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closed, somewhat waxy. Thallus expanded horizontally from a centre, two-sided, of various form, upon a hypothallus. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 56.


Sect. I. The fibrillose hypothallus adnate to the foliaceous thallus,

which is discrete from the matrix. Subsect. I. IMBRICARIA, Fr. — Apothecia elevated, subpedicellate,

regular; disk very thin, naked, placed upon the gonimous layer. Thallus imbricate-foliaceous ; often black-dotted from abortion

of the apothecia. — Sp. 1-24. Subsect. II. Physcia, Fr.— Apothecia at first closed, at length de

hiscent. Disk thickish, waxy, placed upon the medullary layer.

Thallus normally foliaceous ; ascendant or stellate ; fibrillose on the under side. * Thallus normally ascendant, or loosely decumbent; apoth. some

what obliquely marginate. — Sp. 25. ** Thallus normally stellate-appressed ; apoth. plane. — Sp. 26


Sect. II. Thallus subfoliaceous, at length compacted into a conglom

erate, subgranulose crust; arising from a fibrillose (rarely ob

solete) hypothallus, which is adnate to the matrix. Subsect. III. Pyxine, Tuckerm. — Apothecia erumpent, at first

closed, palish ; becoming pateliæform, and, with the altered thalline margin, black; finally cephaloid, excluding the margin. Thallus subfoliaceous, imbricate-laciniate, at length crustaceous-concrete at the centre, on a black, fibrillose hypothal

lus. — Sp. 34. Subsect. IV. AMPHILOMA, Fr. — Apothecia erumpent, somewhat cor

onate with an accessory thalline margin. Disk waxy, thickish, naked. Thallus foliaceous, somewhat monophyllous, rounded, at length crustaceous-compact at the centre, placed on a spongy

pannose hypothallus. — Sp. 35 - 38. Subsect. V. Psorona, Fr. — Apothecia for the most part two-formed,

adnate or immersed; arising in the one case from the thallus, with a crenate-thalline margin ; and in the other from the hy. pothallus, with an entire proper margin. Disk waxy. Thallus of discrete, foliaceous squamules, arising from a common hy. pothallus ; often at the centre, or wholly, concrete in a subgran. ulose crust. — Sp. 39-41.

Sect. III. Thallus crustaceous, lobed at the circumference, or wholly

squamulose-effigurate. Hypothallus smooth, adnate to the ma

trix, often confused with the thallus. Subsect. VI. PLACODIUM, Fr. — Apothecia plano-scutelliform, elevat

ed, disk without proper margin, naked. Thallus as above.

(Thalline margin often colored like the disk.) — Sp. 42-47. Subsect. VII. Psora, Fr. — Apothecia innate, at first somewhat ur

ceolate, afterwards scutelliform. Disk with a proper margin (visible at least in the younger apothecia), normally at first

cæsious-pruinose. Thallus as above. — Sp. 48 - 50. Sect. IV. Thallus crustaceous, uniform. Circumference similar, or

the hypothallus sometimes fibrillose-radiant. Subsect. VIII. PATELLARIA, Fr. — Apothecia regular, scutelliform,

sessile, the thalline margin persistent. Lamina of the disk somewhat plane, without proper margin. Thallus crustaceous, adnate to an indeterminate, mostly black hypothallus. Disk not

cæsious-pruinose. — Sp. 51-66. Subsect. IX. URCEOLARIA, Fr. — Apothecia innate in the crust, or

immersed in protuberant warts. Lamina urceolate, or protuberant, verrucæform, blackish, normally cæsious-pruinose, marginate. Thallus crustaceous ; the whitish hypothallus confused with the thallus, or often fibrillose and radiant. — Sp. 67 - 70.

Sect. I. The fibrillose hypothallus adnate to the foliaceous thallus.

Subsect. I. IMBRIcaria, Fr.

Series 1. 'Glaucescentes, Fr. 1. P. crinita, Ach. Thallus submembranaceous, suborbicular, glaucous-fuscescent (the whole thallus, as well as the apothecia, beset with isidioid granules and branchlets) ; black and somewhat smooth on the under side, and here and there black-fibrillose ; lobes plane, with some. what ascendant, erose-crenate, ciliate margins ; apothecia (imperforate) marginal, subpedicellate, cyathiform, with a thin, inflexed, crenulate margin, at length explanate, large. Ach.! Syn. p. 196. P. perforata, ß. Fr.

Trunks, &c., fertile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. There appear to be indications of other differences beside the isidioid efflorescence to distinguish this from P. perforata. The latter is perfectly normal with us.

2. P. perforata, Ach. Th. membranaceous, smooth, greenish-glaucescent; on the under side black, with dark fibres ; lobes rounded, ascendant, subcrenate, ciliate ; apoth. large, rufous, elevated, infundibuliform ; disk perforate, at length explanate, margin very entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 58.

Trees, particularly on the coast, luxuriant and fertile. Also on stones, &c., in sterile states. Pennsylvania and Virginia (from Bartram and Mitchell), Dill., the original stations of the Lichen. New Eng. land. New York, Torrey. Northwest Coast, Menzies (Herb. Smith!).

3. P. perlata, Ach. Th. submembranaceous, suborbicular, greenish-glaucous ; on the under side blackish-fuscous, scarcely fibrillose ; lobes rounded, plane, not ciliate; apoth. elevated, dark red, cyathiform, at length explanate, margin thin, entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 59.

- B. olivetorum, Ach.; margins of the lobes elevated, crisped, whitepulverulent. Ach. Syn. p. 198.

Trunks and rocks in mountainous districts, fertile ; and common also in sterile forms; New England. New York, Halsey.

4. P. scortea, Ach. Th. subcoriaceous, orbicular, smooth, glaucouswhite ; on the under side black, hispid-fibrillose ; lobes longish, sinuate-crenate, incised; apoth. rufous-fuscous, margin somewhat entire. Ach. Syn. p. 197.

Stones and trunks, fertile ; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Less common than the next, with which Fries unites it.

5. P. tiliacea, Ach. Th. membranaceous, orbicular, smoothish, glaucous-cinerascent; on the under side blackish-fuscous, with black fibres ; lobes sinuate-laciniate, the external ones rounded, crenate ; apoth. subfuscous, margin very entire. Ach. Syn. p. 199.

Trunks, fertile, very common; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Nova Scotia, Menzies !

6. P. Borreri, Turn. Th. cartilagineous-membranaceous, orbicular, smoothish, glaucous-cinerascent (with round, marginate soredia); on the under side fuscescent, fuscous-fibrillose ; laciniæ rounded at the apices, naked; apoth. chestnut, margin inflexed, entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 60. — B. rudecta, Tuckerm. ; soredia immarginate ; the whole thallus beset with isidioid granules and branchlets. P. rudecta, Ach.! Syn. p. 197.

Trunks, &c., fertile ; New York, Halsey. B, New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl. The anamorphous development called by Sommerfelt Lecidea Parmeliarum, and referred by Acharius to Endocarpon, occurs not unfrequently in this species, as well as in the next.

7. P. saxatilis, Ach. Th. subcartilagineous, reticulate-lacunose, glaucous-cinerascent; black and fibrillose beneath; laciniæ sinuatelobed, plane, subretuse ; apoth. dark-chestnut, margin at length crenate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 61. — ; laciniæ irregularly imbricate, narrower. Ach. Lichenogr. p. 469. – . rosaformis, Ach. ; th. orbicular, lobes wider, besprinkled commonly with elongated, marginate soredia ; apoth. smaller, less explanate. Ach. I. c. p. 471. - y. omphalodes, Fr. ; th. smoothish, shining, dark purplish-fuscous, laciniæ subtruncate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 62. Parmelia omphalodes, Ach. Syn. p. 203.

Rocks and stones, and, somewhat less commonly, on trees and rails, fertile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Northward to Arctic America, Rich. — y. Arctic America.

8. P. aleurites, Ach. Th. membranaceous, orbicular, contiguous, rugose-plicate, glaucescent (at length furfuraceous); on the under side pale, with fuscous fibres ; lobes discrete at the circumference, plane, rounded, cut-crenate; apoth. dark-fuscous, margin at length crenulate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 62.

Dead wood, and firs, in mountainous districts, fertile; and on rocks, sterile. The sterile plant is also common on rails, &c., on the coast. New England. New York, Halsey. Fries refers to this species the P. obsessa, Mubl. Catal., and Ach. Syn. p. 213.

9. P. lævigata, Ach. Th. membranaceous, suborbicular, smooth, glaucescent; black, and fibrillose on the under side ; laciniæ multifid, linear, plane, cut, divaricate (often sorediiferous); apoth. chestnut, margin very entire. Ach. Syn. p. 212.

Trunks (very common on beech in mountainous districts), fertile.

10. P. sinuosa, Ach. Th. membranaceous, suborbicular, smooth, glaucescent; black, and fibrillose on the under side ; laciniæ linear; wider at the circumference, sinuate-pinnatifid, the sinuses wide, circular; apoth. somewhat plane, fuscous, margin thin, very entire. Ach. Syn. p. 207.

Trunks and rocks. Nova Scotia, Ach. Fries and Meyer refer this and the last to a single species, but Borrer regards them distinct.

11. P. terebrata, Mart. Th. somewhat inflated, suborbicular, greenish-glaucescent; plicate-rugose and black on the under side ; laciniæ radiant, approximate, plane-appressed, sublinear (often sorediiferous), with small, regular, rounded perforations; apoth. scattered, plane, red, margin very entire. Mart. Fl. Crypt. Erlang. P.diatrypa, Ach. Syn. p. 219. Tuckerm. Lich. N.'E. I. c.

Trunks in mountain forests, frequent, and rocks, fertile ; New Eng. land.

12. P. physodes, Ach. Th. somewhat inflated, suborbicular, glaucous-white ; black-fuscous and naked on the under side ; laciniæ loosely imbricate, linear, sinuate-multifid, somewhat convex ; apoth. elevated, reddish-fuscous, with an inflexed, entire margin, at length explanate. Ach. Syn. p. 218. — B. enteromorpha, Tuckerm. ; lacinia effuse, lax, somewhat elongated, ventricose-inflated ; apoth. subpedicellate, ventricose-cyathiform, at length explanate, very entire. P. enteromorpha, Ach.! Syn. p. 219. P. platycarpa, Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. 1. C.

Trunks, dead wood, and rocks, fertile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. North to Arctic America, Rich. B, firs and other trees in high mountain forests. Northwest Coast, Menzies! Douglas in herb. Hook.! Mountains of New England, fertile, and evidently passing into a.

13. P. colpodes, Ach. Th. somewhat inflated, suborbicular, greenish-glaucescent; black and spongy on the under side ; laciniæ somewhat plane, at the circumference ramose-multifid, with irregularly dentate margins ; apoth. elevated, chestnut, margin inflexed, entire. Swartz Lich. Amer. p. 4, & t. 3. Ach. ! Syn. p. 219.

Trunks. Near Boston, Swartz (the original station of the Lichen). Throughout New England, common and fertile. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl.

Series 2. Olivaceo-fusca, Fr. 14. P. olivacea, Ach. Th. membranaceous, orbicular, smooth, ru. gulose (elevated-punctate, or granulate-farinose), olivaceous-fuscous; paler and subfibrillose on the under side ; lobes radiant, appressed, plane, rounded, crenate ; apoth. dark-olive, with an inflexed, at length crenate margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 66.

Trees in mountainous districts, fertile ; also degenerant on dead wood and stones; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl.! Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

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