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or without smaller ones, which never occurs in any form of 0. Missouriensis, where a large number of small setaceous spines is found, whether larger ones are present or not. Fruit 9 lines in diameter, with a small flat umbilicus. Seeds 24 lines in diameter.

* * Articuli tumidi ovati. 25. O. ERINACEA, E. & B. I. c. : adscendens; articulis ovatis seu teretiusculis ; pulvillis confertissimis omnibus armatis ; aculeis 5 – 10 gracilibus rubellis, 3-5 elongatis ; bacca ovata aculeolata ; seminibus magnis subregularibus.

Near the Mojave, between the Colorado and the Californian moun. tains. - Joints 2-24 inches long, 1-14 broad, and 1- thick, sometimes almost cylindrical, densely covered with large white pulvilli, which are only 2-3 lines apart. Spines 6 - 14 or even 20 lines long, slender but stiff. Fruit an inch or more in length. Seeds nearly 3 lines in diameter.

26. O. ARENARIA, E. in B. C. R. : adscendens; articulis obovatis compressis seu teretiusculis tuberculatis; foliis minutis ; pulvillis subconfertis pallide setosis ; aculeis 1-4 robustioribus albidis fuscatisve, cum inferioribus brevioribus 2 - 6 albis ; floris sulphurei ovario obovato ; petalis emarginatis; stigmatibus 5; bacca oblonga spinulosa; umbilico infundibuliformi ; seminibus magnis irregularibus.

Sandy bottoms of the Rio Grande near El Paso : fl. May. Spreading 2-3 feet, j - 1 foot high ; roots stout, creeping horizontally; joints 1} -3 inches long, 1-2 inches wide, and } - thick, more strongly tuberculated than the allied species ; leaves only a line long; pulvilli 3-5 lines apart, very bristly, especially on the old joints ; upper spines 9 - 15 lines long. Flower 2 - 24 inches in diameter. Fruit about an inch long. Seeds 24 - 3 lines in diameter. This is the only one of our Cactaceæ on which the Cochenille has been found.

27. O. FRAGILIS, Haw. (Cactus fragilis, Nutt.): subdecumbens; articulis parvis ovatis subcompressis tumidis vel subglobosis vix tu. berculatis nitide viridibus ; foliis minutis ; pulvillis subconfertis magnis albo-tomentosis, vix setulosis; aculeorum 1-4 robustiorum summo valido angulato fuscato porrecto, ceteris debilioribus pallidioribus patulis seu radiantibus ; aculeis inferioribus 2 - 6 gracilibus albis radi. antibus ; floribus minoribus; bacca ovata vix spinulosa, umbilico infundibuliformi; seminibus paucis magnis subregularibus.

Fertile prairies, or sterile places, on the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone, to the mountains and south to Santa Fé.- Size and shape of the joints variable ; fruit-bearing joints compressed, l1 - 2 inches long, 1-11 wide, and 1-thick ; others smaller and more tumid. Leaves a line long, hardly longer than the large pulvilli, red. Pulvilli 4-6 lines apart, bristles very few, short, whitish, on the old joints a little more numerous, coarser, dirty yellow. Lower radiating spines 2-4 lines long; central spines 6 - 10 lines long, the other interior spines 3 – 8 lines long, often similar to the smaller lower spines. Fruit rather fleshy through the winter, getting dry in spring, nearly an inch long, with 20 - 25 pulvilli, of which only the upper ones bear a few short spines. Seeds few, usually only 5 or 6 in each fruit, 3 lines in diameter, with a wide and thick obtuse corky margin. - Often sterile, but abundantly propagated by the fragile joints.

28. O. BRACHYARTHRA, E. & B. 1. c. : adscendens; articulis ovatis orbiculatisve tumidis sæpe subglobosis tuberculatis; pulvillis confertis parce setulosis ; aculeis 3 - 5 validioribus 1-2 fuscatis patulis vel suberectis, cæteris deflexis ; floris parvi ovario subgloboso pulvillos 12 - 15 vix aculeolatos gerente; stigmatibus 5.

Inscription Rock near Zuni. - The short and tumid joints (10 - 15 lines long) resemble the joints of a finger; the pulvilli 2 – 4 lines apart, even in the oldest parts of the plant with very few bristles ; longer spines 9 - 12 lines long, terete. Ovary less than half an inch long. Flower apparently an inch in diameter. - Perhaps too near 0. fragilis ; but in the absence of good flowers and fruit, it is impossible to say whether it does not belong to even a different section, perhaps to the Glomeratæ, Salm.

Subgen. 3. CYLINDROPUNTIA, E. in B. C. R. Articuli cylindracei : flores magni vel parvi: bacca plerumque sicca : semina immarginata seu vix marginata : embryo circa albumen copiosius subcircularis ; cotyledones contrariæ seu obliquæ, subinde parallelæ.

§ 1. Clavatæ : prostratæ : articuli breves, clavati, adscendentes, tex

tura lignosa laxe reticulata : flores flavi majusculi: bacca sicca, pulvillis numerosis setosissimis stipata, floris rudimentis persistentibus coronata.

29. O. CLAVATA, E. in Wisl. Rep.: articulis breviter clavatis læte viridibus ; tuberculis ovatis ; foliis subulatis minutis; aculeis albidis scabrellis, interioribus 4-7 complanatis, inferioribus deflexis latioribus supra striatis subtus carinatis, superiore triangulato erecto; aculeis exterioribus 8- 10 gracilioribus undique radiantibus ; baccæ pulvillis setosissimis; seminibus rostratis.

Santa Fé and Albuquerque, on the plateaux : fl. in June and July. - Dense spreading masses, with joints 1} - 2 inches long; tubercles 6-8 lines long ; larger spines 6 – 15 lines long, and the broadest one 1 - 1} lines wide. Flower 2 inches in diameter. Fruit yellow, 11 1 inches long, an inch in diameter, covered with 30 - 50 large pulvilli. Seed 24 - 3 lines in the longest diameter. Cotyledons mostly oblique, or, as in most other Opuntia, incumbent. (The expression is not etymologically correct, but I use it to designate the direction of the face of the cotyledons towards the radicle.)

30. O. PARRYI, E. in Sillim. Journ. 1852 : prostrata ; articulis ovatis basi clavatis ; tuberculis oblongo-elongatis ; setis paucis ; aculeis angulatis scabris rubellis demum cinereis, interioribus sub-4 validioribus compressis, exterioribus 4-8 divergentibus, extimis 6 - 10 gracilibus radiantibus ; bacca ovata pulvillis sub-40 setosissimis stipata ; seminibus erostratis.

On the Mojave, west of the great Colorado. — Joints 21 - 3 or 4 inches long, attenuated below and somewhat so above; tubercles 9 lines long; inner spines 12 - 16 lines long, and the larger ones somewhat flattened, but less than a line wide ; exterior spines 3-8 lines long, in two series. Fruit 14 inches long. Seeds about 2 lines in diameter. — The original specimens of Dr. Parry were found farther south, near San Felipe. He describes the joints as 4-8 inches long, with shorter whitish spines or tubercles 6 - 12 lines long, and the flower as greenish-yellow. The Mojave plant is nearly allied to the last species, but may be distinguished by the shape of the joints, the narrower, darker-colored, more numerous spines, and the smaller and more regular seeds.

31. O. EMORYI, E. in B. C. R.: articulis cylindricis basi clavatis glaucis ; tuberculis oblongo-linearibus elongatis; setis paucis; aculeis plurimis rufis, interioribus 5 - 9 validioribus triangulatis, compressis, exterioribus 10-20 pluriseriatis undique radiantibus ; floribus flavis extus rubellis ; bacca pulvillos 35-50 setosissimos inferiores aculeolatos gerentibus; seminibus valde inæqualibus irregularibus.

Arid soil, from El Paso through Sonora to the desert of the Colorado : Al. August and September. - The stoutest species of this sec. tion. Joints 4-6 inches long, curved, 1 - 14 inches in diameter ; tubercles 1-14 inches long; longest spines 14-24 inches long, - 1 line wide; the exterior spines gradually smaller, and less angular. Fruit 2 - 24 inches long, partly armed with spines 4-8 lines long. Seeds from 21 to 34 lines in diameter. Cotyledons oblique or accumbent.

32. O. Schottii, E. 1. c. : articulis clavatis; tuberculis elongatis ; pulvillis pauci-setosis ; aculeis rubellis scaberrimis, interioribus sub-4 cruciatis, superiore triangulato, cæteris supra planis subtus convexis, latioribus ; exterioribus 8-10 radiantibus gracilibus; bacca ovata pulvillos 35 – 40 pauci-setosos gerente ; seminibus rostratis.

On the arid hills near the mouth of the San Pedro and Pecos, Western Texas. — Distinguished by the broad and very rough spines, which are dirty red, the larger ones with a white margin, and by the smaller number of bristles both on the pulvilli of the joints and of the fruit, where they are mostly turned upwards. Joints 2 inches long; tubercles 8-9 lines long; spines 11 -2 inches long; the radiating ones only 4-9 lines long. Seeds 2 lines in diameter. Cotyledons oblique.

Dr. Gregg has collected a similar plant near San Luis Potosi ; which at present I know not how to distinguish from 0. Schottii. The spines are stout, perhaps less rough, and narrower, 12 - 15 in number; some of them borne on the upper margin of the pulvillus, which I have never seen in O. Schottii. Tubercles an inch long.

33. O. GRAHAMI, E. 1. c.: radicibus fusiformibus; articulis clavatis; tuberculis oblongis ; foliis ovatis cuspidatis; setis demum pluri. mis ; aculeis gracilibus rubellis, interioribus 4-7 teretiusculis angulatisve, exterioribus 4-6 brevibus; bacca pulvillos sub-30 setosissimos gerente ; seminibus erostratis.

Sandy bottoms of the Rio Grande near El Paso : Al. June. — Joints 11 - 2 inches long; tubercles 6 – 7 lines long; leaves thicker and in proportion shorter than in most other species, nearly 2 lines long. Fruit similar to that of 0. clavata. Seed 2 lines in diameter or more. Cotyledons regularly incumbent.

34. O. BULBISPINA, E. I. c.: radicibus fusiformibus ; articulis parvis ovatis sæpe ex apice proliferis fragilibus ; tuberculis ovatis brevibus ; pulvillis parce setosis ; aculeis teretiusculis scabrellis basi bul. bosis, interioribus 4 cruciatis, inferiore longiore, exterioribus 8 - 12 radiantibus.

Saltillo, Mexico. - Spreading masses with joints an inch long or less ; tubercles 4-6 lines long; interior spines 4-6, exterior ones 11 - 3 lines long. Apparently near the South American 0. pusilla, Salm., and perhaps belonging to the Opuntiæ glomeratæ, rather than here. Fruit unknown.

$ 2. Cylindrica : adscendentes vel erectæ : articuli longiores, ovato

cylindrici seu elongati: textura lignosa compacta, tubum reticulatum vel truncum compactum formans : flores magni seu parvi, purpurei vel raro flavi: bacca sicca vel subcarnosa, floris rudimenta

plerumque dejiciens, aculeata seu inermis. Polyacanthe : lignum plerumque reticulato-tubulosum; articuli

crassiores distincte tuberculati : aculei plures seu plurimi : flores

plerumque rubri: semina immarginata. Humiliores : diffuse ramosæ : articuli subclavati: flores plerumque

flavidi: baccæ siccæ, aculeatæ.

35. O. Davisii, E. & B. in P. R. Rep. : caule dense lignoso ramosissimo divaricato; articulis junioribus erectis elongatis basi attenuatis ; tuberculis oblongo-linearibus ; aculeis interioribus 4-7 subtriangularibus rufis vagina straminea laxa indusiatis divergentibus ; aculeis inferioribus 5 - 6 gracilibus ; bacca ovata pulvillis sub-25 aculeigeris stipata.

On the Llano Estacado, near the Upper Canadian River; common. - Spreading and somewhat procumbent, about 18 inches high ; the only one in this section with dense wood. Joints 4-6 inches long, rather slender; tubercles 7 - 8 lines long; interior spines 1 - 11 inches in length; lower ones 3-6 lines long. Fruits (all sterile, and perhaps not properly developed) an inch or more in length.

36. O. ECHINOCARPA, E. & B. I. c. : erectiuscula ; ramis numero. sis patentissimis ; articulis ovatis basi clavatis ; tuberculis ovatis confertis ; aculeis majoribus sub-4 albidis stramineo-vaginatis, 8- 16 minoribus undique radiantibus; flore flavo (?); bacca globosa depressa seu hemisphærica late profundeque umbilicata pulvillis sub-40 aculeatissimis stipata ; seminibus late commissuratis.

Var. B. MAJOR : elatior; articulis elongatis ; aculeis longioribus laxius vaginatis paucioribus; baccis globosis pulvillos pauciores (25) gerentibus.

In the valley of the Lower Colorado; B. in Sonora. — Var. a. is a VOL. III.

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