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and flexile, filiform, smooth, somewhat branched, whitish-pallescent; fibres horizontal, scattered, rather secund, flexuous; apoth. small, with an elevated, thin, entire margin. Ach. Syn. p. 307. Icon, Ach. Meth., t. 8, f. 1.
Nova Scotia, Menzies, fide Ach. Canada, Herb. Michaux! The specimen in herb. Floerk.! which Floerke supposed might be U. trichodea, Ach., is referred by him to U. plicata.
5. U. sphacelata, R. Br. Th. erectish, fruticulose, the principal branches ochroleucous, black-vittate, smooth, the ultimate ones attenuate, black, all sorediiferous. R. Br. Suppl. to Parry's Voy. p. 307.
Melville Island, R. Br. I have not seen American specimens, but I have received fine ones from Dr. Vahl, collected by him in Spitzbergen.
II. EVERNIA, Ach., Fr.
Apothecia rounded, scutelliform, marginal; disk open, placed upon the cottony medullary layer, colored. Thallus originally erect, teretish-fruticulose or compressed-foliaceous (abnormally filamentous or pendulous), within uniform, and either fistulous, or filled with the cottony medullary layer.
The third section of this genus (Physcia) is further represented in the South of Europe by three species not as yet known with us :- E. intricata, Fr., with a much-branched, linear, glaucous thallus; E. villosa, Fr., with a villouş, multifid, glaucous thallus; and E. flavicans, Fr., with a much branched, linear, bright yellow thallus; of which the first and last species attain to the southern coast of England (Borrer); the first two are found in the Canary Islands (Montagne); the second in Peru (Acharius); and the last in the West Indies (Ach.) and South America (Eschweiler). It is possible that one or more of these species may occur in the Southern States. In the North, E. divaricata, Ach., nearest to E. prunastri, with a more or less filamentous, softish, lacunose thallus, is the only European Lichen of the present section that is wanting with us.
§ 1. Cornicularia, Fr. Fruticulose, passing into filamentous or pendulous forms.
1. E. furcellata, Fr., with long (terete-compressed ?) di-trichotomously divided, suberect, entangled branches, from hoary becoming cinereous, or slightly greenish, with furcate fuscous apices, Dill. Musc. t. 85, f. 14, was constituted on a Lichen which Fries referred to this figure and description of Dillenius, whose own specimens were sent him from Pennsylvania, by J. Bartram. I have not seen Fries's description, but he says incidentally (Lichenogr. p. 478) that his specimens are (like those of Dillenius) infertile, and that the genus of the Lichen is therefore doubtful.
2. E. jubata, Fr. Thallus terete, smooth, much branched, blackfuscous (or palish), apices simple ; apothecia innate-sessile, entire, of the same color with the thallus. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 20. - a. bicolor, Fr.; th. erectish, fruticulose, branches divergent, apices cinereousfuscescent. Cornicularia bicolor, Ach. — B. chalybeiformis, Ach. ; th. subfilamentous, decumbent, somewhat rigid, divergent (often whitesorediiferous), apices oftener palish. Alectoria jubata, var. chalyb., Ach. Cornicularia fibrillosa, Halsey, Lich. N. Y. l. c. non Ach. - y. implexa, Fr. ; th. filamentous, pendulous, very much branched, entangled, softish, apices of the same color. Lichen jubatus, L.8. setacea, Ach.; th. filamentous, rather slender, very long, pendulous, somewhat simple, frequently sorediiferous. Alect. jubata, var. setacea, Ach. Setaria trichodes, Michx. Alect. trichodes, Pylaie Voy. p. 17.
Very common : a, trees on high mountains, fertile ; and on the ground in alpine districts, infertile ; White Mountains. Arctic America, R. Br. (Ross's Voy.). — B, old rails, stones, and trees, sterile ; common in New England. Arctic America, R. Br. (Scoresby's Arc. Regions), Rich. — y, trees in mountainous and subalpine districts, infertile; New England and westward. Arctic America, Rich. — 8, dead wood, Canada, Michaux! Newfoundland and northward, Herb. Hook. ! Michaux's Lichen is extremely delicate, but apparently not distinct.
3. E. divergens, Fr. Th. somewhat angular, dark-chestnut, whitedotted ; branches elongated, flexuous; apices attenuated, forked, of the same color; apoth. innate-sessile, crenulate, disk of the same color. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 21. Cornicularia, Ach.
On the earth, alpine and arctic regions. Newfoundland, Herb. Delessert. Bear, Lake, Rich., Hook. ! (Parry's Sec. Voy.).
4. E. ochroleuca, Fr. Th. teretish, smoothish, ochroleucous (and palish), axils compressed-sublacunose, irregularly branched, apices attenuate, subfibrillose ; apoth. innate-sessile, at length repand, disk livid. fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 22. — Q. rigida, Fr. ; th. suberect, fruticulose, rigid, ochroleucous, apices reflexed, blackish. Cornic. ochro. leuca, Ach. — B. sarmentosa, Fr. ; th. filamentous, sarmentose-pendulous, much branched, softish, ochroleucous or pale, apices elongated, of the same color. Alectoria sarmentosa, Ach.
Mountainous, alpine, and arctic regions. — a, on the earth; White Mountains, infertile. Arctic America, Rich. (Herb. Hook. !), R. Br. (Parry's First Voy.), fertile. — B, on the trunks and branches of trees in the mountains of New England, and northward, fertile; and on the earth, alpine and arctic, sterile. a does not seem to be well represented on our mountains. The arctic specimens are very fine.
5. E. vulpina, Ach. Th. much branched, rigid, angular, com. pressed-lacunose, greenish-yellow; apoth. sessile, disk fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 23.
Trunks and rails, N. W. America, Menzies ! and Rocky Mountains, Herb. Hook.! fertile. A few specimens in my possession, from the White Mountains, and elsewhere, may belong to this, but most of the degenerate plants commonly referred to it here are, perhaps, as safely placed with E. prunastri.
$ II. Dufourea, Fr. Fruticulose, inflated, apothecia terminal.
6. E. ramulosa, Hook. (sub Dufourea). Th. cæspitose, terete-compressed, scarcely lacunose, fuscous-glaucescent, much branched and fuscous-olivaceous above, branches subdichotomous, tuberculate-ramulose, obtusish. Dufourea ramulosa, Hook. App. to Parry's Sec. Voy. p. 424.
Arctic America, Hook. Considered by Hooker nearest to E. ma. dreporiformis, from which he remarks that it differs in color, in its branching, and in being fistulous.
7. E. arctica, Rich. (sub Dufourea). Th. somewhat cæspitose, sub. simple, or with a few short branches above, subulate-ventricose, smooth, sulphureous becoming brownish ; apoth. chestnut, with an obscure, crenulate thalline margin. Dufourea arctica, Rich. in Frankl. Narr. p. 762 & Icon, t. 31.
Bear Lake, and elsewhere in Arctic America, Rich. (herb. Hook.!). I follow Fries in considering the Dufoureæ a section of the present genus. Hooker (App. to Parry's Sec. Voy. I. c.) refers Dufourea nodosa, R. Br. (Ross's Voyage), to a variety of the present species. I have not seen the description of Brown.
$ III. Physcia, Fr. Foliaceous-compressed, the under side channelled.
i 8. E. prunastri, Ach. Th. subfoliaceous, ochroleucous (and pallescent), laciniæ linear-attenuate, rugose-lacunose ; on the under side somewhat channelled and white ; apoth. subpedicellate, cyathiform, rufous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 25.
Trees and shrubs, more rarely on stones and rails. Arctic America, Rich. Canada, fertile, Herb. Hook.! More common with us in degenerate states. New England. New York, Torr. Pennsylvania, Muhl.
9. E. furfuracea, Mann. Th. subfoliaceous, glaucous (oftener cinereous-furfuraceous), laciniæ linear, dichotomous ; channelled and becoming black on the under side ; apoth. pedicellate, disk rufescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 26. Borrera, Ach. – B. Cladonia, Tuckerm. ; suffruticulose, naked, laciniæ patent, much branched, and often somewhat thyrsoid-entangled.
Trunks, common and fertile ; more rarely on stones, &c. ; New England. New York, Halsey. — B, firs and other trees, on the mountains of Northern New England, fertile.
III. RAMALINA, Ach. Apothecia rounded, scutelliform, thick, pedicellate-subpeltate, scattered upon both sides of the thallus, disk open, placed upon the (green) gonimous stratum. Thallus originally erect, ramose-laciniate, similar throughout, and of the same color.
Two species occurring in the North of Europe are as yet whol. ly wanting with us : - R. pollinaria, Ach., with a softish, faccid, corrugated thallus besprinkled with white powdery spots ; and R. scopulorum, Ach., with a thick, rigid, polished, often terete thallus, attaining to a very large size. At the extreme South, we may possibly have some West Indian species, or others peculiar to this continent. The late Mr. Menzies kindly presented me with two, collected by him on the coast of the Mexican State of California, which may 'be noticed briefly in this place. It is probable the first, at least, has been already described, but I have not been able to find any account of it. R. retiformis, Menz. herb. ; subcartilagineous, much elongated, the irregular flexuous branches dilated above and regularly reticulate-perforate ; apoth. lateral. Monterey ! — R. Menziesii, Tuckerm. ; submembranaceous, thin, deeply lacunose or plane, canaliculate, smooth ; apoth. lateral, sessile, with a thin, elevated margin. R. scopulorum ? Menz. herb. R. scopulorum, var. tenuissima, Hook. f. Arn. in Beechey's Voy. p. 163? Monterey ! Appears to me to differ from R. scopulorum in its softish, plane, often deeply lacunose, and thin thallus, as well as in the apothecia. - Roccella, a genus nearly allied to the present and the last, and diffused throughout the warmer regions of the globe, has not as yet any North American representative. I saw, however, in a small collection of “ Algæ from Carolina, Bermudas, and the Caribbees, by the Rev. Mr. Clerk,” in the British Museum, a Roccella, which resembled R. phycopsis, Ach. ; but it is uncertain at which of the above localities this Lichen was obtained.
1. R. calicaris, Fr. Thallus ramose-foliaceous, cartilagineous, rigescent, lacunose, glaucous ; apothecia pedicellate, with elevated margins, disk plane, palish. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 30. — a. fraxinea, Fr. ; laciniæ longer and broader, the fertile ones plane ; apoth. lateral. R. fraxinea, Ach. — P. fastigiata, Fr. ; lacinia shorter, fastigiate, subcompressed, lacunose; apoth. somewhat terminal. R. fastigiata, Ach. - y. canaliculata, Fr. ; laciniæ sublinear, narrow-attenuate, fertile ones channelled; apoth. affixed to the reflexed apices. Lichen calicaris, L. R. fastigiata, B., Ach. - 8. farinacea, Schær. ; laciniæ linearattenuate, sublacunose (sorediiferous), rigid; apoth. scattered. R. farinacea, Ach.
Very common: a, b, and y, on trees, rails, &c.; the last especially in mountain forests ; d, abundant in the New England mountains, and northward, on trees and rocks. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl.
2. R. polymorpha, Ach. Th. cæspitose, cartilagineous-rigid, longitudinally costate-rugose, glaucous (and pallescent), often sorediiferous and the soredia capituliform ; apoth. subterminal, pedicellate, with elevated margins, disk concave, pale. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 32. — B. tinctoria, Ach. ; laciniæ sublinear, diffuse, linear-lacunose, lacerate-incised and pulverulent at the apices. Ach. Lichenogr. p. 601.
Rocks and stones, fertile; New England, and westward, very common. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Arctic America, Rich.
IV. CETRARIA, Ach., Fr.
Apothecia scutellate-peltate, affixed obliquely to the apices of the thallus. Thallus cartilagineous-membranaceous, originally ascendant ; smoothish on the under side ; lobes either somewhat terete, or foliaceous and somewhat concave above.