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All the European species, and indeed all that belong to the genus (as revised by Fries) in the last general work of Acharius (Synopsis), occur with us, with several others. It is difficult to define strictly the limits between the foliaceous species of Cetraria and some Parmeliæ of the subsection Imbricaria ; and in his Flora Scanica, Fries has sug. gested the possibility of extending Cetraria to include most or all of the Imbricariæ. But the genus, as limited in the Lichenographia Europæa, seems a natural one, and well distinguished from Parmelia.

$1. Cartilaginea, Fr. Thallus cartilagineous, suberect.

1. C. tristis, Fr. Thallus fruticulose, horny.cartilagineous, rigid, solid, distichally dichotomous, pitch-black, branches fastigiate, terete ; apothecia terminal, plano-convex, disk fuscous-black. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 34. Cornicularia, Ach.

Alpine and arctic rocks. Arctic America, Rich.

2. C. odontella, Ach. Th. fruticulose, rigid, solid, subcompressed, palmate-ramose, dark-brownish-chestnut, branches plane, dentate (not ciliate-spinulose); apoth. terminal, plane, disk fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr, p. 35.

Stones and moist rocks in alpine districts. Newfoundland, Despreaux in herb. Deless.! Bory in herb. Kunth ! fertile. Northward to Arctic America, Herb. Hook.! Melville Island, R. Br. (Parry's First Voy.).

3. C. aculeata, Fr. Th. fruticulose, rigid, subfistulous, lacunose. compressed, very much and irregularly branched, dark-brownish-chestnut, branches divaricate, black-spinulose ; apoth. terminal, peltate, denticulate, disk of the same color. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 35. Cornicularia,


On the earth in alpine and subalpine districts. White Mountains, fertile. Northward to Arctic America, R. Br., Hook.!

4. C. Richardsonii, Hook. Th. subfoliaceous, canaliculate, divaricate-bipinnatifid, paked or sparingly black-denticulate, dark-chestnut; apoth. marginal, subpedicellate, margin granulate or irregular, disk yellowish-brown. Hook. in Frankl. Narr. p. 761, & Icon, t. 31.

Barren grounds north of Great Slave Lake, Rich. (herb. Hook.! & herb. Grev.!). Prostrate.

5. C. Islandica, Ach. Th. subfoliaceous, sublinear, canaliculate, ciliate-spinulose, olivaceous-chestnut ; apoth. obliquely scutellate, adnate to the upper side of the lobes, very entire, disk dark-chestnut.

Fr. Lichenogr. p. 36. — B. platyna, Fr. ; laciniæ broader, flattish, waved. Fr. 1. c. — y. crispa, Ach. ; laciniæ narrow, crisped, with connivent margins. Fr. l. c.

On the earth in alpine and subalpine districts, and at lower elevations northward, abundant and fertile ; y not found elsewhere. Also degenerate and sterile on hill-sides, and in sandy fields near the coast, throughout New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl.

6. C. cucullata, Ach. Th. subfoliaceous, sinuate-laciniate, ochroleucous, sanguineous-fuscous at the base, margins connivent and waved ; apoth. adnate to the under side of the lobes, disk pale-flesh-colored. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 37.

On the earth in alpine and subalpine districts. White Mountains, fertile. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

7. C. nivalis, Ach. Th. foliaceous, erectish, lacunose-reticulate, lacerate-laciniate, ochroleucous, yellowish at the base ; laciniæ canaliculate-patulous, crisped; apoth, marginal, crenulate, yellowish-flesh-colored. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 38.

On the earth in alpine and subalpine districts. White Mountains, fertile. Northward to Arctic America, R. Br. (Scoresby).

$ II. Membranaceæ, Fr. Thallus coriaceous-membranaceous, the sterile fronds subdepressed.

8. C. glauca, Ach. Th. membranaceous, foliaceous, expanded, sinuate-lobed, ascendant, glaucous (and cinerascent); becoming black on the under side ; apoth. terminal, peltate, dark-reddish-chestnut. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 38. — a. fertilis, Fr. ; lacinia elongated, channelled, becoming whitish on both sides, or spotted with white. Fr. l. c. — B. sterilis, Fr.; laciniæ shorter, wider, subdepressed, the under side fuscous-black. Fr. I. c.

Trunks of trees, stones, &c., in mountain forests, and elsewhere ; New England. Northward to Newfoundland, Pylaie.

9. C. sepincola, Ach. Th. membranaceous, foliaceous, ascendant, laciniate, from green becoming olivaceous-fuscescent; paler beneath ; laciniæ plane (the margins sometimes crisped, pulverulent), fertile ones short ; apoth. adnate to the upper side of the lobes, dark-fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 39.

Trees and dead wood. Branches of dwarf firs, with C. pinastri, White Mountains, fertile. Arctic America, Rich. Hudson's Bay, Herb. Banks ! Northwest Coast, Menzies !

10. C. ciliaris, Ach. Th. subcoriaceous, foliaceous, reticulate-lacunose, greenish glaucous becoming fuscescent; whitish-fuscescent be. neath ; laciniæ ascendant, crisped, ciliate or black-denticulate ; apoth. elevated, blackish-fuscous, with a crenate margin. Ach. Syn. p. 227.

Trunks of trees, and old rails, common and fertile ; ascending to subalpine districts, where it is often very small, and resembles the last ; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl.!

11. C. lacunosa, Ach. Th. cartilagineous-coriaceous, foliaceous, round-lobed, rugose-reticulate-cellulose, glaucescent; whitish on the under side, or spotted with white ; lacinia ascending, the margins crenate, crisped, black-denticulate ; apoth. large, elevated, dark-reddish, entire. Ach. Meth. 295, t. 5, f. 3, Syn. p. 227. Lichen cavernosus, Menz. herb. - 3. Atlantica, Tuckerm. ; cartilagineous-membranaceous, lacunose-reticulate ; apoth, at length perforate. C. lacunosa, Hals. Lich. N. Y., l. c. & Auct. Amer. C. Tuckermanii, Oakes in Sill. Jour.

Trunks of trees, and old rails. — a, Northwest coast, Menzies ! B, Lake Superior to New England, fertile. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. The plant of Menzies differs from ours considerably, but more specimens of the Oregon Lichen are required, to settle the distinctness of the two.

12. C. placorodia, Tuckerm. Th. subcartilagineous, foliaceous, of narrow, at first smooth and discrete, at length convex, concrete, and plicate lobes, finally besprinkled with black grains or wholly isidiophorous, pale livid-glaucous; on the under side fuscescent, rugose, smooth, sparingly fibrillose ; laciniæ crisped, crenate; apoth. marginal, peltate on the ascending lobules, from pale fuscous becoming dark chestnut, with an inflexed crenate margin, at length explanate. Parmelia placorodia, Ach.! Syn. p. 196.

Trunks (normal), Chelmsford, Russell ! and common on rails, when (like C. ciliaris, C. lacunosa, and others) it assumes a Parmeliaceous aspect. From Parmelia it appears to me distinct, in its marginal, obliquely affixed apothecia, and its smooth, reticulate-rugose under-side. Acharius was acquainted only with the rail-Lichen.

13. C. aurescens, Tuckerm. Th. subcoriaceous, foliaceous, plane, sinuate-lobed, yellowish-green; beneath whitish with pale fuscescent fibres; margins of the lobes elevated, crisped, black-denticulate ; apoth. large, elevated, chestnut, with a thin crenulate margin.

Trunks and branches of Coniferæ, New Hampshire. And old rails, Massachusetts.

14. C. Oakesiana, Tuckerm. Th. subcoriaceous, foliaceous, depressed, linear-laciniate, from green becoming yellow ; fuscous on the under side, with scattered coarse fuscous fibres; laciniæ plane, with elevated, black-ciliate (or more commonly pulverulent) margins; apoth. marginal, elevated, rufous-fuscous, somewhat entire. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. in Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist. 1841, p. 445.

Trees and rocks in mountain forests, New England ; fertile.

15. C. viridis, Schwein. Th. membranaceous, foliaceous, round. lobed, lacunose-reticulate, glaucous-green; pale yellow on the under side ; margins waved, black-denticulate ; apoth. chestnut-brown, with an inflexed, lobate-dentate margin. Schwein. in Hals. Lich. N. Y. 1. c.

p. 16.

Cedars, Massachusetts. New York, Halsey. Certainly very near the next; and the Massachusetts Lichen here referred to it is perhaps nothing but a state of C. juniperina, p.

16. C. juniperina, Ach. Th. membranaceous, foliaceous, ascendant, sublacunose, lacerate-laciniate, bright yellow; on the under side subreticulate, of the same color; laciniæ concave, crisped, black-denticulate ; apoth. adnate to the lobes in front, disk fuscous, margin crenulate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 40. C. juniperina, Ach. Syn. p. 226, & C. Tilesii, Ach.! Syn. p. 228. — B. virescens, Tuckerm. ; glaucous-green becoming pale yellowish, pale beneath.

On trees, and on the earth, Arctic America, Rich., Hook. ! B, cedars and other trees, and rails, on the coast of Massachusetts, Russell! and southward to New York, Torrey, and Pennsylvania, Muhl. Our ß can be compared only with the low-country Lichen of the North of Europe, from which it appears to differ as described. The alpine European forms, and our own arctic ones, recede variously from this type.

17. C. pinastri, Sommerf. Th. membranaceous, foliaceous, depressed, round-lobed, greenish-yellow; laciniæ plane, not denticulate (with crisped and powdery margins in the sterile plant); apoth. marginal, disk yellowish-brown, margin obtuse. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 40. C. juniperina, B. pinastri, Ach. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. I. c.

Subalpine shrubs and rocks ; also trees in mountain woods and swamps, infertile ; New England. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

V. NEPHROMA, Ach. Apothecia reniform, plane, not velate, adnate to the under side of the thallus, with an elevated thalline margin. Thallus membranaceous, softish, somewhat villous on the under side.

Nephroma is constituted a section of Peltigera in the Lichenogra. phia of Fries, but in his Flora Scanica, 1835, and his Summa Fl. Scand. 1845, these genera are recognized as distinct; as they are also by Montagne. Feé (Crypt. Exot. Suppl. p. 8) remarks that they differ also in their thecæ.

1. N. arcticum, Fr. Thallus coriaceous-membranaceous, smooth, ochroleucous ; on the under side subvillous, becoming black ; fertile lobules somewhat elongated, erectish ; apothecia dark orange-red. Peltigera arctica, Fr. Lichenogr. p. 42. N. polaris, Ach. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. l. c.

Rocks among mosses, and on dwarf firs, in alpine and subalpine districts. White Mountains, fertile. Abundant in Newfoundland, and forming patches of two or three feet in extent, Pylaie! in herb. Kunth. Northward to Greenland, Brasen (Fl. Dan.), and elsewhere in Arctic America, Rich.

2. N. resupinatum, Ach. Th. cartilagineous-membranaceous, smooth, from glaucous becoming fuscescent; pale and downy on the under side, which is sparingly besprinkled with whitish soredia ; apoth. rufous-fuscous. Ach. Syn. p. 241.

Trunks, often of mountain ash, in mountain forests, luxuriant and fertile; New England. New York, Halsey. Arctic America, Rich. Darker on rocks, where it is frequently quite small.

3. N. parile, Ach. Th. membranaceous, suborbiculate, softish, livid-fuscous ; on the under side naked, rugulose, dark ; (the laciniæ often sorediiferous, and pulverulent at the margins), fertile lobules short ; apoth. dark-fuscous. Ach. Syn. p. 242.

Rocks. White Mountains, not uncommon. And on the coast, Mr. Oakes. Fertile.

4. N. Helveticum, Ach. Th. cartilagineous-membranaceous, somewhat rigid, glaucous-fuscescent; on the under side tomentose, becoming black; margins of the lobes and of the apothecia fimbriate-toothed; fertile lobules somewhat elongated; apoth. blackish. Ach. Syn. p. 242.

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