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MEMOIRS OF GREGORIO PANZANI, OF ARREZO.. Good service has been recently manner is,” were contesting the done to the Protestant community, authority of the Romish “ Bishop of by calling attention to a volume Chalcedon.”+ The advisers of His which had nearly been forgotten,- Holiness “came to a resolution to the “Memoirs of Gregorio Pan- send over an agent, at once to inzani ;” first published in England form themselves of the true state of by the Rev. Joseph Berington, a Romish Priest, in the year 1793. + Bishop of Chalcedon.—The projected marThe coincidences in this interesting viage between Charles, Prince of Wales, and the

Infanta of Spain, and the great indulgence which Memoir are so remarkable, that it is

the King had shown to the Papists, induoed the impossible to peruse it without con

Clergy to apply to Rome for a Bishop, to saper tinually exclaiming, with the wise intend their concerns. To the King, also, the man, " That which hath been, it is plan was not disagreeable, provided a man was that which shall be; and that which chosen whose principles were moderate. is done, is that which shall be done; agent was forthwith transmitted to Rome, in the

person of Mr. John Bennet, who was aceu and there is no new thing under the

panied by a Mr. William Farrar; wlo so far sun.

succeeded in this mission, that His Holiness. The immediate occasion of the Gregory XV., consented to allow the English mission of this Romish Priest into Romanists one Bishop, whose title shouid be

taken from a district in Asia, and not from tasEngland was, the dissensions which

land; that the jurisdiction, however, of this had arisen among the adherents of

Bishop should be what is usnally rereix, the Italian sect in England, (in known, and approved in all provinces, and what 1634,) where the Jesuits, " as their each particular Bishop exercises in his diocese

The names of three individuals were given in to * For the following article we acknowledge the Cardinals, who had been nominated ar ourselves to be indebted to a late Number of the approved by the Anglican Popish hierich; “Churchman's Monthly Review and Chronicle." namely, Drs. Kellisin, Smith, and Bishen The reviewer, baving noticed a recent publica They were men of considerable endowments, tion of the Rev. William Goode, M. A., the ex each of whom had rendered himself obnovou cellent Rector of St. Antholin's, &c., entitled, to the Jesuists, who had all along opposed the “ Two Treatises on the Church,” recognises the Bishop-scheme. Kellisin was the President of great good he has done to the cause of Protest Douay College, where he had long been endes. antism, by directing the attention of the public vouring to subvert the Jesuitical control, which to the “ Memoirs of Gregorio Panzani." They had oppressed and degraded his seminary. were originally written in Italian; of which, by Smith had been recently at Rome, as an agent means of one whom the Romish historian Dodd from the Romish Clergy, and his whole deportterms" an eminent Prelate, of singular candour ment was fresh in the recollection of the authori. and scrupulosity,” an accurate translation was ties. Of him Parsons, the Jesuit, did not hesitate made. The late Mr. Bering ton, an authority of to say, “ I never dealt with any man, in my life, high repute in the Popish hierarchy, considers more heady and resolute in his opinions than is these Memoirs to be “authentic ; of which no the Doctor.” Bishop was literally detested by one can doubt who, from contemporary writers, the apostles of Loyola : he had strenuously ophas examined the minute histories of the times." posed the Jesuit plan of an Archpriest ; went to The transactions with which we are acquainted Rome, where he was immured under the scruticoincide with the statements of Panzani. Where nizing and vexatious surveillance of Father Par. no extrinsic vouchers appcar, there is still ample sons; and had actually penned and signed the evidence of their truth; for in matters of secret Protestation of Allegiance to Elizabeth, the cath negotiation, what more can be required than the of which he was said not cordially to execrate. attestation of a creditable witness, whom no On the latter Divine, who was thought to be facts or opposition of testimony eontradict? A agreeable to the English court, and already in copy of the Memoirs in our library bears the fol his seventieth year,-when death, it was hoped, lowing title-page :-"The History of the Decline would soon lay his mitred head in the dust, and and Fall of the Roman Catholic Religion in once more place the Papal Church in England in England, during a Period of two hundred and a state of confusion and anarchy,- the lot of forty Years, from the Reign of Elizabeth, to the Episcopacy fell. In February, 1623, Dr. Bishop present Time : including the Memoirs of Gre was declared “ Bishop elect of Chalcedon ;” and a gorio Panzani, Envoy from Rome to the English Bull for his consecration was issued on the 15th Court in 1643, 1644, and 1645. With many inter of the ensuing month; which was followed, on esting Particulars relative to the Court of the 23d, by a Brief, specifying his destination, Charles I., and the Causes of the Civil War. and commission for England. He was conseTranslated from the Italian Original, by the crated at Paris, where he had resided some Rev. Joseph Berington."

London. years; and on the 31st of July arrived in EngEDIT.



affairs among the Catholics, and to tanical defection; but the manner feel the pulse of the nation with re of his delivering himself, and his gard to other concerns. He that falling immediately after into a pawas chosen for this office was Gre- negyric of Pope Urban, gave the gorio Panzani, of Arrezo, a secular Italian a different view.” (Page Priest of experienced virtue, of sin. 135.) gular address, of polite learning, In the same letter he informs the and in all respects well qualified for Cardinal of several other matters, the business.” (Memoirs of Panzani, which, though in themselves trivial, p. 132. 8vo. 1793.)

plainly demonstrated the disposiThe first thing we observe in the tions of those concerned in them ; narrative of his proceedings is, the such as,--that "the Archbishop of stealthiness of the emissary's move Canterbury had ordered the Psalms ments, and the traitorous conduct to be sung in the Gregorian method of the unhappy King, Charles I. used in the Church of Rome, and

“ The Queen (herself a Papist) that the King himself had been the was first made acquainted with the first to adopt it; and that the Unidesign; and she communicated it to versities, which formerly made use the King, who gave his tacit con of the books of the first Reformers, sent; but, at the same time, singu. were now enjoined to apply themlar care was taken that the matter selves to the ancient Fathers and should not be divulged among the Councils." (Page 136.) Catholics or Protestants; who, from Panzani goes on to state,different views, might have ob. “ That Catholic schoolmasters structed its execution. In a little were allowed to teach in several time, a favourable occasion offered parts of the city of London ; that for effecting the project. Monsignor both writings and discourses of ProMazarin being deputed Nuncio Ex testants were in a different key from traordinary to the Court of France, what formerly they had been; that Panzani joined him as attendant; the King's Preachers often took ocand baving made some stay in Paris, casion to run into praises of the the latter privately passed over into moderate Papists; that they recomEngland, under the pretence of satis- mended the use of auricular confesfying his curiosity with the fashions sion, extolled the beautifying and and customs of the country, as other adorning of churches, and the paystrangers often did. This was to- ing a respect to the name of Jesus ward the end of 1634." (Page 133.) by bowing, &c.; that they disclaim

The emissary, on arriving in town, ed many popular calumnies fixed on first paid his respects to the Queen ; the Church of Rome,-owning her who, after discussing his business, to be the mother-Church, and au“signified the event to His Majesty, thor of happiness to many nations. whose only reply was, that Panzani Altars, images, &c., he said, were should be cautious, and carry on his mentioned with respect; and many, business with secrecy; and, above in common conversation, wished for all things, not to mingle with state a re-union.” (Page 139.) affairs.” (Page 134.)

Soon after this, Panzani obtained Soon after, in reporting progress an interview with Windebank,* the to Cardinal Barberini, at Rome, Panzani notices “the King's good * An interview with IV indebank.--Sir Francis inclinations.” “One of the court Windebank, who in these Memoirs acts so conPreachers,” he says, “having in

spicuous a part, had, in 1632, been made Secre

tary through the interest of Dr. Laud,--himself, veighed against schism in a sermon

the year following, promoted to the see of Canbefore His Majesty, the King was terbury. Windebank was much attached to the heard afterwards to say, that he Catholic party, “ whose extraordinary patron," would willingly have parted with says Lord Clarendon, " indeed he was.” In 1640, one of his hands, rather than such a

for his friendly conduct to that people, articles schism should have happened. Some against him; when he withdrew into France,

of impeachment were by Parliament prepared persons,” adds Panzani,

was formally reconciled to the Church of Rome, pleased to interpret this of the Puri. and died in that communion in 1646. (Dodd's


Secretary of State ; a Protestant hat, while Panzani kissed his hand; by profession, yet no enemy to the and then, with a great deal of freeCatholics; and prepared to go all dom, the latter gave His Majesty an lengths with the King and the account of his business in England, court.” (Page 142.) After much with an ample assurance of the discussion, the Secretary of State great affection His Holiness had for “ very familiarly told Panzani, that him, and a grateful remembrance of it was whispered in corners, that he the kind treatment the Catholics would be ordered to leave the king had met with under His Majesty's dom; 'But take no notice,' said he, mild and prudent reign. His Maof those reports : you may stay jesty returned these compliments in without

any apprehension or hazard.' a very obliging manner; owning Hence Panzani conceived a favour that he had always conceived a very able opinion of the court, and ima. exalted idea of the merits of Urban gined they were disposed to enter VIII., and had an uncommon affec. into a further correspondence with tion for his person ; adding, that it the Apostolic See; which conjec was a sensible trouble to him that ture was more than confirmed when the present controversies and wars Windebank added, -requesting that in Europe gave His Holiness so His Holiness would write an oblig- much disturbance.” (Page 162.) ing letter to the King,— For why After some professions of loyalty should not a common father make on the one side, and kindness on himself familiar with his children?'the other, the parties separated. After a considerable digression into “ This interview encouraged WinRomish Church affairs, the narrative debank to treat more familiarly with proceeds :

Panzani, especially on the heads of “Panzani and Windebank had religion. He told him, that he frequent opportunities of conferring really looked on himself as a good together. At last they resolved that Catholic ; otherwise, that he should it should be proposed to the Queen make no difficulty to bid adieu to and Cardinal Barberini,-whether a all that was dear to him, in order to mutual agency between the courts purchase that name. He then in of Rome and England would not be stances some things he hoggled at very convenient. Windebank seemed in the Church of Rome ; and, so charmed with the project, that namely, the article of communion he was beforehand with Panzani in in one kind, which he viewed as a communicating it to the Queen. scandalous practice.” (Page 163.) He assured Her Majesty that he . Не

then went on

to another would be secret, cordial, and assi. point :duous in carrying it on; adding, “ If we had neither Jesuits nor that the King was very curious, and Puritans in England, I am confident urgent to have a personal confer an union might easily be effected." ence with Panzani ; though, for. As for the Jesuits," said Panzani, some reasons, this meeting was to “though they have always been rebe the consequence of the Queen's garded as a very learned' body, and request, and not as if it were a mo very serviceable to the Church of tion of the King himself. The Rome, yet it is not improbable but Queen was rejoiced at the proposal, His Holiness would sacrifice their and went heartily into it; so that, interest in the prospect of so fair an in a few days, the King and Panzani acquisition." " This answer, as it were brought together, though in a was unexpected, so did it please the very remote and unsuspected place, Secretary much.” -the Queen also being present.” Windebank afterwards proceeded

This conference was, of course, of further in his discourse concerning a very general character. “ The an union, assuring Panzani that all King received him with a very the moderate men in Church and cheerful countenance, taking off his State thirsted after it. History, vol. iii., p. 59; Clarendon's History,

“ Father Philip, the Queen's Convol. ii., pp. 178-180.)-EDIT.

fessor, had incidentally some dis

course with the King on matters of Soon after this, Pope Urban him. the same tendency; in which he self being made fully acquainted endeavoured to persuade His Ma. with all Panzani's proceedings, and jesty that it was directly opposite to with the hopes entertained of the the whole design of the Gospel, that return of England to "the Roman there should be more Churches than obedience,” and “having weighed one; whence he inferred the neces. every point,” he ordered Cardinal sity for a re-union. He also soft- Barberini to give the emissary some ened the article of communion in further instructions; among which one kind; telling the King, that it we find, was only a point of discipline, alter “ That he should keep the conferable with circumstances, and might ences he had with Secretary Windebe compromised, so as not to be the bank a secret from the Roman Casubject of a breach ; with other tholics, who would be apt to grow such-like discourses, in order to uppish on the report of an union level the way, and remove preju- between the two Churches, and so dices.” (Page 165.)

break out into impertinences.” Next follows a remarkable pas. “That in case what was hoped for sage concerning the original of our did succeed, that affair was too big modern“No. XC. ;" which latter, for him, and must pass into other as every one knows, is merely an hands." “ That the court of Rome adaptation of the work of Franciscus would make a further trial of the a Sancta Clara. The Meinoir now disposition of the court of England, before us says,

before they would enter into any “I must here notice a contest further correspondence concerning which happened concerning the an union.” (Page 172.) book entitled, Deus, Natura, Gratia, The Queen's Confessor, Father the author whereof was Mr. Daven. Philip, is described as “a person of port, a Franciscan Friar, otherwise great penetration ; and one who had called Franciscus a Sancta Clara. made it his business, ever since he This book was highly esteemed by came into England, to observe the His Majesty, as being full of com religious dispositions of the nation.” plaisance for the Protestant system He wrote to Cardinal Barberini, at in several points, and discovering this period, to the following efan inclination of approaching nearer fect :to them by concessions, where the “ That the King and several of Catholic cause would permit it to be his Ministry were far from being done.” “It was the opinion of adverse to an union; but that it many, that the King was inclined to was an undertaking of the most hearken to terms of an union be- dangerous consequence, on account tween the two Churches; and that of the many and severe edicts that he looked upon this book of Daven were in force against the Roman port's as a remote disposition to Catholic religion ; that those who wards it." (Page 166.)

were most favourably inclined to But there was an inclination at the Catholic cause, were frequently Rome to inflict a censure on the obliged to give proofs of their zeal work, as conceding too much for to the contrary, for fear of notice; Papal infallibility to tolerate. Where- in which case it was difficult to upon Mr. Secretary Windebank form a just idea of their real senti“pressed Panzani to take care that ments, seeing they found themselves they were very cautious at Rome ; under a necessity of varying from for that it would certainly ruin all themselves, and acting incoherently. their projects, if a work of that For instance, he said, when there pacific tendency were condemned.” was any pressing occasion for moOn which“ Panzani omitted not to ney, the King was obliged, contrary advise his court to be cautious, and to his inclination, to let the laws to compliment the King in favour of loose against the Roman Catholics, Mr. Davenport, as far as the case otherwise the Puritanical House of would admit.” (Page 168.)

Commons would make no progress

in the Money Bills. That the Bic But as these negotiations bad now shops, in like manner, (though seve been long proceeding, it was no ral of them were disposed to enter matter of surprise that “several into a correspondence with Rome) persons made strong conjectures, when their temporalities were threat- and often discoursed on the feasi

. ened by the Puritanical Members, bleness of an union. Among these went into the same persecuting me was Mountague, t Bishop of Chithods. And that such a conduct as chester,-a person of reinarkable this had so much of contradiction learning and moderation. This genin it, that it was altogether unintel. tleman's curiosity led him so far, as ligible to those who were not per- to desire a private interview with fectly acquainted with the infirmi- Panzani. When they met, be imties of human nature, and particu- mediately fell upon the project of an larly with the irresolution of these union, as if he had been already acislanders.” (Page 187.)

quainted with the whole affair. He The Cardinal, the Father Con- signified a great desire that the fessor, and Panzani, now hit upon breach between the two Churches the scheme of having an agent from might be made up, and apprehended the court of Rome to the Queen, no danger from publishing the and one at Rome from Her Majesty. scheme, as things now stood. He Here again the unhappy Charles said, he had frequently made it the showed his fatal predilection. “The subject of his most serious thoughts, Queen now informed His Majesty and had diligently considered all the of the particulars, to which he did requisites of an union; adding, that not object; and he ordered that he was satisfied both the ArchCottington* should be consulted,- bishops, with the Bishop of London, being very capable, he said, to ad- and several others of the Episcopal vise. Secrecy was enjoined on all order, besides a great number of the hands; and the King requested that learned inferior Clergy, were prehe might himself name the person pared to fall in with the Church of who should be sent to Rome." Rome as to a supremacy purely spi“ The matter being thus far settled, ritual; and that there was no other Windebank, as the original mover method of ending controversies, than of so promising a work, appeared by having recourse to some centre much delighted.” (Page 190.) of ecclesiastical unity. That, for

Shortly after, a great effort was his own part, he knew no tenet of made by the Queen's emissaries at the Church of Rome to which he the Papal court, to have a Mr. was not willing to subscribe, unless Conn, a Scottish Priest, elevated to it were the article of transubstantiathe rank of Cardinal. And “this tion; which word, he had reason to was no less the King's than the Queen's desire; for His Majesty

† Mountague was born in Westminster, efu. entertained a notion, that to have a

cated at Eton College, and was afterwards Fel. Cardinal his friend at the Roman low of King's College, Cambridge. Fuller * court, would be very much for his he was a celebrated Grecian and Church-antiinterest; and Mr. Conn was a per

quary, well read in the Fathers; but a supersib

tious admirer of Church-ceremonies. He wis : son in whom he could confide. This

creature of Laud's, and an ill instrument between it was that kept the Queen's hopes the King and Parliament in the late times, and alive, and encouraged her not to therefore voted unfit for any Church-preferment; desist." (Page 217.)

but when the King resolved to govern without

Parliaments, His Majesty preferred him first to * Sir Francis Cottington had been created the bishopric of Chichester, and then to Norwich, Baron Cottington in the 7th of Charles, and was where he showed his zeal for the Church by a at this time Chancellor of the Exchequer. " He vigorous and illegal prosecution of the Puritas had the disadvantage of being suspected at least He was accused, by the present Parliament, fer a favourer of the Papists, (though that religion superstitious innovations; and would, no doubt, thought itself nothing beholding to him,) by have felt their resentments, if he had not gule, which he was in grcat umbrage with the people," as Mr. Fuller expresses it, a more compendions says Clarendon (vol. i., p. 151).

way, to answer for all his proceedings in the Spain, after the Restoration, a member of the liigh court of heaven. (Neale's History of the Romish Church. (Dodd, vol. iii., p. 17.)-Edit. Puritans, vol i., p. 590. 8vo.)-Eprt.

He died in

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