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mind. By the heart, the intention is As probationers, we love God ineant; by the mind, knowledge; by with all our heart, mind, soul, and soul, affection; and by might, active strength, when our love is entire, execution, exercise.
All these are and there is nothing which, in act put forth and employed in loving or habit, we do not refer to God. God. But thus to love God with And this perfection of divine love is the whole power of the creature, im- required from us by direct precept. plies that the creature itself be come Thus, first, he is required to refer to its final, consummated state, hav- all things to God, as his proper ing attained to its end, living in its end; as the Apostle says, "Whepresence, and resting in it. The ther therefore ye eat, or drink, or creature come to its rest, will love whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory with an affection beyond that with of God;” (1 Cor. x. 31 ;) which is which it loves on its way to it. fulfilled when the life is entirely disMan will then so love God with all posed in order to the service of God; his heart, that, in all he thinks, so that, whatever is done, though loves, and does, his whole intention done by the man himself, is yet will be fixed on God; with all his ordered and done in and for God, mind, that the mind will actually be except, indeed, sins, which lead always directed to God, as always from God, and which he leaves unseeing him, and all things in him, done; and so is God loved with all and judging of all things according the heart. Secondly, The intellect to his truth; with all his soul, that is to be subjected to God, and those his whole affection is borne to God things received which are divinely in loving bim continually, and all delivered to us, according to the things else for his sake alone ; and Apostle, “ Bringing into captivity with all his might, that of all out every thought to the obedience of ward acts the source and reason Christ :” (2 Cor. x. 5 :) and thus is will be the love of God. This is God loved with all the mind. that perfection of love which is pro- Thirdly, When whatsoever a man per to the actually blessed in hea- loves he loves in God, and univerven; and which is possible to no sally all his affections are referred one on earth, by reason of the dif to divine love; as the Apostle again ference of the states respectively. says, “Whether we be beside our. The actually blessed dwell in the selves, it is to God; or whether we full light of the glorious presence of be sober, it is for your cause : God, while those who are at home (2 Cor. v. 13 :) and so God is loved in the body are absent from the with all the soul. And, fourthly, Lord. So great, indeed, is the dif- When all our outward doings, our ference, that "it doth not yet appear words and works, proceed from, what we shall be ;” but still we are and are governed by, divine love; told, though in general terms, that as says the Apostle, that sight of God in Christ with things be done with charity : which we shall then be blessed, will (1 Cor. xvi. 14 :) and thus is God have a corresponding effect on our loved with all our strength. And selves : “ We shall be like him, for thus to love God entirely, with all we shall see him as he is.” There the heart, mind, soul, and strength, will be a higher love, because a is man obliged by necessity of prehigher state, and proper to the cept. higher state; and with that love we Thus far, notwithstanding the cannot love now, because we cannot scholasticism of his method, so be at once both in the higher and greatly interfering with the simpli. lower state.
city of his subject, we may accomWhat, then, he asks, in the fifth pany Aquinas, even with pleasure. chapter, is that perfection of love The perfection of the divine life for which, in this present life, is neces man on earth, is the perfection of sary to salvation ?
divine love; and he has rightly * The distinction is expressed by the terms, stated, that we are required thus to comprehensatores, and viatorcs.
love God by direct commandment.
Let all your
But how is man, the condemned we have nothing to think about but sinner, thus to obey such a com contemplating and loving; that is, mandment as this? To the obliga on the Roman monasticism. tion under which the precept places His grand mistake lies here. The us he brings us, and there he stops. state of the blessed, and the state of Nothing is said of the present salva- probationers, differ, not by the pretion of God; nothing of the faith in sence or absence of the earthly adChrist by which we receive and re- juncts of our present condition, as tain it. "Beautiful, therefore, as is the whole scheme of counsel, as disthe brief description of the state of tinguished from precept, supposes ; obedience to the command, clear as but by this,-one is a state of sight is the account of Christian perfec- and rest, the other a state of faith tion in itself considered, yet the and labour. Resemblance to hea. piece, as a piece of practical divinity, ven cannot here on earth be circumis fearfully defective. The state is stantial ; it must exist in principle, shown ; but on the way of attain or not at all, even in cheerful subment the writer is utterly silent. jection to the will of God. But for
But this is not the worst. The this, a man may not choose his own five chapters already described do state ; but, in holy obedience, leave not constitute above one-fourth of it to Providence to direct his paths. the whole. With what, then, is the If leisure be necessary, God will remainder occupied ? Let us see. give it him ; if activity, to activity
The title of the sixth chapter he shall be led. Whether his inheopens a new branch of the subject, ritance shall be riches or poverty, -a branch which Popery has in- sickness or health, pleasure or pain, serted; and which is not only with. attending to present and obvious out the authority of the New Testa- duty, he is to say, “Lord, thou ment, but against it. He before shalt choose our inheritance for us." referred to the love which was re Every state of life has its disadquired by precept: he now proposes vantages and advantages, its tempto consider the perfection of divine tations to evil as well as its opportulove which is by counsel.”* The nities of good. And no human wissum of what he means is this : dom is here sufficient to afford counThough we cannot love with exactly sel; for no human wisdom suffi. the same kind of love as do the ciently knows individual man. God blessed in heaven; yet if, instead of does, and God will, direct and lead being content with the precept, we all who properly look to him for listen to ecclesiastical counsel, we guidance. For ourselves, we have shall come into a spiritual condition only to attend to the written word superior to that of those who only for instruction, and to cry earnestly obey the precept.
for grace to take full heed to its there is a way--and the whole directions. Romish doctrine of counsel rests on And, by taking heed to this, Mr. this-by which we may love God Wesley was at once enabled to take with a kind of love superior to that the good that he found in human which belongs to viatores, though writers, and to avoid the evil too not arriving at that of the compre often mixed with it. He, too, saw hensatores. And as the blessed in that Christian perfection was the heaven have nothing to do with perfection of love, as included in earthly things, he argues that they the very terms of the command ; who put away earthly things, other but he saw that this was to be a things being equal, approach the social religion,--a religion to be nearest to them. He descants, there- sought by rich and poor, husbands fore, on voluntary poverty, on celi- and wives, men of leisure and men bacy, on obedience to religious supe- of business, ecclesiastics and laics ; riors and rules in religious society, and sought by them in their own and on the value of a state in which providential state, that that state * De perfectione divinæ dilectionis, quæ cadit might be illustrated by the clear sub consilio.
splendours of a practical piety.
Yes; and he saw how it was to be would not be that which requires us attained. Here, as well as in the to love God with all our heart, and pardon of sin,-or, indeed, in any mind, and soul, and strength. And and every part of the divine life, has he not said, “ And the Lord thy he saw that the great rule of the God will circumcise thine heart, to Gospel was to be applied : “By love the Lord thy God with all thine grace are ye saved, through faith.” heart, and with all thy soul?" It is by God that we are enabled to Well said the ancient African Paslove him at first ; it is by the in- tor : “Lord, give what thou comspiration of his Holy Spirit that we mandest, and command what thou are enabled perfectly to love him. wilt.” If this doctrine of Christian And what God gives of grace perfection be a true one, it is a through Christ, man receives by delightful one. faith in Christ.
“Jesus, now our hearts inspire The subject is not one of mere
With that pure love of thine ; speculation It includes precepts
Kindle now the heavenly fire, addressed to our conscience, and
To brighten and refine ; promises calculated to excite our
Purify our faith like gold; most earnest desires. Who would
Melt our spirits dewn, and mould not thus love God? Even if there
Into thy perfect love !" were a grievous commandment, it
All the dross of sin remove;
A VISIT TO ROME DURING THE HOLY WEEK. The sun was just rising upon the crossing the lazy waters of the “eternal city." when we approached ancient Tiber. it, on the 23 of March. Excessive On reaching the city-gates, we fatigue benumbed, in some degree, were instantly under the charge of the sensations with which, under a military escort, -that sign of a other circumstances, I should have tyrannical government,--and conapproached a spot so deeply affect- ducted at once to the Dogana, ing as Rome; but yet I could not where, at that early hour of the suffer the far-famed city to break morning, our passports were deupon my view without a retrospect- manded, and our luggage all exaive glance at those by-gone days, mined, with the exception of my along which the broad current of travelling library, which had been Roman story flowed on majestically, secured by the Papal seal at Civitain contrast with the more modern Vecchia. This was detained, in order associations which forced them that on a future day, however in. selves upon the mind. Pagan glory, convenient to me, it might be thorobed in darkness, as the character- roughly searched by a proper officer, istic of the former age; and spirit- that I might not with impunity ual degradation, hand in hand with bring into the Papal territory book's vast and fearful depravity, as the included in the Index Expurgatorius indication of the latter ; supplied of truth-hating Rome. Three days the elements of the moral picture on after our arrival I attended at the which my mind rested, as I drove Dogana, to be present at the examiwithin the walls of the modern city, nation of my books, after several
hours spent in undergoing
the va. *“ A Pastor's Memorial of Egypt, the Red
rious previous formalities. The sysSea, the Wildernesses of Sin and Paran, Mount
tem of espionage which prevails in Sinai, Jerusalem, and other principal Localities
the Papal dominions is disgusting of the Holy Land, visited in 1842: with brief in the extreme, and repulsive to an Notes of a Route through France, Rome, Naples, English mind. The whole proceedConstantinople, and up the Danube. By the Rev. George Fisk, LL.B., Prebendary of Lich
ings, to which I was thus subject, field, Rural Dean and Vicar of Walsall.” 8vo.
breathed the very genius of the In1843. Seeley and Co.
quisition. I must, however, con
fess, that when at last we came into great height, and returning them in the presence of the literary Censor, rich dews upon the thirsty paveand the box and its contents were ment; and on gazing forwards to fairly exposed to his view, he be the cathedral itself, with its dome haved with the greatest courtesy and stately colonnades on either and consideration ; and though the side, and with the splendid elevaentire Scriptures, in Hebrew, Greek, tion of the Vatican-the residence and English, together with several of the assumed Vicegerent of Christ books bearing reference to the re upon earth-looking down upon storation of Israel, and other sub the vast pile with which it is conjects of Protestant theology, came nected in silent majesty, and telling under his inquisitive glance, he read the dark story of many a departed out their titles, addressed me in day in the annals of the Papacy ; good English,-upon which he ra there was in my mind a sense of ther seemed to pique himself,—and disappointment, which was not by said, “If you are satisfied, so am any means diminished when I set I;” and permitted me to replace my foot within the portico of the my little treasure of sacred litera temple. On analyzing the state of ture in the box, and kindly facili my mind, I found that the sense of tated my movements in what yet disappointment did not arise from remained to be done at the Dogana; any cause really induced by St. but I did not escape without paying Peter's itself ; but from the actually a duty per pound upon my books, unprepared state of the mental perBibles and all. Alas for Roine ! ception. It is one thing to see with
The Holy Week had commenced the natural eye, another to perceive before we reached Rome; and so with the inward vision of the mind. great was the influx into the city at I saw St. Peter's at first only with that time, that we found it a matter the natural eye; and it appeared of much difficulty to procure accom. not indeed diminutive or insignifi. modation of any kind. Having at cant, but small in proportion to the length succeeded, and refreshed our mental picture I had conceived of it. selves after our wearisome journey, During my first visit I was not able we proceeded at once to the objects to get my mind fairly at work upon of interest which claimed our atten the subject, so occupied was it by tion. We allotted to ourselves six the various things which fixed my days for our sojourn in Rome,- attention at once, and in succession; little enough, it must be confessed; and so St. Peter's was still an object but we were anxious to press on of disappointment. It was only wards to scenes of deeper interest after the second and third visit that still. Two main objects lay before I discovered the cause of this; when me: the one, was to see all that I found, that as my mind expanded could be seen of Popery at its head over the various details of architec. quarters ; the other, was to contem- tural magnificence, so the grand plate the remains of Rome scattered whole expanded itself before my around me, with all their traces of perception, till I became ancient glory and ruined magnifi- powered by the full sense of vast
ness. Every mind, I am persuaded, Our first excursion was from the must undergo such a process as this, Via del Babuino, over the bridge of before the full effect of St. Peter's is St. Angelo, commanding the cele- realized. I began by a comparative brated fort of that name, straight to view of things. I first took one of St. Peter's. I feel difficulty in com- the nave pillars nearest to me at the municating to others the first and western entrance. I saw how dimi. subsequent impressions made on my nutive the tallest men appeared at mind by that celebrated structure. its base. I then gazed upwards to On driving up to the grand area, 80 the foot of a marble statue, which noble in its dimensions, with its was so boldly colossal, that, when I cool gush of graceful fountains flinge carried my eye upwards to its full ing up their feathery streams to a height, it seemed at a point of ele.
ration sufficient to be the capital of of the assembled multitudes. After a main pillar of any ordinary struc the service was concluded, a procesture. Beyond the head of the sta sion of Priests, of various orders, lue the pillar towered loftily, joined was formed, from which certain initself to the vault of the immense dividuals advanced, and enacted the nare, and fell into junction with a accustomed ceremony of washing Cortespooding pillar on the other the high altar with wine and water; side, down which my eye travelled next followed an exhibition of relics, til it rested on its base. I tried to such as the spear-head with which nie v these two pillars in their con- the side of our adorable Redeemer Derion with the arch of the nave, is said to have been pierced ; a fragseparate from the lengthened colon- ment of the “true cross,” &c.; and, Eade of which they were the com- lastly, came processions of pilgrims mencement; and, having imbibed from all parts of the world where the distinct idea of them, I suffered Popery prevails,--carrying back our my mind to carry it on to every associations to the earlier ages of succeeding column, till, resting for Papal dominancy. The immense a moment on the high altar, with area of St. Peter's was thronged its magnificent bronze and gold with visiters, amongst whom were castings, I glanced onwards to the many English ; Ecclesiastics of all grand eastern termination ; and then grades and orders, in their graceful it was, while thousands and thou- and picturesque attire ; and Monks sands of devotees and others were with their shaven crowns, and the pacing the inarble area, like pigmies various habits of their order. It rather than men, that I was able to was altogether a most imposing compass the idea of St. Peter's as a scene ; but the great drawback upon temple fitting, in its magnificence, it all was the melancholy feeling, the noblest of all purposes, though that religion-the religion which degraded to the uses of a base and saves souls and glorifies God-had God dishonouring idolatry.
no place in this splendid temple of a Of the statuary, with which every false system. part of St. Peter's abounds, it is im On the 25th of March, being possible to speak in terms of ade- Good-Friday, we had the happiness quate admiration. It seems as if of attending divine service at the marble breathed and became elo English chapel, which is situated quent, as well as graceful and ma- just outside the Porta del Popolo, jestic, under the hand of the sculp- on the road to Florence. The sertoT-magician. I could fill this vo was solemn and profitable, lume with details of such matters; from Luke xxiii. 48. It was no bat I must pause, and only mention small privilege to be permitted one statue in particular, now desig- there, in the very strong-hold of nated as St. Peter, but once Jupiter. Popery, to hear the truth as it is in It is in bronze ; and the hand which Jesus simply and faithfully proonce wielded the thunderbolt now claimed. We occupied a few hours grasps the key,—an emblem of afterwards in exploring some of the power not less terrible than the more distinguished churches in the other. It is a fine, calm, dignified city, splendid in decoration as well statue ; and the right foot is actually as in architecture; as if human worn by the frequent and fervent wealth were possessed only for one kissing of devotees, to which it has end,-the giving lustre to the various been and is continually subject. appointments connected with a reli
When we reached St. Peter's on gion such as that professed and our first visit, the vesper-service had taught by the Church of Rome. begun; and certainly the music, Passing onwards in our peregrinaconsisting of human voices, without tions, we reached the Pantheon,aby instrumental accompaniment the Pantheon of ancient Rome. Time whatever, was of the richest kind; had been, when perishing mortals but, alas! the spirit of devotion received apotheosis there. But things seemed not to influence the hearts are changed, yet scarcely for the