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15. P. Fahlunensis, Ach. Th. subcartilagineous, smoothish, from dark-olive becoming blackish ; on the under side paler, subfibrillose ; laciniæ digitate-multifid, somewhat plane, subcanaliculate ; apoth. darkfuscous, crenulate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 66. — B. sciastra, Fr.; smaller, orbicular; apoth. subentire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 67. Parmelia, Ach.
Alpine and subalpine rocks, and occurring also at lower elevations in mountainous districts. White Mountains ; Chin of Mansfield, and other of the Green Mountains; fertile. Northward to Newfoundland, Pylaie, and Arctic America, Rich. — B, Greenland, Dill.
16. P. stygia, Ach. Th. subcartilagineous, shining, from olivaceous-fuscous becoming black ; very black on the under side and obsoletely fibrillose ; laciniæ palmate-multifid, sublinear, convex, recurved at the apices; apoth. fuscous-black, crenate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 67. – B. lanata, Mey. ; laciniæ setaceous, filiform, terete, intricate, fuscousnigrescent; apoth. subgranulate-marginate. Mey. Entwick. der Flecht. p. 231. Fr. I. c. p. 68. Cornicularia lanata, Ach. Syn. p. 302.
Alpine and subalpine rocks. White Mountains and the higher Green Mountains. Northward to Newfoundland, Pylaie, and Arctic Amer. ica, R. Br. - B, White Mountains, infertile. Northward to Arctic America, Hook. Melville Island, R. Br.
Series 3. Ochroleucæ, Fr. 17. P. caperata, Ach. Th. submembranaceous, orbicular, rugose (or granulose-pulverulent), ochroleucous ; on the under side blackish and sparingly fibrillose ; lobes sinuate-laciniate, rounded, somewhat entire at the apices ; apoth. fuscous-red, margin tumid-incurved, rugose-crenate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 69.
Trunks and stones, not commonly fertile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Westward to Illinois, Russell ! North to Arctic America, Rich.
18. P. conspersa, Ach. Th. submembranaceous, smoothish, polished (oftener black-punctate), greenish-straw-colored ; fuscous and black-fibrillose beneath ; laciniæ variously flexuous, somewhat plane at the circumference, sinuate ; apoth. dark-chestnut, margin subentire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 69. — B. stenophylla, Ach. ; lacinia elongated, linear, pinnatifid, imbricate-complicate. Ach. Syn. p. 209.
Rocks and stones, commonly remarkable for its very numerous apothecia ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. North to Arctic America, Rich. Degenerate on rails, &c.
19. P. incurva, Fr. Th. cartilagineous-membranaceous, stellate-imbricate, globuliferous, greenish-straw-colored (and ochroleucous); black and fibrillose on the under side ; laciniæ very narrow, multifid, subterete, recurved at the apices ; apoth. rufous-fuscous, subentire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 70. P. recurva, Ach.
Rocks in mountainous districts (subalpine, and descending). White Mountains ; fertile.
20. P. ambigua, Ach. Th. membranaceous, orbicular, stellate-imbricate, farinose-sorediiferous, greenish-straw-colored (and ochroleucous); black and fibrillose on the under side ; lacinia plane, linear, appressed, multifid ; apoth. adnate, rufous-fuscous, very entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 71.
Trunks and dead wood in mountainous districts, fertile ; and on rocks, infertile ; White Mountains. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.
21. P. centrifuga, Ach. Th. submembranaceous, suborbicular, greenish-straw-colored (and ochroleucous); white and fibrillose on the under side (the crust-like centre often falling away, and leaving a concentrically disposed circumference); lacinia linear, concrete, convex, rugose ; apoth. rufous-fuscous, margin subentire. Fr.! Lichenogr. p. 71.
Rocks (subalpine and descending) in mountainous districts, fertile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Northward to Newfoundland, Herb. Banks ! Pylaie. An ochroleucous, black-punctate, not concentrically disposed state is P. Halseyana, Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. I. c. It occurs in the Notch of the White Mountains.
Series 4. Citrinæ, Fr. 22. P. parietina, Fr. Th. foliaceous or squamulose, imbricate, membranaceous, sublobate, yellow; paler and obsoletely fibrillose on the under side ; apothecia with elevated margins, very entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 72.- a. (foliacea), Fr. ; th. foliaceous, from greenish becoming bright yellow ; lobes explanate, appressed. P. parietina, Ach. — B. aureola, Fr.; th. foliaceous, somewhat zoned and subcentrifugal, dark-goldenyellow; lobes concrete, plicate-ramose. P. aureola, Ach. — 7. rutilans, Fr.; th. foliaceous-subcrustaceous, imbricate-complicate, irregularly la. ciniate. P. rutilans, Ach. -- 8. laciniosa, Duf.; th. naked, lacerate-dissected, squamulose ; laciniæ ascending, naked. — £. polycarpa, Fr.; th. smaller, conglomerate ; the lobes complicated, and covered with the
very numerous apothecia. Lecanora caudelaris, B. Ach. — 5. lobulata, Fr.; th. obliterated, or consisting only of very short, scattered, appressed lobules, with small apothecia. — n. substellata, Ach. ; th. foliaceous, substellate, lacerate-laciniate, laciniæ expanded, pulverulent. — 4. concolor, Fr.; th. pulverulent, squamulose, lacerate-laciniate, scales crowded, ascendant. Lecan. caudelaris, a. Ach. – 1. citrinella, Fr. ; the whole thallus dissolved into a yellowish-green dust.
Very common: d, on trunks, rocks, &c.; B, on rocks and stones (especially maritime), exposed to the sun; y and 8, on trunks, exposed to the sun ; & and S, on the smaller branches and twigs of trees ; n and 9, on smooth bark, the last also common on dead wood; 1, on bark and dead wood in moist places ; New England. New York (y and 9), Halsey. Pennsylvania (9), Muhl. Ohio (a), Mr. Lea! Illinois (a), Russell! Northward to Nova Scotia (y), Menzies ! Newfoundland (w), Pylaie, and Arctic America (8 and 9), Rich.! I have adopted Fries's view of the European species nearly entire. He remarks that he has distinguished and enumerated these forms, not so much on account of their importance as distinct states, as to furnish an example, that can almost everywhere be authenticated, of the extremely Protean character of the thallus of Lichens.
23. P. diversicolor, Ach. Th. suborbicular, yellowish-orange-red (becoming whitish with age), of rather narrow, somewhat lacerate-ramose, rugose, at length concrete laciniæ; white-cinerascent, with fibres of the same color beneath ; apoth. numerous, concave, blackish-sanguineous, margin thick, at length white. Ach. Syn. p. 210.
Arctic America, and southward, Ach.
24. P. chrysophthalma, Ach. Th. subfoliaceous, cartilagineousmembranaceous, lacerate-ramose, from dark reddish-yellow becoming whitish; on the under side whitish, and fibrillose at the margins; laciniæ depressed-subascendant, plano-convex, pinnatifid; apoth. darkorange, fibrillose-ciliate or naked. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 75. Borrera, Ach. — B. erilis, Fr. ; laciniæ very narrow; margins of the apothecia naked. Fr. 1. c. Borrera, Ach.
Trunks and branches of trees near the coast, and luxuriant in places exposed to the sea-spray ; New England. New York, Torrey (at Newburgh, Russell !). Pennsylvania, Muhl. Illinois, Russell !
Subsect. II. Physcia, Fr. 25. P. ciliaris, Ach. Thallus cartilagineous, from green becoming glaucous ; lacinia linear, ramose, subascendant, channelled beneath, ciliate with simple fibres ; apothecia subterminal, pedicellate, margin erect, at length lacerate-dentate, fimbriate, or obliterated in foliaceous branches; disk plane, black, subpruinose. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 77. Bor. rera, Ach. — B. galactophylla, Tuckerm.; more delicate ; the lacinia very white and powdery beneath ; margins of the apothecia at length obliterated in foliaceous expansions ; disk white-pruinose. P. galactophylla, Willd. herb. ! - y. angustata, Tuckerm.; laciniæ extremely narrow, of nearly the same color beneath, subterete at the apices. Borrera angustata, Bory ms.
Trees, New England (B), rare. New York, Torrey. Pennsylva. nia (B), Muhl. ! and southward, where ß is common. North to Arctic America, Rich. — y, Newfoundland, Bory in herb. Berol.! Rocky Mountains, Herb. Hook.! P. leucomela, Ach., a species near this, but with narrow, ascendant laciniæ, and tomentose marginal fibres, occurs in the Carolinas, Michæ. ! and California, Menzies! and P. erinacea, Fr., with lacerate-laciniate, diffuse lobes, which are ciliate, and beset above with very long whitish fibres, in California, Menzies !
26. P. detonsa, Fr. Th. cartilagineous, substellate, naked, glaucousfuscescent (and fuscous); whitish on the under side with black fibres; laciniæ narrow, linear, somewhat convex, digitate-multifid, often semiterete, very densely crowded together and imbricated ; apoth. subsessile, margin at length crenate, and leafy, disk plane, becoming darkfuscous. Fr. Syst. Orb. Veg. fide ipsius. P. Nova Anglia, Tuckerm. in litt. olim. P. aquila, Muhl. Catal.
Rocks and trees, New England. Ohio, Mr. Lea! Near to P. aqui. la. I have not seen Fries's description.
27. P. pulverulenta, Fr. Th. cartilagineous, substellate, pruinose. cinereous; black on the under side and hispid-tomentose ; lacinia linear, multifid, approximate ; apoth. sessile, margin tumid, entire, or squamulose-foliose, disk plane, black-fuscous, subpruinose. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 79. P. pulverulenta, venusta, & muscigena, Ach. — B. leucoleiptes, Tuckerm. ; the whole thallus white-farinose-pruinose, lobes radiant, margins interruptedly inflexed and pulverulent; apoth. subsessile, disk depressed, white-pruinose, margin subduplicate, the external border foliose or entire. Lichen leucoleiptes, Muhl. in herb.
Willd.! P. venusta, Hals. f. Auct. Amer. P. pulverulenta, Muhl. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. l. C.
Trunks, rocks, and upon mosses ; Bear Lake and elsewhere in Arctic America, Rich. (Herb. Hook. !). – B, trunks and rocks; New England to Pennsylvania ! often isidioid-efflorescent.
28. P. hypoleuca, Muhl. Th. cartilagineous, substellate, glabrous, naked, glaucous-virescent (and white); very white on the under side, with scattered black fibres ; lacinia sublinear, approximate, imbricate, multifid, plano-convex, margins naked ; apoth. elevated, disk at length black, naked, with an inflexed, crenulate or foliose margin. Muhl. Catal. p. 105, f. Eaton Man. Bot. p. 516. Tuckerm. Further Enum. l. c. P. speciosa, B. hypoleuca, Ach.! Syn. p. 211.
Trunks, fertile. Pennsylvania, Muhl. ! and northward to New Eng. land.
29. P. speciosa, Ach. Th. cartilagineous-membranaceous, substellate, glabrous, greenish-glaucous (and white); very white beneath, with numerous pale fibres ;- laciniæ linear, somewhat concavo-plane, imbri. cate, incised-ramose, crenate, ciliate-fibrillose, margins often ascendant, green-pulverulent; 'apoth, subsessile, margin incurved, crenate, disk rufous-fuscous, nearly naked.' Fr. Lichenogr. p. 80.
Trunks and mossy rocks in woods, infertile ; New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl.
30. P. congruens, Ach. Th. coriaceous-membranaceous, whitish. pallescent; on the under side cinereous-fuscescent, with fibres of the same color; laciniæ laxly-imbricate, flexuous, multifid, recurved at the margins, convex, becoming more plane in the circumference, crenate; apoth. elevated, concave, livid-fuscescent, subpruinose, with a thin, inflexed, at length flexuous margin. Ach. Lichenogr. p. 491. Swartz Lich. Amer. p. 5 f. t. 4. Ach. Syn. p. 207.
Trunks, New England; Swartz, l. c. I have a Lichen from the White Mountains resembling this, except that the under side as well as the fibres are black.
31. P. stellaris, Wallr. Th. subcartilagineous, naked, not pruinose, glaucescent; whitish on the under side, with dark fibres ; laciniæ sublinear, multifid; apoth. sessile, disk fuscous-black, subpruinose, margin somewhat tumid, subentire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 82. - a. (stellari-expansa), Fr.; th. stellate-expanded, fibres shorter. Fr.l.c. P. stellaris, aipo.