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finally, to lay open the complete science of language. The investigation of language from its central dominion of thought outward, into the department of words as its vocal manifestations, will constitute the most important epoch in philology. Out of this change in the mode of conducting the study will result a systematized comparative philology, universal in its scope, by the aid of which the acquisition of tongues will be greatly facilitated.

“ In contradistinction from the Phonetic theory,” Mr. A. maintains, " that the principle above stated in relation to the meanings of the Chinese spoken words has governed the selection of the written characters chosen to represent those meanings, and thus will furnish a complete solution of the great problem of the Chinese written system ; and also, that the Chinese is etymologically related to the European stock of languages, and that its relation to the Teutonic family of languages is one of special nearness.”

Professor Gray communicated the characters of some new genera and species of Compositæ from Texas, as follows.

“ Vernonia LINDHEIMERI (Gray f. Engelm., Pl. Lindh. ined.): foliis anguste linearibus confertis sessilibus uninerviis margine revolutis supra glabris punctatis subtus cauleque simplici sericeo-tomentosis; capitulis corymbosis breviter pedunculatis 30 – 40-floris ; squamis involucri cano-tomentosi pappo rubiginoso brevioribus conformibus appressis oblongis obtusis exappendiculatis ; achæniis glabris 10-costatis glandulosis ; pappo exteriori multisquamellato. — In rupestribus prope New Braunfels, Texas, legit Lindheimer. – Perennis, bipedalis : folia bipollicaria : capitula semiuncialia.

“AGERATUM (subgen. ? MICRAGERATUM; involucrum subbiseriale fere Sclerolepidis, pappus coroniformi-multisquamellatus nunc 5-aristulatus) WrightII (Torr. & Gray, Fl. ined.): diffuso-ramosissimum, hirsutulum ; foliis oppositis alternisve lanceolato-oblongis e basi cordato sessili parce dentatis ; capitulis subglobosis (50 - 60-floris); pedunculis filiformibus. — Prope Aumen Colorado Texas legit C. Wright. — Spithamæa, ramis plurimis e caule repente. Variat 1. pappi squamellis setiformibus basi subconnatis tubo corollæ plus duplo brevioribus ; 2. squamellis 5 angulis achænii respondentibus in aristis tubum corollæ æquantibus productis.

“ BRICKELLIA (BULBOSTYLIS) CYLINDRACEA (Gray & Engelm., Pl.

Lindh, ined.): cinereo-pubescens et resinoso-atomifera, herbacea; foliis plerisque oppositis triplinerviis subtus reticulato-venosis oblongoovatis obtusiusculis grosse serratis brevissime petiolatis, ramealibus subsessilibus; capitulis pedunculatis in paniculam foliosam laxe corymbosam digestis; involucri 10-flori cylindrici squamis 4-seriatim imbricatis arachnoideo-ciliatis strialis mucronato-acuminatis, intimis linearibus pappum barbellato-serrulatum æquantibus, exterioribus multo brevioribus ovalibus appressis ; achæniis puberulis. - In declivibus fluv. Guadaloupe Texas, ultra New Braunfels, Lindheimer. Affinis B. Cavanillesii.

“ LINDHEIMERA, Gray f. Engelm., Pl. Lindh. ined.

(Secionidee-Melampodineæ.) “Capitulum multiflorum monoicum; A. radii 4-5 ligulatis, fæmineis, ad axillas squamarum invol. interiorum sitis ; f. disci circiter 20 tubulosis, sterilibus. Involucrum duplex, exterius e squamis 4-5 laxis linearibus foliaceis, interius totidem membranaceo-foliaceis oblongis planis disco longioribus. Receptaculum planum, paleis chartaceis ovariis sterilibus amplectentibus onustum, binis exterioribus basi cujusque squam. inter. invol. adnatis, persistentibus. Ligulæ ovales, breviter tubulatæ, involucrum vix superantes : corolla disci 4- 5-dentata. Styli A. ster. filiformes, indivisi, hispidi. Achænia radii ovalia, obcompresso-plana, marginato-alata, intus subcarinata, carina apice in dentem parvum reflexum producta, alis in pappum 2-dentatum extensis ; disci abortivi.-Herba erecta, scabro-hispida, forte biennis; caule dichotomo; pedunculis subcymoso-paniculatis gracilibus monocephalis ; foliis imis alternis, cæteris oppositis sessilibus oblongo-ovatis basi dentatis, summis pedunculisque glandulis patelliformibus conspersis. Flores aurei.

“L. TEXANA. — In rupestribus sylvis circa New Braunfels, Texas, Lindheimer. - Genus eximium, Berlandieræ et Engelmanniæ cognatum, diximus in honorem ejus acerrimi inventoris qui floram Texanam largiter indagavit.

“KEERLIA BELLIDIFOLIA (Gray & Engelm., l. c.): annua, parce ramosa, diffusa, pilis patentibus hirsuto-pubescens ; foliis oblongo-spathulatis obtusis mucronatis basi angustatis, summis fere linearibus, radicalibus obovatis petiolatis; squamis involucri ovali-lanceolatis membranaceis glabris mucronato-acuminatis marginibus latissime scariosis 2-seriatis subæqualibus ; ligulis (cyaneis) 9 – 12 oblongis ; achæniis clavato-fusiformibus vix obcompressis striatis puberis calvis ! (pappo plane nullo). — In sylvis juxta New Braunfels, Texas, Lindheimer. Spithamæa, gracilis, habitu fere Bellidis integrifoliæ sed minor receptaculo plano, necnon Brachycomes Xanthocomoidis ? Torr. & Gr., sed diversa achæniis revera calvis, receptaculo plano, etc. (Keerlia skirrobasis, DC., est planta depauperata Leucopsidü Arkansani, DC.)

“ TETRAGONOTHECA Texans (Gray of Engelm., l. c.): caulibus e radice perenni crasso plurimis gracilibus puberulis ; foliis glabris oblongis sinuato-dentatis pinnatifidisve basi connatis imis marginatosubpetiolatis; tubo corollæ glanduloso nec piloso; ovario glabro; achæniis 4 - 5-angulatis striatis. — In collibus juxta flumina Guadaloupe et Cibolo, Texas, Lindheimer. — Pedalis, capitulis dimidio minoribus quam in T. helianthoide.

“BARRATTIA, Gray f. Engelm., Pl. Lindh. ined.

(Senecionideæ-Heliantheæe-Euheliantheæ.) “ Capitulum multiflorum heterogamum ; fl. radii ligulatis (circ. 10) neutris, disci tubulosis hermaphroditis. Involucrum imbricatum triseriale, squamis lanceolatis apice herbaceis disco brevioribus. Receptaculum convexum, paleis navicularibus persistentibus achænia amplectentibus. Corolla fere Helianthi. Styli rami elongato-subulati, hispidi. Achænia compresso-plana, emarginato-obcordata, glabra, immarginata, calva. — Herba valida perenni, strigosa, corymboso-ramosa ; foliis omnibus oppositis deltoideo-ovatis vel subhastatis inciso-dentatis triplinerviis petiolatis, petiolis basi appendicibus foliaceis interpositis connatis; pedunculis solitaris elongatis monocephalis. Flores radii et disci flavi.

“B. CALVA. – In rupestribus prope originem flum. Guadaloupe, Texas, Lindheimer. — Genus a Leighia diversa pappo plane nullo, ab Encelia achæniis non comosis, a Wulfia achæniis compresso-planis, etc., diximus in honorem Josephi Barratti, M. D., botanici inclyti, Salicum præcipue indagatoris.

“ It may be proper to append here the characters of another unpublished Helianthoid genus, which is even more closely allied to Encelia (although well distinguished by its pappus), and is also analogous to Agarista.

“GERÆA, Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. ined. “Capitulum multiflorum heterogamum ; fl. radii (circ. 15) ligulatis, neutris, disci tubulosis hermaphroditis. Involucrum laxe imbricatum

2-3 seriale, squamis lineari-lanceolatis herbaceis. Receptaculum planum, paleis hyalinis oblongis achænia semi-amplectentibus deciduis onustum. Ligulæ cuneiformes, basi pilosæ : corolla disci fauce dilatato-cylindrica e tubo brevi villoso, 5-dentata. Styli rami in appendicem lineari-filiformem hispidam longe producti. Achænia oblongocuneiformia, plano-compressa, marginata, pilis argenteis prælongis (ad margines præsertim) villosissima. Pappus bisquamellatus, squamellis ex marginibus achænii ortis lineari-aristiformibus basi villosissimis corallam adæquantibus. — Herba annua ? hirsuto-cana; caulibus basi foliatis (foliis obovatis rhombeisve alternis) superne nudis subpaniculatis pedunculos paucos 1 - 2-cephalos gerentibus. Involucrum cano-villosum. Flores radii discique flavi.

“G. CANESCENS. — California, Fremont, Coulter. Nomen e yspaiós ob capitulum canum necnon comam achænii argenteam sumptum, ut contrarium generi analogo Agaristæ, DC. (quæ mythologice nympha erat venustissima).

* AGASSIZIA, Gray f Engelm., Pl. Lindh. ined. (non Chavan.,

nec Spach.) “ Capitulum globosum, multiflorum, radiatum; ligulis fæminiis nunc difformibus. Involucrum disco brevius circa biseriale ; squamis exterioribus lineari-oblongis, appendicula spathulata vel obtusa foliacea patente, intimis lineari-acuminatis. Receptaculum globosum alveolatum, alveolis valde dentatis fimbrilliferis. Ligulæ cuneatæ, palmato-3-4-fidæ, sæpe irregulares, tubuloso-difformes, vestigia staminum gerentes. Corolla disci Gaillardiæ, dentibus triangulari-lanceolatis. Styli rami ligularum lineares, subulato-apiculati ; A. disci ad basin appendicis brevissimæ nudæ clavato-obtusæ penicellati ! Achænia turbinata, sericeo-villosissima. Pappus radii et disci conformis, e paleis 9 hyalinis ovatis uninerviis constans, nervo in aristam capillarem corollam adæquantem longe producto. — Herba biennis, acaulis; radice fusiformi; foliis varie 1- 2-pinnatifidis, nunc sinuatis lyratisve; scapo 1-2pedali, toto nudo, monocephalo. Capitulum Gaillardiæ, speciosum. Flores suaveolentes, disci flavi et purpurei, radii rubescentes.

A. SUAVIS. — In campis Texanis prope Bexar et New Braunfels, Lindheimer. — Genus eximium Gaillardiæ proximum, at ligulis feeminiis, receptaculo globoso vere alveolato, habitu styloque proprio diversum, diximus in honorem celeberrimi amicissimique Agassiz.

Agassizia, Chavan., est Galvesia, Domb. Agassizia, Spach., est Sphærostigma, Ser., et Holostigma, Spach., subgenus merum (Enotheræ.”

Two hundred and ninetieth Meeting.

January 27, 1847. — QUARTERLY MEETING.
The PRESIDENT in the chair.
Mr. Bond communicated the following

OBSERVATIONS ON THE PLANET NEPTUNE, 1846 – 47.

Cambridge Observatory. Long. 4h. 44m. 32".

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“ From Oct. 21st to Jan. 12th the star of comparison was 7648 B. A. C.; its mean place for Jan. 1st, 1846, is A. R. 215. 50m. 05”.94, Dec. -13° 23' 55.5, being a mean of six recent determinations by Professor Challis of Cambridge, England. On Jan. 19th and 25th the planet was compared with a star of the ninth magnitude, the mean place of which, for Jan. Ist, 1846, taken from Bessel's Zone observations, is A. R. 22h. 02“. 01“.25. Dec. -13° 05' 22".5.

“ The following Circular Elements have been computed by Mr. G. P. Bond, assistant at this Observatory.

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