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upward from a thick base, verrucose with subsquamaceous granules. Ach. Lichenogr. p. 535.

On the earth, &c., very common and variable ; New England, and westward. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. North to the Saskatchawan, &c., Rich.; Greenland, Gieseke ; and Melville Island, R. Br. B, in moist crevices of rocks in the mountains of New England; perhaps the handsomest state of the species. A frequent railLichen (Bæomyces scolecinus, Ach., Pycnothelia scol., Tuckerm. Lich. N. E.) is a degeneration. Infertile states are easily confounded with similar states of several other species.

6. C. gracilis, Fr. Th. squamulose ; podetia cartilagineous-corticate, polished ; scyphi somewhat plane ; apoth. fuscescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 218. — a. verlicillata, Fr. ; poderia shorter, all scyphiferous ; scyphi dilated, plane, proliferous for the most part from the centre. Fr. 1. c. C. verticillata, Hoffm. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 26. — B. cervicornis, Auct.; th. of conspicuous, elongated, erectish, naked, dark-green squamules; podetia as in the next, of which this is the macrophylline state. - y. hybrida, Fr.; podetia longer and larger, mostly scyphiferous ; scyphi dilated, and commonly proliferous from the margin. Fr. l. c.8. elongata, Fr.; poderia elongated, mostly subulate or furcate ; scyphi diminished, somewhat concave. Fr. ! l. c. Cenomyce gracilis, Ach. Cladonia, Hoffm. Floerk.! Clad. p. 30. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. I. c. Lichen, L. — * vermicularis, Auct. ; podetia papyraceous, prostrate, subulate, subsimple, imperforate, white. C. vermicularis, DC. C. subuliformis, Hoffm. Tuckerm. I. c. — ** taurica, Auct. ; podetia papyraceous, erectish, ventricose, ramose, white. C. taurica, Hoffm. C. subuliformis, . taurica, Tuckerm. l. c.

On the earth, most perfect, and in all the varieties, on high mountains ; — y being an alpine state, but descending; and * and ** alpine degenerations.t New England and westward. New York (a), Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. North to Point Lake, &c., Rich.; and Greenland, Gieseke.

7. C. degenerans, Floerk. Th. squamulose ; podetia cartilagineouscorticate, irregularly proliferous-ramose (glabrous or granulate-furfuraceous), more or less squamulose-exasperate, green-pallescent, becoming

7 " A pothecia lateralia, sparsa, atra, thallo innata, eoque submarginala, apoth. Roccellæ aliquo modo accedentia," were observed by Brown in some Arctic Amer. ican specimens of * (R. Br. in Parry's First Voy. App. p. 307).

blackish and white-spotted at the base ; scyphi irregular, cristate-lacerate ; apoth. fuscous. Floerk.! Clad. p. 41. Fr. ! Lichenogr. p. 221. Cenomyce gonorega, Ach. B; scyphi digitately divided into fastigiate branches, and becoming carious with age. Fr. l. c. Cenomyce cariosa, Ach.

On the earth; common in New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. (Southward to Virginia, Dill.)

8. C. fimbriata, Fr. Th. squamulose ; poderia cylindrical, the whole membranaceous epidermis deliquescing into a fine, glaucous-candicant dust ; scyphi cupulæform with an erect margin; apoth. fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 222. Lichen fimbriatus, L. -Q; podetia short, all scyphiferous; scyphi somewhat dentate; apoth. simple. Fr. I. c. Dill. Musc. t. 14, f. 8. Lichen fimbriatus, a, L. P. tubæformis, Fr.; podetia elongated, mostly scyphiferous ; scyphi somewhat entire ; apoth. symphycarpeous. Fr. I. c. Lichen fimbriatus, ß, L. - 7. radiata, Fr.; podetia elongated, subulate, or the scyphi proliferous-subulate, or obliterated and radiate-fimbriate. Fr. I. c. Lichen fimbriatus, y, L.

On the earth, common in mountainous districts, and fertile ; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

9. C. cornuta, Fr. Th. squamulose ; podetia cylindrical, somewhat ventricose, the epidermis cartilagineous and persistent below, membranaceous and becoming powdery.deliquescent above ; scyphi narrowed, rather plane, with an incurved, somewhat entire margin ; apoth. fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 225. Lichen cornutus, L.

Trunks among mosses, dead wood, &c., in the mountains of New England; fertile.

10. C. decorticata, Floerk. Th. squamulose ; podetia slender, cy. lindrical, the submembranaceous epidermis separating into furfuraceous scales, pulverulent ; scyphi narrowed or obsolete ; apoth. fuscous. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 10. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 226. — B. symphycarpea, Fr.; podetia somewhat simple ; apoth. symphycarpeous. Fr. l. c. - y. (ramosa), Fr.; podetia branched, subulate, sterile. Fr. 1. c.

On the earth, in mountainous districts. White Mountains ; fertile. Distinguishable from similar decorticate, symphycarpeous states of C. pyxidata by its pulverulence. .. ** Pervia, Fr. Podetia not passing into closed scyphi, but the axils and apices dilated-infundibuliform, or simply perforate in the more slender, much-branched forms.

11. C. cenotea, Schær. Th. squamulose, dissected; podetia di. chotomous-brachiate, membranaceous-corticate, at length finely glaucous-pruinose; axils and fertile apices dilated, infundibuliform, with incurved margins ; " apoth. sessile, from pale becoming fuscous.' Fr.! Lichenogr. (sub C. brachiata), p. 228. C. cenotea, Schær. Spicil. p. 35. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 135. Bæomyces dein Cenomyce, Ach. — Q; turgid ; axils and apices as above. Fr. 1. c. ß. furcellata, Fr. ; slender, fruticulose ; branches subulate, axils perforate. Fr. I. c.

On the earth, in mountainous districts. White Mountains ;, as yet infertile.

12. C. parasitica, Schær. Th. squamulose, narrowly erose-laciniate and granulate-pulverulent; podetia delicate, at length besprinkled with scales and granules, divided above into short, somewhat incrassated branches; apoth. minute (often symphycarpeous), fuscous. Schar.! Spicil. p. 37. Lichen parasiticus, Hoffm. C. delicata, Floerk. ! Clad. p. 7. C. squamosa, var. delicata, Fr.! Lichenogr. p. 231.

Decaying logs, common in mountainous districts; New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl. (Cf. Fries, I. c.)

13. C. squamosa, Hoffm. Th. squamulose, dissected, often some. what pulverulent ; podetia branched, lacunose, at length decorticate, and exasperate with squamaceous granules ; axils pervious, denticulate; apoth. cymose, fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 231. — a. ventricosa, Fr.; podetia ventricose ; axils and apices dilated-infundibuliform. Fr. ! l. c. Cenomyce sparassa, Ach. Cladonia, Floerk.! Clad. p. 129. — B. atlenuata, Fr.; podetia more slender, attenuate, axils pervious, apices subulate. Fr.! l. c.

On the earth, decaying logs, and stones, most perfect and frequent in mountainous districts; New England.

14. C. furcala, Floerk. Th. squamulose, somewhat dissected; po. deria dichotomous-fruticulose, cartilagineous-corticate, polished, greenish-fuscous ; axils and fertile apices pervious; apoth. pedicellate, from pale becoming fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 229. Floerk. Clad. p. 141.

- u. crispata, Fl. ; turgid ; axils and apices infundibuliform. Floerk. ! 1. c. p. 148. Fr.! 1. c. B. cristata, Fr. ; somewhat turgid ; obliquely dilated and fimbriate-cristate at the axils ; the apices cristate-ramulose. Fr. I. c. Dill. Musc. p. 544, & Icon, t. 82, f. 1. – 4. racemosa, Floerk. ; podetia elongated, turgescent, ramose, and, as well as the ax. ils, gaping; branches recurved or erect, fertile ones explanate. Floerk. ! 1. c. p. 152. Fr.! l. c. 8. subulata, Floerk. ; podetia elongated, more slender, with subpertuse axils ; apices of the fertile ones cloven; branch. es erectish, or also recurved, or divergent. Floerk.! I. c. p. 143. Fr. 1. c. — £. pungens, Ach. ; small, cæspitose, very much and intricately branched, fragile, pallescent or whitish-cinereous. Fr. l. c. C. pungens, Floerk. I. c. p. 156. C. rangiformis, Hoffm.

On the earth, common; most perfect in mountainous regions; New England to Ohio. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. . Pennsylvania, Dill. E. Greenland, Floerke.

15. C. rangiferina, Hoffm. Th. crustaceous, evanescent; podetia fruticulose, trichotomously and very much branched, somewhat tomentose, cinerascent; axils subperforate ; sterile apices nodding, fertile ones erect, cymose ; apoth. fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 243. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 160. — B. sylvatica, Floerk. ; slender, smoother, pale-straw. colored. Floerk. Clad. p. 167. Fr. l. C. — Y. alpestris, Floerk. ; softish, the branches and branchlets very densely thyrsoid-entangled. Floerk. Clad. p. 165. Fr. l. c.

On the earth, common everywhere, and fertile ; New England. New York (a, b, and y), Halsey. Pennsylvania, Dill. Northward to Canada, Michaux ; Greenland, Gieseke; and elsewhere in Arctic Amer. ica, Rich., R. Br.

Series 3. Ochroleucæ, Fr. Podetia ochroleucous ; at length

fuscous-cerulescent at the base. Apothecia somewhat livid-fleshcolored, lutescent within.

16. C. carneola, Fr. Th. squamulose ; podetia membranaceouscorticate, at length finely pulverulent, ochroleucous, becoming fuscouscerulescent at the base, the scyphiferous ones turbinate ; apoth. paleflesh-colored fuscescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 233 — Q; poderia turbi. nate, all scyphiferous, simple or proliferous. Fr. l. c. — B; podetia elongated-turbinate, with radiate, subulate prolifications. Fr.l. c. — y. cyanipes, Fr.; podetia very long, cylindrical, simple, or the scyphi obliterated and passing into somewhat divaricate, sterilescent branches. Fr. 1. c. Icon, Laur. in Sturm's Fl. t. 13.

On the earth ; Arctic America. Greenland, Fries.

17. C. Despreauxii, Bory ms. Th. evanescent ; podetia elongated, slender, cartilagineous-corticate, the epidermis separating below into bluish-white squamules, and becoming above finely granulate (not pulverulent), pale sulphureous, becoming bluish-fuscescent at the base ; scyphi narrow, proliferous-radiate, or passing into and obliterated in sterilescent branchlets ; apoth. minute, pale-flesh-colored fuscescent. Cenomyce Despreauxii, Bory, fide schedul, in herb. Berol.

On the earth in alpine districts. White Mountains. Newfoundland, Bory!

18. C. amaurocrea, Floerk. Th. crustaceous, evanescent ; podetia elongated, slender, polished, somewhat curved-decumbent, palestraw-colored ; apices fuscous-black, those of the sterile podetia subulate, variously branched, of the scyphiferous ones irregularly proliferous-branched; scyphi narrow, oblique, margin dentate-radiate ; apoth. pale-flesh-colored fuscescent. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 119. Cenomyce oxyceras, Ach. Syn.

On the earth in alpine districts. White Mountains, very luxuriant and fertile. Greenland, Floerke, and elsewhere in Arctic America, Rich.

19. C. Botrytis, Hoffm. Th. squamulose ; podetia cylindrical, cartilagineous-corticate, verruculose, ochroleucous; somewhat divided into subfastigiate branches ; apoth. pale-flesh-colored and pallescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 234.

On the earth, and decaying logs. New York, Halsey.

20. C. uncialis, Fr. Th. crustaceous, evanescent; podetia' fruticu. lose, dichotomous, smooth, greenish-straw-colored; axils subperforate; sterile apices erect, blackish, fertile ones digitate-radiate ; apoth. at first pale-flesh-colored, fuscescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 244. Ach. Syn. p. 276. C. stellata, Schær. ! Spicil, 1, p. 42 (excl. 8). Floerk. ! Clad. p. 171. — a. humilior; shorter, more slender, and smooth, somewhat attenuate, the axils often imperforate. Fr. I. c. Cenomyce uncialis, Ach. Lichenogr. Lichen uncialis, Auct. B. adunca, Ach. ; taller, somewhat turgid, incrassated above ; branches short, stellate-patent, the fertile ones cymose ; axils gaping. Ach. I. c. p. 277. Fr. l. c. (a.) C. biuncialis, Hoffm. C. adunca, Ach. Lichenogr. - *. turgescens, Schær. ; softish, turgid-incrassated, the branches subtruncate, fastigi. ate. Schær. Spicil. 1, p. 308. Fr. l. c.

On the earth : a, sands, and sterile pine woods (fertile?);B, in

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