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he trusts that hereafter this act of courtesy will not be omitted by four valuable journals in circulation, and in successful operation in such other societies as may successively be formed in this state. this state. From their reports, the numbers of their subscribers have Since our meeting in February, 1833, societies have organized, as materially increased within the last year, and it argues well for the far as I have been informed, in the following counties: Columbia, public taste that political papers occasionally publish useful agricul. Albany, Rensselaer and New-York; and a re-organization has like- tural essays in their columns, as it clearly indicates a growing dewise been effected in Saratoga. No doubt there have been socie- sire in their readers, who are generally farmers, for information upties organized in other and more distant parts of the state, but in on their particular pursuit. The last year has been peculiarly auwhat particular counties I am unable to say, as in several of the spicious on this subject. In every part of the state the calls for the western counties, agricultural societies, I perceive by the papers, are publication of agricultural articles have been numerous, and cheerin a course of successful experiment. Most of these have had their fully responded to, and the State Agricultural Society now makes exhibitions in the course of the last autumn, and I have not heard of its particular acknowledgments to editors of newspapers in every a dissenting voice to the beneficial effects which have followed these county in this state, for giving publicity to such communications as first trials of agricultural skill and improvement. On the contra- they have done themselves the honor to furnish them. We trust ry, as far as public opinion could be gathered from the papers which the editors of our state will continue to keep open their columns to have announced these meetings, they have spoken in warm com- all that tends to the improvement of agriculture, inasmuch as by inendation of the good effects which have already been experienced, their general circulation in all classes of our citizens, they diffuse and in anticipation that greater will follow. For myself, I attended most extensively whatever information they contain. a few of these exhibitions in neighboring counties and in my own, In conformity with a resolution of this society, Ambrose Spencer, and in all instances was both gratified and amply rewarded for the Horatio Hickok and Jesse Buel were appointed a committee to retime and money so spent. These exhibitions will annually become port a memorial to the legislature, praying that legislative provimore useful as well as interesting, for as the respective societies in-sion be made for a State Agricultural School. In conformity with crease their members, and have time to improve their internal or- the above resolution, a petition was prepared and presented to both ganization, the subjects for premium will be more varied and better senate and assembly, in February, 1833. In both branches reports selected, the articles exhibited of better quality and in larger quan- | favorable to the object solicited were made, and I must refer the tity. New fields of investigation will be opened, and the old ones society to the report of Mr. Sudam of the senate, and Gen. Skinner more thoroughly and satisfactorily explored. The business, too, at of the assembly, in which the advantages that would result from the their annual meetings will be more systematically conducted, and establishment of such an institution are both ably and eloquently every thing connected with them assume a due course of improve- pourtrayed. In neither branch of the legislature were these reports ment, so that they will command public approbation, and make ad- acted upon. It was thought most judicious at first to inform the vocates of those who are now unbelievers or neutrals. Besides the public of the object contemplated, and the purpose it was to answer, opportunity that is thus afforded by the meeting of these county so-trusting that as the public mind became enlightened, it would percieties for the exhibition of the best and varied kinds of stock, and ceive the necessity of the institution thus sought, the great benefits all the available fruits of husbandry—and excited as their owners that would follow from it, and that if it met with a general apnaturally will be by a laudable spirit of competition, which is still proval, the public voice would at the proper time call for it. The further increased by the hope of obtaining the badge of superiority call has been made : petitions from many counties in the state have -a premium-advantages of themselves sufficient to compensate this year been presented to the house ; public bodies have given the for the little time and money they cost in our attendance upon them, project their sanction. The extremes of the state, from Long-Island farmers appear not to be aware of the great influence a well orga-|| io St. Lawrence and Erie, have united with the centre in a voice of nized and conducted society will have upon the per acre price of approval, and the more the subject is canvassed, the more deep and their farms. To say it would be ten dollars per acre, after a few abiding is the impression of the great benefits that will flow from the years of its existence, and its effects have been a little tested by establishment of an agricultural school. In due time we trust our time, would be surely saying little enough of what will hereafter behopes will be consummated. apparent. It must be obvious that when all of intellect in a whole There has also been a general wish expressed within the last year, community is brought to bear upon a single subject, with the zeal throughout every part of the state, for legislative aid to enable the it naturally engenders, the new lights it constantly elicits, the improve county agricultural societies to offer and pay premiums for articles ments that must necessarily follow steps which all lead directly to thought worthy of them. The object is extremely laudable in itself, the adoption of a better system, husbandry with these aids, will as- and as the premiums are among the aliments essential to the exissume new forms and be rendered far more lucrative and attractive.tence of such societies, we trust the boon will not be denied. A reCan it be otherwise then that our farms will be made more valuable, solution was likewise passed at the meeting of the State Agricultuour pursuits more pleasant, our houses more comfortable, and our ral Society, in 1833, that annual fairs be held at New-York and Almeans more abundant? This concert of action will have the same bany, and that the first attempt be made in the then ensuing autumn. effect in leading to important results that military combination and|A correspondence was opened wilh the municipal officers of each of skill have over the uncombined and ill directed efforts of a disjointed these cities to give effect to the resolution of the society. By an but populous coinmunity. History teaches us that the united efforts unavoidable delay, it could not be carried into effect in New York, of a few hundred have overcome thousands not so trained and con. but it was in Albany. A fair was held under the auspices of this nected. Let us avail ourselves of this lesson from history as applied socicty at the latter place, which, although it was the first, fully met to our particular pursuit, and by united effort, if it is guided by in- | public expectation. It was visited by gentlemen from almost every telligence, nur state will become as eminent for the successful culti-portion of our state, by many from the eastern states, and those vation of her soil, as she now is for the elevation which she has at-that were most competent to form an opinion of its merits, from havtained in her career of internal improvement. Providence has been ing attended similar displays elsewhere, declared, that in the varie. bountiful to us, not only in our location, in giving us a healthy cli-ty, excellence and value of the stock, particularly the cattle exhibitmate, a fertile soil
, streams to float away our produce to the best|ed, the fair at Albany was most abundantly successful. markets, and strength of body to encounter the fatigues incident to From the foregoing imperfect survey of the operations of this sothe improvement of these great advantages.--but, has the mind ciety for the last year, we have every inducement to persevere. We heretofore borne her share with the toils of the body? My observa- | ought to be gratified at the success that has thus far crowned our tion tells me not. Let us henceforward call her into active requisi-efforts. We see hundreds of intelligent men springing up in every tion, to aid the operations of our hands, and their joint labors will section of our state, willing to aid and share in our labors—the whole make our pursuits not only more pleasant, but infinitely more profit-|| community alive and awake to the subject of farther improvement, able. But whạt can concentration of effort effect without we have and each individual member of it solicitous to perform his part in this the aid of agricultural journals to inform the public mind? The an-general march of mind for the attainment of these great objects. swer must be-nothing. We have, however, these invaluable re. It is only for the society to give a proper direction to these efforts, sources, and thanks to the intelligence of our community, they are and make them subservient to the advancement of agricultural in. daily becoming more numerous, interesting and instructive. It is dustry and prosperity, and her benefits will be felt and acknowledged but a few years since the first of these was established, and then it throughout every portion of our state. was more in the nature of an experiment. That day has gone by;
J. P. BEEKMAN, Cor. Sec. N. Y. Ag. Society. the experiment, after years of trial, was successful, and we have now Kinderhook, March 5, 1834.
sugar cane, having a peculiarly grateful flavor. The vinegar, As the season for its manufacture is at hand, we venture to offer though excellent for ordinary use, is not so weli adapted for pickles some suggestions upon the subject, having been somewhat of a su as that made from cider. gar boiler in our younger days.
Claying or whitening the sugar.-To promote the molasses pass. The first care should be to preserve the trees. It is not safe in ing more freely from the sugar, when draining in the moulds or tubs, primitive woods, to cut away all the other timber, and to leave only and to improve its color, in two or three days after the moulds or the maples standing. In this way they are robbed of their protec- tubs are unstopped at the bottom, mix white clay with water so as tion, and are very liable to be prostrated by the wind. But trees to reduce it to a thin mortar ; with this cover the top of the sugar growing in open situations adapt their forms to withstand the winds ; one inch and a half thick : when the covering appears dry, remove and hence those which are termed second growth ought to be care- it, and supply the place with a fresh covering about two inches thick. fully preserved. Trees are often destroyed, in a few years, by in. This process may reduce the sugar one-fifth, but will add correjudicious tapping. We have seen them half girdled in a season, in spondingly to the molasses. order to increase the sap. The consequence is, that the wounds do not heal; the water lodges in the boxes and rots the wood; and the plement which every farmer, with trifling aid from the smith, may
The Roller is in many ways serviceable on a farm, and it is an im. tree dies, or is broken off by the wind. A chissel and mallet areShift to make for himself. It may consist of a log of two or three better than the axe to tap with, and a screw auger, two to five quar- feet in diameter, and eight or ten feet long, nicely smoothed on the ters in diameter, according to the size of the tree, is better than outside, with gudgeons in the centres of the ends, a frame, and either-as the wound then soon closes, and little or no injury is inflicted on the tree. One or two holes may be bored on the south, tongue and shafts to draw and guide it by. After sowing small and the like on the north side of the tree, if the size will warrant down the clods, smooths the surface, and presses the earth to the
grasses, the roller should follow the harrow. It breaks it. The holes at first should not exceed three-quarters of an inch, seed, and thereby causes more of it to vegetate and grow than otherand the slope upwards should be so much that the sap will run free-wise would; for if the earth does not come in close contact with the ly in frosty weather, and not, by a slow motion, be liable to freeze seed, it remains dry, and is lost. In the spring, as soon as the fields in the mouth of the orifice. When the flow of sap begins to slacken, the holes may be increased to the depth of two and a half inches, are dry and firm enough to resist the feet of the cattle, the roller is or the depth of the sap or whitewood, and with an auger a quarter the surface of tilled ground is crusted, and generally checked with
very beneficially applied to meadows and winter grain. At this time larger than was first used. The spout should not enter the hole small fissures, which expose the collar (the part which connects the more than half an inch; as the farther it enters, the more the running roots and leaves,) and
roots to the drying influence of the sun and sap is obstructed. In ordinary seasons, the best time for making winds. The roller breaks and pulverizes the crust, and renders fhe maple sugar, is the last twelve days in March and the first twelve soil more pervious to heat, and closes the fissures. It is also serdays in April
. It must freeze at night and thaw in the day to con-viceable in partially covering the crowns of the plants, which industitute good sap weather. A west wind is most favorable.
The next object is, to preserve the sap clean, and to do this, it is ces them to send out new roots and to send up more seed stalks. necessary to have clean vessels for its reception. The old way was
This effect is particularly noticeable in barley, when the roller is to use troughs roughly cut from timber previously split through the passed over it, after it has become three or four inches high. If centre. These answered tolerably well the first year. But being harrow.
winter grain is harrowed in the spring, the roller may follow the suffered to remain under the trees, they were often found when wanted the next year, filled with leaves, ice and filth, which unavoidably
In rolling grass lands it is necessary to attend in a particular manmingled with the sap. The best vessels for this purpose are wood-surface is either in a too dry or too wet a condition: if too wet, the
ner to the season, as it cannot be performed to advantage when the en buckets, made broader at the top than at bottom, that
they may ground will become poached by the cattle's hoofs ; and if too dry, be packed away in nests under cover, when the sugar season is over, the roller will make little impression in levelling the surface; and it and thus preserved clean. We have seen them sold at $8 per hun.is generally necessary, if the roller be of wood, to add to its weight dred. They will last many years. It is found beneficial to put into each half barrel of sap, a spoon it for that purpose.
for grass grounds, by placing stones in the box, which is attached to ful of slaked lime. This causes the impurities to rise better when boiling, which should be carefully skimmed off. The sap should be Polatoes.--The object of farmers generally is, to plant those vaboiled before fermentation commences, which will happen, as the rieties which will give the greatest yield, without regard to flavor or weather becomes warm, the second or third day. The greater the nutritious properties. This is wrong. Potatoes differ one-half in exposure of the surface to the atmosphere, when boiling, the great-| the nourishment they afford to domestic animals, as well as to man; er will be the evaporation. When the sap has been reduced to sy- and the eating of a good thing, may be as grateful to the brute as rup, it should be stramed through a woollen or hair cloth, and then to the man. It has been ascertained by chemical tests, that one stand a few hours to settle; after which it should be turned careful-hundred parts of a good potato contain twenty-eight per cent, or ly off from the sediment which has settled at the bottom. In boiling twenty-eight parts, of nutritious matter, and that one hundred down, charcoal is the best fuel to use; for although the heat should parts of some poor varieties contain not more than fourteen parts be pretty brisk, it should be equable, and be confined to the bottom of nutritious matter. The man or the brute, therefore, that eats of the kettle. The clarifying materials should be added at the com- 100 lbs. of poor potatoes, swallows 86 lbs. of water and ligneous mencement of this process. These' are generally milk, eggs, or matter which does not contribute in the least to nourish the body, what is better, calves' blood. The scum which rises should be care- nor to promote health. If the crop is to be consumed in the famifully taken off. The impurities attach to these mucilaginous mately, or on the farm, there is a propriety, on the score of economy, in rials, and are carried with them to the surface.
selecting good sorts, though these do not yield more than half as When the syrup is sufficiently reduced, and taken from the fire, it many bushels as the poor sorts do. But the difference in product, should be stirred well for some time, in order to give it grain. This seldom, if cver, exceeds a quarter. For market, the difference beis effected by bringing every part of the mass in contact with the tween good and bad potatoes is, or ought to be, a quarter ; and it atmosphere ; for if turned into moulds immediately, and not stirred, will be, when the buyer knows how to appreciate and to distinguish it will not be grained, but resemble candy rather than sugar. If in the difference. The best varieties of potatoes now in vogue, are the tended to be caked, it must be turned into moulds before cold. Un- kidneys, or foxites, the pink-eyes, the Mercers, and the Sault St. der the best process there will be a portion which will not granulate, Marie. on account of the vegetable inucilage which it contains, but which The potato requires, with us, a rich, moist and cool soil; that part will drain off if the cask in which the sugar is deposited has holes at at least in which the tubers form to be loose, that the stolens may its bottom through which it can pass. To prevent the sap or syrup | penetrate, and the potatoes swell, without much obstruction. Å rising, a piece of fat may be thrown in, or the inner rim of the ket-clover ley, and long manure, are particularly beneficial to the crop. tle rubbed with a piece of fat pork.
They should not be planted so close that the tops shall exclude the Molasses and vinegar are generally made from the last runnings, sun from the soil. Three feet in drills, or two and a half in hills, is as the sap is then less adapted for sugar, abounding more in muci- near enough for ordinary varieties. Nor is it beneficial to earth lage as the buds of the tree swell and being more liable to ferment. them after the tubers have began to form, as this removes the roots The molasses, when properly clarified, is superior to that from thell too far from the surface, and causes a new set of stolens to issue.
Stolens are the roots on which the potatoes form, and are distinct Chemistry in the Kitchen.- Why is it necessary to mix lime with from those which penetrate deep, and supply food to the plant. ashes in soap making ? The answer to this question will explain the But all weeds should be carefully destroyed; as one of these if suf- || reason why the process often fails, and suggest a remedy for the fered to ripen its seed; takes as much nourishment and moisture from evil. Common soap is a compound chemically united, of alkali, or ley the ground as a stem of the potatoes. This crop should not be from potash, and grease, fat or tallow. The alkali is naturally complanted twice on the same ground in succession, as the second year|bined with carbonic acid, for which it has a stronger affinity than it the product will be greatly diminished.
has for grease; hence while it continues united with the acid, it will
not unite with the grease, and produce soap. But lime having a Grafting is a mode of propagating varieties of fruit of esteemed | stronger affinity for the acid than the alkali has, extracts it from the quality. Grafts may be cut any time after the fall of the leaf in au ley, and the alkali then readily unites with the grease, and forms tumn, and before the buds begin to swell in the spring. They should soap. From this it will be seen, that the lime should be spread over be of the preceeding year's growth, are best from bearing trees and the bottom of the leech tub in order that the ley may filter through exterior limbs. They may be preserved by embedding their larger lit; and also that the lime be fresh burnt, as it then has a greater ends in clay, a potato, or in moist earth, in a cellar in winter, or incapacity for the acid. the open ground, partially or wholly covered, in the spring. Grafts are annually sent across the Atlantic. The great care should be The Swine, in many parts of our state, are of a bad breed, with that they are not kept too warm or too moist, so that the buds swell || long legs and snouts, and sharp back, of a roaming propensity, and before they are wanted for use. The rationale of grafting will sug- slow and expensive to fatten. The method of improving, where a gest the time and the manner in which it should be done. The good breed cannot be readily procured, is pointed out in the direcscion and graft are to be so adjusted that the sap wood of the stock, ||tions for improving farm stock, under the head of the Science of by which the sap ascends from the root, comes in contact with the Agriculture, an article which we particularly recommend to the pesap wood of the scion; and a like adjustment must be observed be- || rusal of our farmers. tween the inner bark of both, through which the sap descends from the graft to the stock after it has been elaborated in the leaves. Hare you planted a Vine ?-If you have planted one that produces Without the first precaution, the sap will not reach the graft, which|good fruit, take care of it, and propagate it by cuttings and layers, will consequently shrivel and die. Without the last, the graft can- and its fruit will richly repay your labor. If you have not, buy or not knit or unite to the stock : for it is the descending sap which beg one, and plant in the present spring. If you buy, it will cost forms the new wood, and which indeed causes the graft to send its you two or three shillings; if you beg one, I don't know how much roots down into the earth, upon the outside of the wood, but under | it will cost you to requite the favor. The second year after plantthe bark of the stock. The union can only take place after the sapling it will produce you fruit, which will every year increase as the has begun to circulate in the stock, which is when the buds are plant enlarges. The fruit will be found to be wholesome and gratebursting. The clay or composition is applied to exclude the drying ||ful, and you will realize the pleasure of sitting under your own vine, influence of the air and sun, and also rain, from the wound until a during the intense heat of summer; and you will wonder that you complete union has taken place. The graft does not become injured have lived so long without enjoying this pleasure. The native kinds by being somewhat shrivelled before it is inserted; but if it appears most worthy of cultivation, are the Isabella, Winne and Catawba, too much so, it may be buried a few hours in moist earth before it is all hardy, thrifty and abundant bearers, and their fruit ripening in used. The compositions used as substitutes for clay are many. A the order in which they are named. If you want foreign fruit, good one is one part tallow, two parts becswax, and four parts rosin, the Sweet-water, Chasselas, black cluster, and other early kinds melted and incorporated like shoemaker's wax. If the weather is are to be preferred. These demand more care than the native cold, this will require to be softened by immersing it a time in warm kinds, and the vines will require a slight covering of earth during water... A thin layer of this, covering the end of the stock, and the the winter. A little experience will make you familiar with their slit, will suffice. With the addition of a little more tallow, the com- || management, and convert the labor required for their care into a position may be spread upon linen or cotton cloth, when warm, and recreation. the cloth cut to the required size for a graft, and applied with less trouble in the form of a prepared plaster. The different processes Rearing Calves.-The following is the general method of rearing of grafting are so generally known that we need not detail them; calves in Britain, and differs not materially from that followed by our object being only to throw out such suggestions as may tend to Bakewell
, the great cattle breeder: render the success of the operation more certain.
“The calves sucked for a week or fortnight, according to their
strength: new milk in a pail was then given a few meals : next new Canada Thistles.-Of all the expedients which we have seen re- milk and skim milk mixed, a few meals more; then skim milk alone, commended to destroy this troublesome and prolific plant, a writer or porridge made with milk, water, ground oats, &c. and sometimes in the Genesee Farmer recommends a mode entitled to a preference ;|oil cake, until cheese making commenced, if it was a dairy farm; afbecause he has, in successive years, found it to be efficient in prac- ter which, whey porridge, or sweet whey, in the field, being careful tice-and because the result is in perfect consonance with the laws to house them in the night, until the warm weather was confirmed. of vegetation. The method is, to plough and plant the field where Bull calves and high bred heifers, however, were suffered to remain they have obtained a footing with corn, and to go over the field at the tile until they were six, nine, or perhaps twelve months old, twice a week, as soon as the thistles appear, and carefully cut every letting them run with their dame, or more frequently less valuable one with a hoe, as far under the suface as practicable. In August, cows or heisers.” says the writer, they began to become thin and scattering, and ap It is to be remarked that they have no Indian meal in Britain. peared of a sickly yellowish hue. The operation was continued This is substituted with us, for oat meal, and even oil-cake. A handtill October. In. September, the roots were found, on examination, ||ful put into skim milk or whey, for calves, improves their condition in a state of decay, and of a blackish color. The whole were de- greatly. stroyed. Leaves are as necessary to the growth and being of a plant as lungs are to an animal. Plants cannot grow without the Massachusetts Premium Crops.-Among the premiums recently agency of leaves; for it is in these that the food of the vegetable is awarded by the Massachusetts Agricultural Society, were the fol. elaborated and fitted for its wants. Trees are often killed by ca. ||lowing : terpillars that destroy the leaves, when the sap is in free circulation, To E. H. Derby, of Salem, for the best crop of turnips. Product and the plant most in need of their active offices. The ascending on two acres one quarter and seven poles, 1,730} bushels. Seed sap becomes stagnant, ferments, and destroys the vitality of the sown with drill barrow. plant. Thus with the thistles, by constantly destroying the leaves, To Payson Williams, of Fitchburgh, for spring wheat, on one acre. before they elaborate the food collected by the roots, although very Product 55 bushels thrée pecks. Seed sown, 24 bushels. Variety tenacious of life, the roots die for want of nourishment. Where from Black Sea. the thistles are confined to a small patch, a pile of manure left To William Carter of Fitchburgh, for potatoes. Product 677 on them a few weeks will effectually destroy them, as will any || bushels on an acre, Seed 55 bushels, long reds and blues. other covering which excludes the light and air wholly from the To the same, for barley. Product on one acre, 55 bushels. Seed leaves.
(5 bushels, of the two rowed kind.
Memorandum.-February 20. No snow. Thermometer 55 de- || and thrown into commons as not worth enclosing. I lately received grees in shade. Blue birds appear. Sowed spring wheat and gar- a letter from a young gentleman in the former state, soliciting my den peas.
advice as to the means best adapted to restore fertility to two worn Plaster. It is a practice with some farmers, and we venture to he stated, would no longer produce clover. "It is much easier to
out farms, which had recently come into his possession, and which recommend it to all, to sow plaster of Paris on their grass grounds prevent sterility than to cure it, on the same principle that it is eaîn March.
sier to keep a cow in flesh when she is so than to restore her to flesh To destroy the Weevil in grain.-Soak linen cloths in water, wring after she has become wretchedly lean. In some soils, to which nathem, and cover your grain with them: in two hours time you wiii ture has been uncommonly bountiful in imparting the means of ferfind all the weevils upon the cloth, which must be carefully gather-tility, as in many of our river alluvions, the deterioration is slow and ed off, that none of the insects may escape, and then immersed in imperceptible; yet it nevertheless goes on even there. But in or. water to destroy them.-Dom. Ency.
dinary, and particularly in the lighter soils, the profits of husbandry depend, in an eminent degree, upon the faithful application of all the
manure which a farm can be made to produce. ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT,
In regard to the question,-in what condition are manures most Delivered before the New York State Agricultural Society, al the An-economically applied ?-1 am sensible that a difference of opinion nual Meeting, February 12, 1834.
exists, many contending, even on philosophical grounds, that it is We have associated, gentlemen, to increase the pleasures and most wise to apply them after they have undergone fermentation. profits of rural labor—to enlarge the sphere of useful knowledge
If the question was merely, whether a load of fermented or unferand, by concentrating our energies, to give to them greater effect |mented dung is of the greatest intrinsic value, in ordinary cases the in advancing the public good. In no country does the agricultural | former would be entitled to the preference, because it contains the bear so great a proportion to the whole population as in this. In greatest quantity of vegetable food. But the correct way to state England, one-third of the inhabitants only are employed in husband the question would be this: Will five loads of rotted manure impart ry; In France, two-thirds ; in Italy, a litile more than three-fourths* greater fertility than len loads that are unrotted? The numbers -while, in the United States, the agricultural portion probably ex- ought rather to be five and fifteen--for I think common dung suffers ceeds five-sixths. And in no country does the agricultural popula
a dimunition of two-thirds, instead of one half, in volume, by a thotion
exercise such a controlling political power, contribute so much rough process of rotting.* It will assist in determining the question, to the wealth, or tend so strongly to give an impress to the charac- if we ascertain what the manure parts with during fermentation, for ter of a nation, as in the United States. Hence it may be truly this lost matter would, if buried in the soil
, have afforded food to the
it evidently loses much in weight as well as in bulk, and whether said of us, that our agriculture is our nursing mother, which nurtures, crop. For if it possessed no fertilizing property, the sooner it is got be regarded as the great wheel which moves all the machinery of field. But if it really consists of prepared or digested food, fitted society, and that whatever gives to this a new impulse or energy; for the organs and wants of plants, it is truly improvident to have it communicates a corresponding impetus to the thousand minor wheels of interest which it propels and regulates. Knowing no party, and wasted and lost for all useful purposes. The latter is really the confined to no sect, its benefits and its blessings, like the dews of case.t. The matter which, escapes in fermentation is vegetable Heaven, fall upon all. Identified, then, as agriculture is, with the matter in a gaseous form, fitted by natural process, like chyle in the interests of every department in society, it becomes our profession, animal stomach, to enter into and become a constituent in a new in particular, to endeavor to enlighten its labors, to remedy its de generation of plants. It is principally carbonic acid gas, the alifects, and to accelerate its improvement.
ment of vegetables and the true staff of vegetable life. It has been of the multitude of objects which present themselves as worthy out resorting to chemical proofs or authorities to prove this, I will
vegetable matter, and will become vegetable matter again. Withof our consideration, I can only embrace a few of the most promi. nent ones in the subject matter of this address. I shall particularly suggest a mode by which the matter can be satisfactorily settled. invite your attention to
Let any farmer, in the spring, before yard manure ferments, put The economy and application of manures;
twenty-five loads in a pile to rot, and take another twenty-five loads The improvement of farm implements and machines;
to the field where he intends to plant his corn, spread it upon one The advantages of draining;
acre, plough it well under, harrow the ground, and plant his seed. The defects which exist in the present mode of managing our hop Let him plant another acre of corn along eide this, without manure. and barley crops ;
As soon as the corn is harvested, carry on and spread the twentyThe division of labor;
five loads of prepared or rotted manure left in the yard, or what reThe introduction of new articles of culture; and
sow both pieTo some illustration of the comparative profits of good and bad ces to wheat. Unless my observation and practice husbandry.
me, he will find the result of the experiment to be this :--the acre Manures.—If we consider that all animal and vegetable substan- dressed with long manure will yield the most wheat, because the ces are susceptible of being converted into manure, or food for farm manure has been less exhausted in the process of summer rotting, crops, and reflect upon the great quantity of these which are wasted and for the reason, that in cultivating the corn, it has become better upon a tarm; and if we add to these considerations the fact, now incorporated with the soil-and it will
, besides, have increased the corn well established by chemical experiment, that yard dung loses a large crop some twenty or thirty bushels, in consequence of the gases upon portion of its fertilizing properties, in the gases which escape, where which the crop here fed and thrived, but which in the yard were dissifermentation is suffered to exhaust its powers upon it in a mass, we
pated by the winds and lost. may be able to appreciate, in some measure, the great defects which
Plants, like animals, require different modifications of food. In exist in our general management of this all-important material.- general, the plants which afford large stocks or roots, as corn, potaManures are a principal source of fertility. They are to our crops
toes, turnips and clover, thrive best on the gases which are given off what hay and forage are to our cattle—the food which is to nourish from dung in the process of fermentation—while those exclusively and perfect their growth. Continual cropping, without manure, as certainly exhausts land of its fertility, as constant draining from a
* During the violent fermentation whieh is necessary for reducing farm-yard
manure to the state in which it is called short muck, not only a large quantity cistern that is never replenished exhausts the water which it con- of fluid, but of gaseous matter is lost; so much so that the dung is reduced tains. The practice of some, who, disregarding one of the soundest one-half or two-thirds in weight, and the principle elastic matter disengaged is rules of farming, continue to crop without manuring, till the soil will carbonic acid, with some ammonia; and both these, if retained by the moisno longer yield a return to pay for the labor, is upon a par with that || ture in the soil, as has been stated before, are capable of becoming a useful
nourishment for plants.--Davy. of the man who undertook to teach his horse to live without food : just as the experiment was about to succeed, the horse died. . Al which are the most valuable and most efficient. Dung which has fermented
+ As soon as dung begins to decompose or rot, it throws off its volatile parta, considerable portion of the lands in Virginia and Maryland, which so as to become a mere soft cohesive mass, has generally lost from one-third to were originally fertile, have in this way been judiciously exhausted, one-half of its most useful constituent elements. It evidently
should be applied as soon as fermentation begins, that it may exert its full action upon the Babbage on the Economy of Machinery.
plant, and lose none of its nutritive powers.--Davý.
cultivated for their seeds, as wheat, barley, &c. are often prejudiced about a mile in a year. Hence, as regards this branch of improveby these volatile parts, which cause a rank growth of straw, without ment, we have much to do ere we can overtake the spirit of the age, improving the seed. Hence the first mentioned crops may be fed on as exemplified in our sister arts. long manure without lessening its value for the second class, pro Many of our farm implements have undergone improvement; yet vided they immediately follow, and hence unfermented manures are there are others which have been either but partially introduced, or most economically applied to hoed crops.
are hardly known, that are calculated to abridge labor and to inDifferent rules should govern in the application of fermented and crease the profits of the farm. There exists a great disparity in the unfermented manures. The latter should be buried at the bottom quality of implements. In ploughs, for instance, there is a differof the furrow with the plough, the former only superficially with the ence which eludes superficial observation, particularly in regard to harrow. The reasons are these-unfermented dung operates me- the force required to propel them that is worth regarding. I have chanically while undergoing fermentation, in rendering the recum- seen this difference, in what have been termed good ploughs, amount bent soil porous and pervious to heat and air the great agents of to nearly fifty per cent, or one-half. The perfection of our implements decomposition and nutrition, and the gaseous or volatile parts being is intimately connected with a correct application of mechanical scispecifically lighter than atmospheric air, ascend,* and supply the ence, a branch of knowledge hitherto too little cultivated among us. wants of the young roots. The next ploughing turns the residue of Mr. Many, the enterprising proprietor of an iron foundry in this city, the dung to the surface, when it benefits on a different principle; has assured me that there are more than two hundred patterns of for fermented manures consist of ponderable substances, which have ploughs now in use in this state. Of this number some may be very a tendency only to descend.
good, but many must be comparatively bad. But what individual is Manures possess a high value in a good farming districts, where able to decide upon their relative merits, or even to become acquaintthe natural fertility of the soil has been impaired by culture. In ed with the different sorts? It would be rendering an important sermost of our large towns, it is bought up at one to two dollars a cord, vice to the state at large, and especially to the farming interests, if a and transported ten or twenty miles by land carriage, and much far-competent board was appointed, comprising men of practical and scither by water. So essential is it considered in Europe to profitable entific knowledge to test thoroughly, by examination and perfectly sahusbandry, that every material which imparts fertility is sedulously tisfactory trial, not only the ploughs, but the other implements of huseconomised, and applied to the soil. Among other things, ship loads bandry now in use, or which may be hereafter invented, and to publish of bones are annually brought from the continent into Great Britain, the result of their examination, and certify their intrinsic and relaand ground for manure. Bone dust is in such high demand in tive merits. Such board might meet once or twice in a year, and Scotch husbandry, that its price has advanced to 3s. 6d. sterling per no inventor or vender who had confidence in the goodness of his bushel.
machine would fail to repair to the place of trial. This would tend We possess no certain data to ascertain the saving which may be to call into action mechanical science and skill, in the confidence of introduced into this branch of farm economy; yet if we put down the receiving a just reward; the public would confide in the trial and number of farms in the state at one-tenth of our population or opinions of the board; good implements would be extensiveiy intro200,000, and estimate that an average increase of five loads
duced, and bad ones would be discarded. The expense of the exa
upon each farm might annually be made, it will give us a total of one mination would bear no proportion to the public benefit. million loads, which, at the very moderate price of 25 cents, would better returns than those made in draining, a branch of labor which
Draining.–Few expenditures in husbandry are calculated to make amount to $250,000 per annum.
has had a very limited practice among us, and of which we have yet Farm implements.—We must all have noticed the great improve much to learn. Many of our best lands are permitted to remain in ments which a few years have made in the mechanic and manufac- a comparative unproductive state, on account of the water which turing arts. Scarcely a process is managed as it was 20 years ago. saturates the surface, or reposes on the subsoil
. To render these Scarcely an old machine but has undergone improvements, or given lands productive, even for arable purposes, it is only necessary, by place to a better model. Manufacturing operations have been sim- well conducted and sufficient drains, to collect and carry of the plified and abridged, and human labor has been reduced to a compa. surplus water which falls upon the surface, or rises from springs berative cypher, by the substitution of machinery and the power of low. The rationale of draining is briefly this:-Air and heat are steam. The effect has been a great reduction in the price of manu- cssential agents in preparing the food of plants which is deposited factured commodities, and an increase in their consumption. We in the soil, and they are also necessary for the healthful developare assured that during the twelve years which clapsed between ment of most of the cultivated varieties. These agents are in a 1818 and 1830, Sheffield wares-hardware and cutlery-experienc measure excluded from the soil by the water. The temperature of ed an average reduction in price of sixty per cent, varying upon dif- a soil, habitually saturated with spring water from beneath the surferent articles from forty to eighty-five per cent.t Cotton goods, face, seldom exceeds 55 or 60 degrees at midsummer. Hence the books, and various other fabrics, have undergone a reduction no less grains and grasses, which require a heat of 80 or 90 degrees to bring
situations, where they find neither invention often awakens latent genius, and calls forth successful rous, pervious to solar and atmospheric influence, the process of veimparted, or which it has elicited from mechaninis birth ouacuseful competition, even in the unlearned. No sooner is an improvement getable decomposition is accelerated, and a high state of fertility is in the manutacturing arts announced, than it is adopted whenever it developed. can be rendered beneficial—such is the facility of intercourse—such
One of the modern improvements in draining, which tends very the desire-the necessity—there, of profiting from every discovery || much to give permanency to the work, is to dig the trench with a which benefits their art. The farmer is less able anu lass willing to spade adapted to the purpose, with a wedge shaped bottom, say three keep pace with the march of intellect. He has few opportunities of inches at the bottom and five inches at the upper surface of the lowbecoming acquainted with the improvements of others, except byer cut, and to fill this part with broken stone. The trench is dug slow degrees; and he is so liable to be taken in by the catch-penny two feet deep before this cut is made, and the wedge shaped bottom productions of the day, and is, withal, so distrustful of new experi- || cleaned with a scraper fitted for the purpose. By concentrating the ments, that he will hardly venture to buy new implements and mal water, it acquires force, and keep the passage open. And if brochines, nor to adopt new practices, however beneficial they mightken stone is employed, not exceeding three inches in diameter, it at. prove on trial. Mr. Coke tells us that his examples in rming, (and fords no harbor for ground mice or moles, which otherwise get in and few men ever gave better,) only enlarged the circle of their influence open passages to the surface, through which water and earth are apt
A friend made this experiment: He trenched a quarter of his garden, and to enter and choke up the drain. Drains of this description are deposited a layer of dry straw, three inches thick, one foot below the surface, very efficient and economical to keep the bed of a road dry, placed as the only
manure, and planted it with water-melons. The crop, he said either at it sides or in the centre, having a fall to carry off the wawas the finest he ever grew. On examining the straw in autumn, he found it ter. A cubic yard of stone will lay about 120 feet of under drain of was completely rotted, and reduced to the condition of short muck. He was the dimensions above given, and eight inches deep. The breaking satisfied that his melons had been highly benefitted by the straw while under of the stone will cost three or four shillings the cubic yard. going fermentation, and that, had the straw rotted in the yard, the volatile portions of the manure would have been wholly lost,
The acknowledged utility of irrigation, or of spreading, occasion+ Babbage on the Economy of Machinery.
ally, the water from streams or the highways over lands, has led to