costis 13 compressis acutatis angulatis ; tuberculis brevissime sulcatis ; aculeis radialibus 10 – 16 setaceis ; centrali subsin. gulo robustiore terete fusco uncinato s. flexuoso curvato; floribus magnis flavis intus coccineis ; bacca pisiformi coccinea ; seminibus tuberculatis.

Var. a. HAMATUS : aculeis radialibus sub 12, centrali hamato robusto. — E. hamatus, Muhlenpf. E. Muhlenpfordtii, Fen.

Var. B. SETACEUS : minor; aculeis pluribus, centralibus 1-3 tenui. oribus vix hamatis.

Texas, from the Colorado to the Rio Grande, and westward as far as the San Pedro River: Al. April to October. — It is unnecessary further to describe this well-known and well-characterized species, which is now frequently cultivated ; the compressed ribs, setaceous spines, small red berry, and tuberculated seeds easily distinguish it from all its allies.

7. E. Sinuatus, Dietr. (1851): globosus; costis 13 compressis acutiusculis interruptis ; aculeis radialibus setaceis, 3 superioribus et 3 inferioribus rectiusculis fuscatis 1, lateralibus 2 - 6 tenuioribus albi. dis flexuosis, rarissime hamatis ; centralibus 4 robustioribus, 3 supe. rioribus rectis purpureo-variegatis, inferiore compresso seu canaliculato elongato flexuoso vel hamato stramineo ; floribus magnis flavis; bacca ovata viridi ; seminibus minutissime punctatis.

Country along the Rio Grande near Eagle Pass, and from there eastward. — Intermediate between the foregoing and the next species, and considered by Dr. Poselger a connecting link between them ; but easily distinguished from the former by the larger size, thicker ribs, flattened central spine, and by the shining, finely dotted seeds ; from the latter, to which it approaches much more closely, by the more compressed and less strongly tuberculated ribs, the smaller number of stigmata (8 – 12), smaller fruit, and much more finely dotted seed. — Poselger considers this a variety of E. setispinus. His E. setispinus, var. robustus, has the same seeds, and no doubt also belongs here ; it is said to have all the 4 central spines, and some of the radial ones, hooked. E. Treculianus, Lab. belongs here, or perhaps to the next.

8. E. LONGEHAMATUS, Gal. : subglobosus; costis 13 - 17 obtusis tuberculato-interruptis ; tuberculis breviter sulcatis ; aculeis radialibus rigidis subteretibus, infimis summisque ternis, lateralibus 2 - 6 longioribus ; centralibus 4 robustis angulatis annulatis, quorum infimus deorsum hamatus rectus seu flexuosus, additis subinde 2-4 superiori. bus cum radialibus superioribus fasciculatis ; floribus magnis flavis; stigmatibus 15 – 18; bacca oblonga virescente squamosa ; seminibus lucidis exsculptis.

Var. a. CRASSISPINUS: aculeis robustissimis radialibus 8-11, centralibus 4 angulatis, infimo flexuoso plus minus hamato. E. flexispinus, E. in Wisl. Rep. non Salm.

Var. B. GRACILISPINUS: aculeis gracilioribus 16 - 20, exterioribus 12 – 14, centralibus 4-8, infimo elongato hamato. E. hamatocanthus, Muhl.

VOL. III.

Var. y. BREVISPINUS: aculeis gracilioribus radialibus 8-11, cen. tralibus 4 teretibus cum infimo hamato radiales vix superantibus.

East of El Paso, near the Pecos and San Pedro Rivers, and along the middle course of the Rio Grande : var. a. south of the Rio Grande. Fl. July and August. — Plants from 1-2 feet high ; the larger ones ovate ; areolæ distant ; spines very different in size, in the different varieties ; radial spines 1 - 3), central spines 14 - 64 inches long ; flowers 24 - 3} inches long; seeds similar to the last, but with much larger pits.

$ 2. Cornigeri.

A. Heteracanthi. 9. E. WISLIZENI, E. in Wisl. Rep.: giganteus, globoso-ovatus ; costis 21 compressis crenatis ; areolis elongatis ; aculeis radialibus summis infimisque 6 robustis rectis seu curvatis, lateralibus 14-20 (additis subinde summis brevioribus fasciculatis) tenuibus elongatis flexuosis; centralibus 4 robustis angulatis annulatis rubellis, 3 superioribus rectis, inferiore canaliculato deorsum hamato ; floribus flavis ; bacca ovata squamosissima; seminibus reticulatis.

Valley of the Rio Grande about El Paso, and thence to the Upper Gila: Al. July and August. — Plant 2- 4 feet high ; diameter smaller; radial spines 1-2, central ones 14-3 inches long. Flowers 21 inches long.

10. E. Lecontei, E. in P. R. R.: giganteus, obovato-claviformis; costis 20 - 30 compressis crenatis ; areolis elongatis ; aculeis radialibus summis infimisque 6 - 10 robustis angulatis plus minus curvatis, lateralibus 10 – 16 (addidis subinde summis brevioribus fasciculatis) tenuibus elongatis flexuosis, centralibus 4 robustis compressis annulatis corneis, 3 superioribus sursum inferiore subinde subhamato deorsum curvatis; floribus flavis ; bacca ovata squamosa ; seminibus scrobiculatis.

On the lower parts of the Gila and Colorado Rivers, and in Sonora : A. August and September. Very similar to the last, but a more slender, often quite clavate plant; larger specimens 3 - 4 feet high, and of only one third that diameter ; arrangement of spines similar, but generally 5 (not 3) radial spines below the lowest central one ; cen. · tral spines more compressed, upper ones curved, lower one rarely somewhat hooked ; flower, fruit, and seed smaller ; seed more oblong and pitted.

E. INGENS, Zucc., in the number and arrangement of spines, is the simple type of our more northern species: it has on the oval areolæ 4 stout cruciate central spines, 3 upper and 3 lower radial ones, and only 2 slender lateral spines. Seeds smooth. The flower seems to refer it, however, to the Eriocarpi.

B. Homæacanthi.

* Lepidocarpi. 11. E. EMORYI, E. (in Emory's Rep. 1848, and B. C. R.): grandis, ovatus; costis 13 - 20 obtusis tuberculatis ; areolis ovatis ; aculeis radialibus 7 – 8 subæqualibus robustis subangulatis annulatis paullo recurvatis rubellis 1 - 2 pollicaribus, centrali singulo recurvo s. subhamato paullo robustiore ; floribus magnis purpurascentibus.

Lower Colorado, and principally in Sonora : fl. August and September. Larger plants 21 - 3 feet high ; spines usually 1-2, and, in a large specimen from Guaymas, nearly 3 inches long. Flowers about 3 inches long. Fruit unknown.

12. E. Viridescens, Nutt. : globosus, simplex seu raro ramosus; costis 13–21; aculeis robustis compressis annulatis plus minus curvatis rubellis, radialibus 12 – 20 infimo breviore magis curvato ; centralibus 4 angulatis robustioribus longioribus, infimo rectiore longiore ; floribus virescentibus ; bacca squamosa ; seminibus minutissime scrobiculatis.

San Diego, California. — Less than a foot in diameter, globose or flattened ; radial spines 5 – 10 lines long, 3 upper central ones a little longer, and lower central spine 12 – 18 lines long. Flower 1.4 inches long.

13. E. CYLINDRACEUS, E. in Sill. Jour. 1852: ovatus seu subcylin. dricus, plerumque e basi ramosus; costis 21 vel pluribus ; aculeis robustis compressis annulatis plus minus curvatis flexuosisve rubellis, radialibus sub – 12, aculeis adventitiis sub - 5 gracilioribus supra sæpe adjectis, infimo hamato, centralibus 4 angulatis robustissimis cruciatis, superiore latiore sursum recto, inferiore decurvato; floribus flavis ; bacca squamosa.

San Felipe, on the eastern slope of the Californian mountains : A. in June. — The largest specimens seen were 3 feet high and one foot in diameter; the branches or young single plants are globose. Radial spines 1 - 2 inches long; central spines 1-1} lines broad, about 2 inches long. Similar to the last, but well distinguished by the characters indicated.

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