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or without smaller ones, which never occurs in any form of 0. Missouriensis, where a large number of small setaceous spines is found, whether larger ones are present or not. Fruit 9 lines in diameter, with a small flat umbilicus. Seeds 24 lines in diameter.

* * Articuli tumidi ovati. 25. O. ERINACEA, E. & B. I. c. : adscendens ; articulis ovatis seu teretiusculis ; pulvillis confertissimis omnibus armatis ; aculeis 5 – 10 gracilibus rubellis, 3 – 5 elongatis ; bacca ovata aculeolata ; seminibus magnis subregularibus.

Near the Mojave, between the Colorado and the Californian moun. tains. — Joints 2-24 inches long, 1 - 1} broad, and 1- thick, sometimes almost cylindrical, densely covered with large white pulvilli, which are only 2-3 lines apart. Spines 6 – 14 or even 20 lines long, slender but stiff. Fruit an inch or more in length. Seeds nearly 3 lines in diameter.

26. O. ARENARIA, E. in B. C. R. : adscendens; articulis obovatis compressis seu teretiusculis tuberculatis; foliis minutis ; pulvillis subconfertis pallide setosis ; aculeis 1-4 robustioribus albidis fuscatisve, cum inferioribus brevioribus 2 - 6 albis; floris sulphurei ovario obovato; petalis emarginatis; stigmatibus 5; bacca oblonga spinulosa; umbilico infundibuliformi ; seminibus magnis irregularibus.

Sandy bottoms of the Rio Grande near El Paso : fl. May. – Spreading 2-3 feet, 1 - 1 foot high ; roots stout, creeping horizontally ; joints 1} - 3 inches long, 1-2 inches wide, and · - thick, more strongly tuberculated than the allied species ; leaves only a line long; pulvilli 3 – 5 lines apart, very bristly, especially on the old joints ; upper spines 9 - 15 lines long. Flower 2 - 24 inches in diameter. Fruit about an inch long. Seeds 21 - 3 lines in diameter. This is the only one of our Cactaceæ on which the Cochenille has been found.

27. O. Fragilis, Haw. (Cactus fragilis, Nutt.): subdecumbens ; articulis parvis ovatis subcompressis tumidis vel subglobosis vix tu. berculatis nitide viridibus ; foliis minutis ; pulvillis subconfertis magnis albo-tomentosis, vix setulosis; aculeorum 1 – 4 robustiorum summo valido angulato fuscato porrecto, ceteris debilioribus pallidioribus patulis seu radiantibus; aculeis inferioribus 2 -6 gracilibus albis radi. antibus ; floribus minoribus; bacca ovata vix spinulosa, umbilico infundibuliformi; seminibus paucis magnis subregularibus.

Fertile prairies, or sterile places, on the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone, to the mountains and south to Santa Fé. — Size and shape of the joints variable ; fruit-bearing joints compressed, l1 - 2 inches long, 1- 11 wide, and 1- thick ; others smaller and more tumid. Leaves a line long, hardly longer than the large pulvilli, red. Pulvilli 4-6 lines apart, bristles very few, short, whitish, on the old joints a little more numerous, coarser, dirty yellow. Lower radiating spines 2-4 lines long; central spines 6 – 10 lines long, the other interior spines 3–8 lines long, often similar to the smaller lower spines. Fruit rather fleshy through the winter, getting dry in spring, nearly an inch long, with 20 – 25 pulvilli, of which only the upper ones bear a few short spines. Seeds few, usually only 5 or 6 in each fruit, 3 lines in diameter, with a wide and thick obtuse corky margin. — Often sterile, but abundantly propagated by the fragile joints.

28. O. BRACHYARTHRA, E. & B. I. c. : adscendens ; articulis ovatis orbiculatisve tumidis sæpe subglobosis tuberculatis; pulvillis confertis parce setulosis; aculeis 3 – 5 validioribus 1 - 2 fuscatis patulis vel suberectis, cæteris deflexis ; floris parvi ovario subgloboso pulvillos 12 - 15 vix aculeolatos gerente; stigmatibus 5.

Inscription Rock near Zuni. — The short and tumid joints (10 – 15 lines long) resemble the joints of a finger; the pulvilli 2 - 4 lines apart, even in the oldest parts of the plant with very few bristles ; longer spines 9 – 12 lines long, terete. Ovary less than half an inch long. Flower apparently an inch in diameter. — Perhaps too near 0. fragilis ; but in the absence of good flowers and fruit, it is impossible to say whether it does not belong to even a different section, perhaps to the Glomerata, Salm.

Subgen. 3. CYLINDROPUNTIA, E. in B. C. R. Articuli cylindracei : flores magni vel parvi: bacca plerumque sicca : semina immarginata seu vix marginata : embryo circa albumen copiosius subcircularis ; cotyledones contrariæ seu obliquæ, subinde parallelæ.

$ 1. Clavatæ : prostratæ : articuli breves, clavati, adscendentes, tex

tura lignosa laxe reticulata : flores flavi majusculi : bacca sicca, pulvillis numerosis setosissimis stipata, foris rudimentis persistentibus coronata.

29. O. CLAVATA, E. in Wisl. Rep.: articulis breviter clavatis læte viridibus ; tuberculis ovatis ; foliis subulatis minutis; aculeis albidis scabrellis, interioribus 4-7 complanatis, inferioribus deflexis latioribus supra striatis subtus carinatis, superiore triangulato erecto; aculeis exterioribus 8 – 10 gracilioribus undique radiantibus; baccæ pulvillis setosissimis; seminibus rostratis.

Santa Fé and Albuquerque, on the plateaux : fl. in June and July. - Dense spreading masses, with joints 11 -2 inches long; tubercles 6-8 lines long; larger spines 6 – 15 lines long, and the broadest one

- 14 lines wide. Flower 2 inches in diameter. Fruit yellow, 11 if inches long, an inch in diameter, covered with 30 – 50 large pulvilli. Seed 21 - 3 lines in the longest diameter. Cotyledons mostly oblique, or, as in most other Opuntia, incumbent. (The expression is not etymologically correct, but I use it to designate the direction of the face of the cotyledons towards the radicle.)

30. O. Parryi, E. in Sillim. Journ. 1852: prostrata ; articulis ova. tis basi clavatis ; tuberculis oblongo-elongatis; setis paucis ; aculeis angulatis scabris rubellis demum cinereis, interioribus sub-4 validi. oribus compressis, exterioribus 4-8 divergentibus, extimis 6 - 10 gracilibus radiantibus; bacca ovata pulvillis sub-40 setosissimis stipata ; seminibus erostratis.

On the Mojave, west of the great Colorado. — Joints 21-3 or 4 inches long, attenuated below and somewhat so above; tubercles 9 lines long; inner spines 12- 16 lines long, and the larger ones somewhat flattened, but less than a line wide ; exterior spines 3-8 lines long, in two series. Fruit 1} inches long. Seeds about 2 lines in diameter. — The original specimens of Dr. Parry were found farther south, near San Felipe. He describes the joints as 4 - 8 inches long, with shorter whitish spines or tubercles 6 – 12 lines long, and the flower as greenish-yellow. The Mojave plant is nearly allied to the last species, but may be distinguished by the shape of the joints, the narrower, darker-colored, more numerous spines, and the smaller and more regular seeds. "

31. O. EMORYI, E. in B. C. R. : articulis cylindricis basi clavatis glaucis; tuberculis oblongo-linearibus elongatis ; setis paucis; aculeis plurimis rufis, interioribus 5 - 9 validioribus triangulatis, compressis, exterioribus 10–20 pluriseriatis undique radiantibus ; foribus flavis extus rubellis ; bacca pulvillos 35 - 50 setosissimos inferiores aculeolatos gerentibus ; seminibus valde inæqualibus irregularibus.

Arid soil, from El Paso through Sonora to the desert of the Colorado : fl. August and September. — The stoutest species of this section. Joints 4-6 inches long, curved, 1 - 14 inches in diameter; tubercles 1 - 11 inches long; longest spines 11 - 24 inches long, 1-1 line wide; the exterior spines gradually smaller, and less angular. Fruit 2 - 24 inches long, partly armed with spines 4-8 lines long. Seeds from 21 to 34 lines in diameter. Cotyledons oblique or accumbent.

32. O. SchottII, E. I. c.: articulis clavatis ; tuberculis elongatis; pulvillis pauci-setosis ; aculeis rubellis scaberrimis, interioribus sub-4 cruciatis, superiore triangulato, cæteris supra planis subtus convexis, latioribus ; exterioribus 8-10 radiantibus gracilibus; bacca ovata pulvillos 35 – 40 pauci-setosos gerente ; seminibus rostratis.

On the arid hills near the mouth of the San Pedro and Pecos, Western Texas. — Distinguished by the broad and very rough spines, which are dirty red, the larger ones with a white margin, and by the smaller number of bristles both on the pulvilli of the joints and of the fruit, where they are mostly turned upwards. Joints 2 inches long; tubercles 8-9 lines long; spines 11 -2 inches long; the radiating ones only 4-9 lines long. Seeds 2 lines in diameter. Cotyledons oblique.

Dr. Gregg has collected a similar plant near San Luis Potosi ; which at present I know not how to distinguish from 0. Schottii. The spines are stout, perhaps less rough, and narrower, 12 – 15 in number; some of them borne on the upper margin of the pulvillus, which I have never seen in O. Schottii. Tubercles an inch long.

33. O. GRAHAMI, E. I. c.: radicibus fusiformibus; articulis clavatis ; tuberculis oblongis ; foliis ovatis cuspidatis; setis demum plurimis ; aculeis gracilibus rubellis, interioribus 4-7 teretiusculis angulatisve, exterioribus 4-6 brevibus; bacca pulvillos sub-30 setosissimos gerente ; seminibus erostratis.

Sandy bottoms of the Rio Grande near El Paso : Al. June. — Joints 11 - 2 inches long; tubercles 6 – 7 lines long ; leaves thicker and in proportion shorter than in most other species, nearly 2 lines long. Fruit similar to that of O. clavata. Seed 24 lines in diameter or more. Cotyledons regularly incumbent.

34. O. BULBISPINA, E. I. c.: radicibus fusiformibus ; articulis parvis ovatis sæpe ex apice proliferis fragilibus ; tuberculis ovatis brevi. bus ; pulvillis parce setosis ; aculeis teretiusculis scabrellis basi bul. bosis, interioribus 4 cruciatis, inferiore longiore, exterioribus 8-12 radiantibus.

Saltillo, Mexico. — Spreading masses with joints an inch long or less ; tubercles 4-6 lines long; interior spines 4-6, exterior ones 11 - 3 lines long. Apparently near the South American 0. pusilla, Salm., and perhaps belonging to the Opuntiæ glomerate, rather than here. Fruit unknown.

§ 2. Cylindrica : adscendentes vel erectæ : articuli longiores, ovato

cylindrici seu elongati : textura lignosa compacta, tubum reticula. tum vel truncum compactum formans: flores magni seu parvi, purpurei vel raro flavi: bacca sicca vel subcarnosa, floris rudimenta

plerumque dejiciens, aculeata seu inermis. * Polyacanthæ : lignum plerumque reticulato-tubulosum; articuli

crassiores distincte tuberculati : aculei plures seu plurimi : flores

plerumque rubri: semina immarginata. Humiliores : diffuse ramosæ : articuli subclavati : flores plerumque

flavidi: baccæ siccæ, aculeatæ.

35. O. Davisii, E. & B. in P. R. Rep. : caule dense lignoso ramo. sissimo divaricato; articulis junioribus erectis elongatis basi attenuatis; tuberculis oblongo-linearibus ; aculeis interioribus 4-7 subtriangularibus rufis vagina straminea laxa indusiatis divergentibus ; aculeis inferioribus 5 - 6 gracilibus ; bacca ovata pulvillis sub-25 aculeigeris stipata.

On the Llano Estacado, near the Upper Canadian River; common. - Spreading and somewhat procumbent, about 18 inches high ; the only one in this section with dense wood. Joints 4-6 inches long, rather slender; tubercles 7 - 8 lines long; interior spines 1 - 1} inches in length; lower ones 3-6 lines long. Fruits (all sterile, and perhaps not properly developed) an inch or more in length.

36. O. ECHINOCARPA, E. & B. I. c. : erectiuscula ; ramis numerosis patentissimis ; articulis ovatis basi clavatis ; tuberculis ovatis confertis ; aculeis majoribus sub-4 albidis stramineo-vaginatis, 8 – 16 mi. noribus undique radiantibus ; flore flavo (?); bacca globosa depressa seu hemisphærica late profundeque umbilicata pulvillis sub-40 aculea. tissimis stipata ; seminibus late commissuratis.

Var. B. MAJOR : elatior ; articulis elongatis ; aculeis longioribus laxius vaginatis paucioribus; baccis globosis pulvillos pauciores (25) gerentibus.

In the valley of the Lower Colorado; B. in Sonora. -- Var, a. is a VOL. III.

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