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ful rate, that she used to tremble to name, their garb, and work did 60 hear bim; and told him, that he intoxicate and bewitch me." was the ungodliest fellow for swear Bunyan goes on to say, in his ing that she ever heard in all her own narrative, that the first time he life; and that he, by thus doing, ever remembered “ feeling what was able to spoil all the youth in guilt was,” was one day while “our the whole town.”

Parson was treating in his sermon The woman whom Bunyan mar of the Sabbath-day, and of the evil ried had been trained up religiously; of breaking it, either with labour, but, to use his own words, when sports, or otherwise.” This sermon they “came together, they were as greatly troubled his conscience ; poor as poor might be, not having but the burden, he says, “lasted so much household stuff as a dish not; for before I had well dined, or spoon betwixt them both.” She the trouble began to go off my had, however, two books,—“The mind, and my heart returned to its Plain Man's Pathway to Heaven," old course ; in reference to which and “ The Practice of Piety,” which Dr. Southey observes, as if convicher father had left her when he died. tion of sin were nothing but a fit of The latter book, now out of date, nervous sensitiveness, or vapours, was written by Bishop Bayly; and, for which a good dinner, with an Dr. Southey adds, has been trans extra glass of wine, was the best lated into Welsh, Polish, and Hun. remedy, Dinner removed that bur. garian, and passed through more den: his animal spirits recovered than fifty editions. Bunyan read from their depression.these books; and though he says, The Spirit of the Holy One conin his “Grace abounding,” “they tinued to follow Bunyan. He saw did not reach my heart, to awaken “men as trees walking." " The it about my sad and sinful state, yet natural man receiveth not the things they did beget within me some de- of the Spirit of God; for they are sires to reform my vicious life, and foolishness unto him: neither can fall in very eagerly with the religion he know them, because they are spiof the times ; to wit, to go to church ritually discerned.” He twice a day, and there very devoutlyquently fell into some outward reboth say and sing as others did, yet formation, and “set the commandretaining my wicked life; but, with- ments of God before him as his way al, was so overrun with the spirit of to heaven;" going about ignorantly superstition, that I adored, and that to establish his own righteousness, with great devotion, even all things and not knowing or submitting him. (both the high-place, Priest, Clerk, self to the righteousness of God. vestment, service, and what else) be. He thus describes his condition : longing to the church; counting all “ Which commandments I also did things holy that were therein con strive to keep, and, as I thought, tained, and especially the Priest and did keep them pretty well someClerk most happy, and without times, and then I should have comdoubt greatly blessed, because they fort; yet now and then should were the servants, as I then thought, break one, and so afflict my conof God, and were principal in his science; but then I should repent, holy temple, to do his work therein. and say I was sorry for it, and proThis conceit grew so strong upon mised "God to do better next time, my spirit, that, had I but seen a and then get help again; for then I Priest, (though never so sordid and thought I pleased God as well as debauched in his life,) I should find any man in England. Thus I conmy spirit fall under him, reverence tinued about a year; all which time him, and knit unto him; yea, I our neighbours did take me to be a thought, for the love I did bear very godly and religious man, and unto them, (supposing they were did marvel much to see such great the Ministers of God, I could have alteration in my life and manners; laid down at their feet, and have and, indeed, so it was, though I been trampled upon by them; their knew not Christ, nor grace, nor

conse

faith, nor hope ; for, as I have since Baptist congregation at Bedford. seen, had I then died, my state had He describes the benefits which he been most fearful. But, I say, my derived from this incipient communeighbours were amazed at this my nion of saints as follows :~" But, great conversion from prodigious upon a day, the good providence of profaneness, to something like a God called me to Bedford, to work moral life and a sober man. Now, at my calling; and, in one of the therefore, they began to praise, to streets of that town, I came where commend, to speak well of me, both there were three or four poor women to my face and behind my back. sitting at a door, in the sun, talking Now I was, as they said, become about the things of God; and, being godly; now I was become a right now willing to hear their discourse, honest man. But 0, when I un I drew near to hear what they said ; derstood those were their words and for I was now a brisk talker myself opinions of me, it pleased me mighty in the matters of religion; but they well; for though as yet I was were far above my reach. Their nothing but a poor painted hypo. talk was about a new birth, the crite, yet I loved to be talked of as work of God in their hearts, as also one that was truly godly. I was how they were convinced of their proud of my godliness; and, indeed, miserable state by nature; they Í did all I did, either to be seen of, talked how God had visited their or well spoken of by, men; and souls with his love in the Lord thus I continued for about a twelve- Jesus, and with what words and month or more.” An early and promises they had been refreshed, natural impression on the mind of a comforted, and supported against partially-awakened sinner is, so far the temptations of the devil; moreto reform his life, that he may ap over, they reasoned of the suggesproach bis Maker with some degree tions and temptations of Satan in of confidence, instead of drawing particular ; and told to each other near, from first to last, with the plea by what means they had been af. of the broken-hearted publican, – flicted, and how they were borne up “ God be merciful to me a sinner ;” under his assaults. They also disnot relying, in whole or in part, on coursed of their own wretchedness any weak or sinful performance of of heart, and of their unbelief; and his own, as a claim to justification, did contein, slight, and abhor their but solely and entirely on the great own righteousness as filthy, and inatonement made by the Lord Jesus sufficient to do them any good. Christ. The spiritual pride which And methought they spake with Bunyan so graphically describes, al such pleasantness of Scripture-lanternating with seasons of alarm and guage, and with such appearance of despondency, was the result of this grace in all they said, that they were legal and pharisaical system ; and it to me as if they had found a new is not until an individual is brought world,-as if they were people that to understand the Gospel as a dis dwelt alone, and were not to be pensation of grace, as well as of reckoned among their neighbours. holiness, and is led to embrace it by At this I felt my own heart begin to an act of appropriating and ener shake ; for I saw that, in all my getic faith, that he walks not only thoughts about religion and salvaholily, but happily ; abounding tion, the new birth did never enter equally in faith, love, and joy, as in into my mind; neither knew I the prayer, vigilance, and humility; comfort of the word and promise, bringing forth, in rich abundance, nor the deceitfulness and treachery the clustering fruits of righteous- of my own wicked heart. I would ness, which are to the praise and often make it my business to be glory of God.

going again and again into the comBunyan's mind was instructed pany of these poor people; for I and comforted by his falling in with could not stay away; and the more three or four simple-liearted, reli- I went among them, the more I did gious women, who belonged to the question my condition; and, as I

still do remember, presently I found frost, snow, and dark clouds. Me. two things within me, at which I thought, also, betwixt me and them did sometimes marvel; especially I saw a wall, that did compass about considering what a blind, ignorant, this mountain: now, through this sordid, and ungodly wretch but just wall my soul did greatly desire to before I was : the one was a very pass ; concluding that if I could, I great softness and tenderness of would there also comfort myself heart, which caused me to fall under with the heat of their sun. About the conviction of what by Scripture this wall I bethought myself to go they asserted ; and the other was a again and again, still prying as I bending in my mind, a continual went, to see if I could find some meditating on it, and on all other

way or passage by which I might good things which at that time I enter therein ; but none could I find heard or read of.”

for some time. At the last I saw, It was about this period that as it were, a narrow gap, like a little Bunyan fell in with a company of door-way, in the wall, through which Antinomian fanatics, called “ Rant. I attempted to pass : now, the pasers," who told him he was " legal sage being very strait and narrow, I and dark," and that they could do made many efforts to get in, but all what they would, and not sin ; and in vain : at last, with great striving, their scheme of joining high preten- methought I at first did get in my sions to religion with the unre head, and after that, by a sideling strained indulgence of every licen- striving, my shoulders, and my tious passion, he says, was congenial whole body.' Then I was exceeding enough to his age and temper; glad, and went and sat down in the “ but God,” he adds," who had, as midst of them; and so was comhe hoped, designed him for better forted with the light and heat of things, kept him in the fear of his their sun. Now, this mountain and name, and did not suffer him to wall was thus made out to me: accept such cursed principles.” The mountain signified the church

When Bunyan was thus alternat of the living God; the sun that ing between fear and hope, being shone thereon, the shining of his deeply convinced of his sinfulness, merciful face on them that were and earnestly desirous of the Gospel therein ; the wall, I thought, was salvation, the great civil war was the world, that did make separation fast approaching, -"the land was between the Christians and the burning.” The whole country was world ; and the gap which was in divided on political and ecclesiasti. the wall, I thought, was Jesus cal questions, which doubtless tend- Christ, who is the way to God the ed, in no small degree, to feed the Father. But as the passage was anxiety and distress of his mind, wonderful narrow, even so narrow already severely sensitive and con that I could not but with great diffiscientious. He has attempted a de- culty enter in thereat, it showed me scription of his feelings, in a species that none could enter into life but of vision, or waking reverie ; in those that were in downright earwhich he compares his own unset nest, and left the wicked world betled state with the sanctified repose hind them; for here was only rooin of the members of the little Baptist for body and soul, but not for body, congregation which he had recently and soul, and sin. This resemblance joined." Dr. Southey and others abode upon my spirit many days ; profess to discover, in this loose all which time I saw myself in a musing, the germ of the “Pilgrim's forlorn and sad condition ; but yet Progress,"

was provoked to vehement hunger I saw,” he says, "as if they and desire to be one of that number were on the sunny side of some high that did sit in the sunshine." mountain, there refreshing them It was at a meeting with the poor selves with the pleasant beams of people of Bedford, as he terms them, the sun ; while I was shivering and that Bunyan passed from a state of shrinking in the cold, afflicted with spiritual bondage into the liberty of

the children of God. “The words,” there is no allusion to any such outto adopt his own language, “brokerage in any part of his works. His in upon him,-'My grace is suffin character had by this time obtained cient for thee,'-three times toge- respect; his books had attracted ther." He was then as though he notice ; and Dr. Barlow, then Bihad seen the Lord look down from shop of Lincoln, and other Churchheaven

upon him “through the men, are said to have pitied “his tiles,” and direct these words to hard and unreasonable sufferings, him. It sent him mourning home; so far as to stand very much his it broke his heart, and filled him friends in procuring his enlargefull of joy.

ment.” This statement Mr. Ivimey Shortly after this, Bunyan re endeavours to invalidate. He was ceived a roving commission from liberated from confinement in 1672. the Bedford Meeting to itinerate in It is unknown in what year the the villages round about, and preach Pilgrim's Progress” was first pubthe Gospel to the poor. But, whilst lished, no copy of the first edition he was thus usefully employed, having as yet been discovered ; the “ the Doctors and Priests of the second I have seen in the British country,” he says, began to open

Museum

it is “ with additions,' wide against him; “and, in the and its date is 1678; but as the year 1657, an indictment was pre book is known to have been written ferred against bim at the assizes, for during Bunyan's imprisonment, preaching at Eaton;" for though which terminated in 1672, it was this was in the golden days of Oliver probably published before his reCromwell, when, as Mr. Ivimey, in lease,-or, at latest, immediately his “History of the Baptists,” in- after it. The earliest copy with forms us,

" there was no persecu- which Dr. Southey was furnished tion,” the same writer afterwards

was that “

eighth e-di-ti-on," hu. observes, that “the Presbyterian morously introduced by Gay, and Ministers who were then in posses- printed, not for Ni-cho-las Bodsion of the livings could not bear ding-ton, but for Nathanael Ponder, with the preaching of an illiterate at the Peacock, in the Poultry, near tinker and an unordained Minister.” the church, 1682; for whom, also, a This attempt to silence Bunyan was very early copy, which is in my posdefeated; but a few months only session, was published ; and the tenth elapsed subsequent to the Restora- in 1685. All these were, doubtless, tion, when he was one of the first large impressions. who suffered on account of his non The noted eighth edition was conformity, being cast into prison, published “with additions ;” but where he remained twelve years : There is little, if any, reason to during the last four he regularly suppose that they were attended the Baptist Meeting, his never made before ;” for the name being always in the records ; tenth bears the same promise, and and in the eleventh year, the con contains no alteration whatever. gregation chose him for their Pas. One passage of considerable length tor. A cogent proof this, that, dur. was added after the second edition, ing the later years of his incarcera -the whole scene between Mr. tion, his captivity was not rigorous. By-Ends and his three friends, and The Bedford jailer was a gentle their subsequent discourse with Provost,” who indulged Bunyan Christian and Faithful. Dr. Southey with all the liberty he could grant remarks, that it was written with with safety to himself. He was a reference to some particular case ; prisoner on parole; and, having and, in Bunyan's circle, the name of accepted the office of Pastor of the the person intended was probably Baptist church, he discharged the well known. Perhaps it was first duties of that station freely and use inserted in the fourth impression, fully: There is a print extant, in “which had many additions more which he is represented as pursued than any preceding :” this is stated by a rabble to liis own door ; but in an advertisement on the back of

new

ones

meets

the frontispiece to the eighth; where to come.” Christian has an open Biit is also said, “The publisher, ob- ble in his hand, containing clasps ; serving that many persons desired and there is a burden on his back. In to have it illustrated with pictures, the back-ground there are the beams bath endeavoured to gratify them of the eye of Providence; and at the therein; and besides those that are foot of the picture the following ordinarily printed to the fifth im- lines are printed :pression, hath provided thirteen

“Christian no sooner leaves the world but copper-cuts, curiously engraven, for such as desire them." This notice Evangelist, who lovingly hirn greets is repeated in the next edition, with With tydings of another : and doth show this alteration, that the seventh,

Him how to mount to that from this below." instead of the fourth, is named as Page 17 (p. 19 in my copy) conbaring the additions, and the eighth tains the second picture, representas that which had the ordinary ing Evangelist meeting Christian in prints. “I can only say with cer his way to Legality-House, whither tainty," observes Dr. 'Southey, “that he was going by the advice of Worldno additions have been made subse- ly-Wiseman. Mount Sinai is impend. quently to the eighth ; and no other ing over his head; and the following alterations than such verbal ones as lines are at the foot of the picture :an editor has sometimes thought " When Christians unto carnal men give ear, proper to make, or as creep into all Out of their way they go, and pay for 't dear. books which are reprinted without a

For Master Worldly-Wiseman can but show careful collation of the text.”

A saint the way to bondage and to woe." Mr. Jabez Allies, of Worcester, in Page 23 (p. 26 of my copy) cona communication addressed to the tains the third picture, representing editor of the Gentleman's Magazine, Christian knocking at the wicket(vol. II., New Series, page 261,) gate. The Celestial City is in the dismentions having recently received tance; and two persons are crossing an old duodecimo copy of the “ Pil- towards the road, without entering at grim's Progress,” which, he remarks, the wicket-gate. There is written on " if not the first, is one of the early the door of the gate, “ Knock, and it editions." Unfortunately, the title- shall be opened.” The following page and part of the author's Apo- lines are at the foot of this picture : logy for his book are lost ; but,

“He that will enter in, must first without from internal evidence, as stated by Stand knocking at the gate; nor need he Mr. Allies, I should conclude that doubt, it is a copy of the fifth, or, at any

That is a knocker, but to enter in : rate, that it is not of earlier date

For God can love him, and forgive his sin." than the fourth impression; and, Page 40 (p. 45 in my copy) confrom the rough and unpolished cha- tains the fourth picture, representing racter of the engravings, it may be Christian coming to the cross with a that edition in which these embel- fine robe on. His burden has fallen Lishments first appeared ; an amus

from off his back into the sepulchre, ing description of which is given by and old rags are lying about ; but, the writer in his account of the book. curious enough, the cross is either

After the Apology, the book com- not represented, or it is lost in the mences at page 1 thus :

confused back-ground of the hill. The following lines are at the foot of

this picture :PILGRIM'S PROGRESS

“Who's this? The Pilgrim. How I 'tis very

true,

Old things are past away; all's become new. DREAM."

Strange! he's another man, upon my word;

They be fine feathers that make a fine bird." Page 5 (p. 3 in my copy) contains a very rude wood-cut, representing Page 45 (p. 54 in my copy) conEvangelist with a scroll in his hand, tains the fifth picture, representing meeting Christian. The scroll con- Christian passing the lions at the Hill tains the words, “ Fly from ye wroth Difficulty, with the palace in the back

“ THE

IN THE SIMILITUDE OF A

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