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0. Lindheimeri, E. Pl. Lindh., is partly this same plant, partly a hybrid form between it and perhaps 0. Rafinesquii, with narrow clavate fruit.

0. ENGELMANNI, var. ? CYCLODEs, E. & B. in P. R. R.: articulis orbiculatis ; aculeis validioribus subsingulis ; bacca parva globosa; seminibus majoribus.

On the Upper Pecos, in New Mexico. Joints 6-7 inches, and fruit 1 or 14 inches in diameter.

O. DULCIS, E. in B. C. R., is a doubtful plant, of which we have not material enough. It has been found near the middle course of the Rio Grande, near Presidio del Norte, &c. It is similar to 0. Engelmanni, and may be a form of it; but it is lower, more spreading, with a similar but very sweet fruit, and small, regular seeds.

The following may be considered as a subspecies :

O. OCCIDENTALIS, E. & B. in P. R. R. : erecta, patulo-ramosissima ; articulis grandibus obovatis vel rhomboideis ; pulvillis remotis setas graciles confertas et aculeos 1 - 3 validos compressos deflexos albidos basi obscuriores et inferiores paucos graciliores gerentibus ; floris flavi intus rubelli ovario obovato; bacca obovata late umbilicata ; seminibus majoribus.

On the western slope of the California mountains, near San Diego and Los Angeles : Al. June. — Plant 4 feet high, forming large thickets; the joints 9 - 12 inches long; pulvilli with very fine closely-set bristles; spines about one inch long. Apparently distinct from 0. Engelmanni by its manner of growth, the very fine bristles, and the larger seeds.

There are also some indications of another form, growing on hills and plains near San Diego, California, and on the neighboring seabeach, with higher and more upright growth, and coarser bristles on the pulvilli, but which I cannot well distinguish from 0. Engelmanni. I have seen no fruit or seed of it.

6. O. CHLOROTICA, E. & B. in P. R. R.: caule erecto aculeis flavis numerosissimis fasciculatis armato; articulis orbiculato-obovatis pallidis ; pulvillis subremotis setas difformes confertas aculeosque 3 – 6 inæquales compressos stramineos gerentibus; floris flavi ovario pulvillis confertis stipato; petalis spathulatis.

Western Colorado country, between New Mexico and California, from the San Francisco mountains to Mojave Creek. — Plant 4-6 feet high, forming large and sometimes spreading bushes; the trunk

covered with spines 1-2 inches long; joints 8-10 by 6-8 inches in length; spines -- 14 inches long. Ovary with nearly 50 pulvilli, while the foregoing species have not more than 20.

tt Procumbentes. 7. O. PROCUMBENS, E. & B. I. c. : prostrata ; articulis orbiculato. obovatis grandibus pallide viridibus; pulvillis remotis setas stramineas rigidas valde inæquales et aculeos 2 – 4 validos compressos angulatos stramineos basi obscuriores gerentibus.

San Francisco mountains to Cactus Pass, in Western New Mexico. Joints 9 – 13 inches long, always edgewise ; pulvilli 14-2 inches apart; spines 1 - 2 inches long. Similar to 0. Engelmanni, but prostrate, with more distant pulvilli, and stouter spines. No flower or fruit seen.

8. O. ANGUSTATA, E. & B. I. c. : prostrata vel adscendens; articulis elongato-obovatis versus basin angustatis ; pulvillis remotis setas fulvas graciles aculeosque paucos (2-3) validos compressos stramineos seu albidos versus basin rufos deflexos gerentibus ; bacca obovata tuberculata ; seminibus magnis.

From Zuni, west of the Rio Grande, westward to the Cajon Pass, in the California mountains. - Joints 6 - 10 inches long, only 3 or 4 wide. Spines similar to those of the last species; bristles much more delicate. Fruit 14 inches long; the umbilicus flat, but immersed. — Well distinguished by the shape of the joints.

* * * Fulvispina. 9. O. MACROCENTRA, E. in B. C. R.: adscendens; articulis magnis suborbiculatis tenuibus; pulvillis subremotis setas graciles breves fulvas gerentibus, summis solum aculeos 1 - 2 prælongos subcompresses fusco-atros proferentibus; floris flavi ovario ovato; stigmatibus 8; seminibus majusculis.

Sand-hills on the Rio Grande near El Paso : A. May. — Two or three feet high, with very striking round joints, 5 - 8 inches in diameter, and blackish spines as much as 2 or 3 inches long. Nearly allied to the next species.

10. O. PHÆACANTHA, E. in Pl. Fendl. : diffusa, adscendens; articulis obovatis crassis glaucescentibus ; pulvillis subremotis setas graciles stramineas seu fuscatas longiores gerentibus, plerisque aculeos 2-5 p us minus compressos fuscos proferentibus ; floris flavi ovario abbreviato; stigmatibus 8; bacca cuneata pyriformi ; seminibus majusculis. Var. a. NIGRICANS : aculeis brevioribus acute angulatis et nigricantibus.

Var. B. BRUNNEA: pulvillis remotioribus ; aculeis longioribus obtuse angulatis brunneis sursum albidis.

Var. y. MAJOR : suborbiculata ; pulvillis remotis ; aculeis brevioribus paucioribus pallidioribus.

New Mexico: Al. May. Var. a. is found on the Rio Grande near Santa Fé; B. in similar sandy locations near El Paso ; and y. in mountainous regions near Santa Fé. — Joints 4-6, or in y. even 8, inches long; spines mostly 1 - 2 inches in length. Flower about 2 inches in diameter, with a short ovary. Fruit 11 -1} inches long, slender, much contracted at base so as to appear almost stipitate.

O. MOJAVENSIS, E. & B. in P. R. R.: prostrata ; articulis grandibus suborbiculatis; pulvillis remotis ; setis fulvis; aculeis 3 - 6 validis infra fuscis.

'On the Mojave, west of the Colorado. — The material •is too scanty to make out where it belongs; but perhaps it is only a form of 0. pheacantha.

11. O. CAMANCHICA, E. & B. in P. R. R.: prostrata ; articulis adscendentibus majusculis suborbiculatis ; pulvillis remotis plerisque armatis ; setis stramineis fulvisve parcis ; aculeis 1 - 3 compressis fuscis apice pallidioribus, superioribus elongatis suberectis, cæteris deflexis ; bacca ovata late umbilicata ; seminibus majusculis angulatis hilo excisis.

Llano Estacado, on the Upper Canadian River. A large, extensively spreading plant; the joints 6 - 7 inches long; spines 11 -2 or even 3 inches long. Fruit large, juicy. Seeds 2 - 3 lines in diameter, very irregular and deeply notched at the hilum.

12. O. TORTISPINA, E. & B. I. c.: prostrata ; articulis adscendentibus majusculis suborbiculatis ; pulvillis subremotis ; setis stramineis seu fulvis ; aculeis 3 - 5 majoribus angulatis sæpe tortis albidis cum 2 - 4 gracilioribus ; bacca ovata late umbilicata ; seminibus majusculis orbiculatis.

On the Camanche plains, east of the elevated plateau of the Llano Estacado. Similar in size and habit to the last species, its western neighbor, with more numerous spines than any other of our Opuntia with juicy fruit. Seeds regular, and only very slightly notched at the hilum.

§ 3. Setispinæ : adscendentes : articuli plerumque minores: aculei

pauci, teretes seu vix angulati, graciles, flexiles, pallidi : bacca minor.

13. O. TENUISPINA, E. in B. C. R. : articulis majusculis obovatis basi attenuatis læte viridibus; pulvillis subapproximatis setas graciles breves fulvas gerentibus plerisque armatis ; aculeis 1-2 elongatis albidis cum 1-4 brevioribus inferioribus ; floris flavi ovario clavato ; petalis obovatis retusis ; bacca oblonga profunde umbilicata; seminibus minoribus.

Sand-hills near El Paso : Al. May. — Joints 3 - 6 inches long, 2-4 wide ; leaves very slender, hardly 2 lines long; upper spines suberect, or spreading, 11 -24 inches long; flower 23 - 3 inches in diameter; seeds less than 2 lines in diameter, very irregular. — Similar in many respects to 0. pheacantha, which grows with it; but readily distinguished by the spines and fruit.

14. O. SETISPINA, E. in Salm, H. D.: articulis suborbiculatis parvis glaucis ; pulvillis confertis setas flavidas gerentibus, omnibus armatis; aculeis 1 - 3 longioribus subangulatis et 3-7 brevioribus plus minus deflexis, omnibus gracillimis.

Pine woods in the mountains west of Chihuahua, Dr. Wislizenus. Joints not over 2 inches long; pulvilli only 3 - 4 lines apart; longer spines 1-11 inches long, very slender, like bristles. Flower and fruit unknown.

15. O. FILIPENDULA, E. in B. C. R. : glauca ; radicibus nodosoincrassatis ; articulis minoribus orbiculatis seu obovatis seu oblanceolatis tenuibus ; pulvillis approximatis setas virescenti-flavas graciles numerosas gerentibus armatis vel inermibus ; aculeis, si adsunt, 1-2 elongatis subangulatis cum 1-2 minoribus, omnibus albidis ; floris purpurascentis ovario gracili; stigmatibus 5; seminibus minoribus tumidis.

Alluvial bottoms of the Rio Grande near El Paso, and eastward on the Pecos : Al. May and June. — The long knotted roots, the small bluish joints, with the very small leaves and very long bristles, together with the purple flower, and thick very narrowly margined seeds, distinguish this species from all others. Plant 6 - 12 inches high, joints 13 -3 inches long, 1 - 2 wide ; pulvilli 4-6 lines apart; lower spines 1 - 2 inches long. Flower 24 inches in diameter. Seed hardly 2 lines in diameter.

4. Vulgares : procumbentes vel adscendentes : articuli plerumque minores : aculei validi, subteretes vel nulli, albidi vel obscuriores : bacca clavata.

16. O. RAFINESQUII, E. in P.R.R.: diffusa ; radice fibrosa ; articulis obovatis vel suborbiculatis perviridibus, foliis elongatis patulis ; pulvillis subremotis setas graciles rufas gerentibus plerisque inermibus ; aculeis paucis marginalibus validis rectis singulis erectis patulisve, uno alterove minore deflexo subinde adjecto, rufo variegatis ; alabastro acuto; ovario clavato pulvillis 20 – 25 stipato ; petalis 10 – 12; stig. matibus 7-8; bacca clavata.

Var. MICROSPERMA: subinermis : seminibus minoribus angustius marginatis.

Sterile, sandy, or rocky soil in the Mississippi valley, from Kentucky to Missouri, and from Minnesota southward : fl. May and June. — Joints 3 – 5 inches long; leaves 3-4 lines long; spines 9 – 12 lines long, sometimes entirely wanting. Flowers 21 - 34 inches in diameter, yellow, often with a red centre. Seed 24 lines, or in the variety less than 2 lines in diameter. — This species had been confounded with the Eastern O. vulgaris by all our botanists, with the exception of Rafinesque, who pretended to distinguish three species, viz. O. humifusa, 0. cæspitosa, and 0. mesacantha (sometimes erroneously accredited to Nuttall), which cannot be made out, and which I have again united under their author's name. - The following is probably only a Southern variety of this species :

O. GRANDIFLORA, E.: subadscendens; articulis majusculis ; pulvillis remotis ; setis tenuissimis; aculeis subnullis ; floris grandis ovario elongato; petalis sub-10 latissimis; stigmatibus 5; bacca elongata clavata.

Op the Brazos, Texas. — Joints often 5 – 6 inches long; pulvilli nearly an inch apart. Flowers 41 - 5 inches in diameter, red in the centre; petals 2 inches long or more, and 14 wide.

Dr. Bigelow collected on his tour from Arkansas to Santa Fé sev. eral forms, which, though somewhat distinct, are perhaps not entitled to be considered species. The true 0. Rafinesquii does not seem to occur west of the western line of Missouri and Arkansas. The Western forms or subspecies are:

O. CYMOCHILA, E. & B. in P. R. R. : diffusa ; articulis orbiculatis ; pulvillis subremotis stramineo- seu fulvo-setosis plerisque armatis ; aculeis 1-3 robustioribus albidis basi fulvis patentibus deflexisve, additis

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