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$10,352, with bills falling due to the amount of not more than $3,000. The funds are therefore in a better condition at present than they were a year ago by upwards of $18,000. The Institution having paid all indebtedness incurred by repairs on the building, could to-day wind up its affairs not only without debt, but with the capital exhibited in the following statement: The whole bequest of Smithson, in United States treasury.. $341,379 63 Additions from savings, &c., in United States treasury... 108,620 37 Virginia State stock, $72,760, valued at.
40,000 00 Cash on hand...
While every part of the original programme has been rigidly carried out, the large increase in the capital exhibited in the foregoing statement may justly be claimed as the result of frugal management and a judicious investment of the interest annually accruing.
At the commencement of operations definite lines of policy were adopted, the object of which was to insure the expenditure of the income in such a manner as most effectually to realize the conceptions of the founder in his generous purpose of promoting the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.” Of the principles judged conducive to this end an important one was embodied in the resolution to co-operate, as far as possible, with individuals and institutions engaged in the same work, especially with those in the city of Washington. An obvious corollary of this was the determination to make no appropriation of the funds to the furtherance or support of any object which could be accomplished as well by other instrumentality. This policy has been frequently referred to in previous reports under the concisely expressed motto, 6 co-operation not monopoly.”
It was in the spirit of this policy that the books of the Institution were last year incorporated with those of Congress and results produced which fully justify the measure as well as illustrate the importance of the principle; for, while by this union under one system and superintendence a library has been formed worthy the National Capital, the capacity of the Smithsonian fund to advance knowledge has been materially increased. In pursuance of the same policy another important arrangement has been made during the past year. I refer to the transfer of the herbarium of the Institution to the care of the Department of Agriculture. This herbarium consists of from 15,000 to 20,000 specimens from all parts of the world, properly classified and labeled. It is the result, in the line of botany, of the various expeditions of the government and of the special explorations of the Institution. The collections have from the first been in the charge of Dr. Gray and Dr. Torrey—the two most eminent botanists in this country-who have scientifically arranged them and formed
the duplicates into sets for distribution. Dr. Gray has, however, left the country for an absence of some years in Europe, and Dr. Torrey, who has devoted at least two entire years of his life to these specimens, is unable longer to continue this gratuitous and disinterested service on account of the more imperious duties of his official position, and consequently intimated to us that the botanical specimens would have to be removed from Columbia College, New York, where they have been deposited under his care. To render such a collection of any practical use, and to preserve the plants from decay, the constant superintendence of a competent botanist is obviously indispensable; but as the appropriation hitherto made by Congress is far too meagre to meet the cost of the present support of the museum it was necessary to seek some other means of providing for these plants. Now, as the Agricultural Department requires for continual reference such a collection of plants, and had begun to gather one; and as, also, in the course of its investigations it has need of the services of a practical botanist, nothing could seem more advisable than to unite the two collections. By this arrangement not only are the series of plants themselves rendered more perfect and more readily accessible, but the Institution is in the same degreo relieved of the burden imposed upon it in the support of a multifarious and rapidly increasing museum. The transfer, however, is made with the understanding that the superintending botanist shall be approved by the Institution, that the collection shall be accessible to the public for practical or educational purposes, and to the Institution for scientific investigation or for supplying any information that may be asked for by its correspondents in regard to the names and character of plants. It is further stipulated that due credit shall be given to the Institution in the publications of the department for the deposit of the original specimens as well as for the additions which from time to time may be made to them by the Institution.
Agreeably to the policy above mentioned, the Institution has also entered into an arrangement with the medical department of the United States army by which it was thought mutual convenience and harmonious co-operation would be promoted. By this arrangement the Institution transfers to the museum in charge of the Surgeon General its large collection of human crania, and also all its specimens pertaining to anatomy, physiology, medicine, and surgery, while it takes, in return, from the medical museum all the collections which more properly relate to ethnology, It will be seen that the object kept constantly in view in these transactions is to render the various collections in Washington, which have been made under the direction of the government and the Institution, definite parts of one harmonious system, and at the same time to avoid the loss of labor and of means, in duplicating and preserving articles of a similar character in separate establishments.
The disposition, which up to this time, has been made of the plants illustrates the plan which was adopted, from the first, in order to pro
duce the most important results with a given expenditure of means. The funds of the Institution, it was seen, were not sufficient to carry out all the objects contemplated in the original law of organization. To sustain properly a national museum and render it an efficient means of popular instruction would require a number of professors of the different branches into which natural history has been divided. But, as the income was manifestly insufficient for this purpose, the plan was adopted of calling in, as far as possible, the aid of individual collaborators and of other institutions. Agreeably to this principle of action the plants were given in charge, as has been stated, to Doctors Gray and Torrey for naming and arrangement into sets, and to the latter gentleman for safe keeping until such time as means could be provided for their maintenance in Washington,
For the same reason as that just given, all the type specimens of insects which have been collected by the Institution have been divided among collaborators for study and arrangement, to be reclaimed at any time when required by the Institution. Nor is this system of co-operation confined to this country, for while through its exchanges the Institution holds friendly correspondence with all the principal scientific and literary establishments of the Old World, with a number of them it maintains relations of mutual co-operation in the way of affording assistance by sending rare specimens and furnishing required data in cases of special investigations.
While the result of the policy which has been adopted is the immediate advancement of knowledge, it tends incidentally to render the seat of government a center of scientific activity, which enlarges its reputation and extends its influence. Indeed, though Washington has generally been regarded as almost exclusively a focus of political agitation, it in reality contains a greater number of persons connected with scientific operations, and interested in intellectual pursuits, than any other city of equal population in this country. In illustration of this remark I need only mention the officers of the Engineer Departinent, of the Coast Survey, of the Light-house Board, of the Ordnance Bureau, of the army and the navy, of the Patent Office, and of the Agricultural Department; also the computors of the Nautical Almanac, the professors of the National Observatory, and those of three colleges, three medical schools, a law school, and of an institution for the deaf and dumb; besides the the directors and assistants of the asylum for the insane, two hospitals, and of the various bureaus of the government, the greater part of whom are men of more than ordinary culture, on many of whom the Institution can call for assistance and co-operation.
Publications.—The Smithsonian publications, as has been frequently stated before, are of three classes: the Contributions to Knowledge, the
Miscellaneous Collections, and the Annual Reports. The first consists of memoirs containing positive additions to science resting on original research, and which are principally the result of investigations to which the Institution has in some way rendered assistance. In all cases the memoirs are submitted to a commission for critical examination, and only accepted for publication on a favorable report. The Miscellaneous Collections are chiefly composed of works intended to facilitate the study of certain branches of natural history or of meteorology, and are designed especially to induce individuals to engage in studies as specialties, to which in leisure moments their thoughts may recur, and by observations and collections in relation to which they may not only contribute to their own pleasure but also advance the cause of science. The Annual Reports are published at the expense of the government, with the exception of the illustrations, which are furnished by the Institution. Up to the year 1854 these reports were published in a pamphlet form, and contained merely an account of the operations of the Institution for the year; but since that date an appendix has been added, principally consisting of translations, from foreign journals, of articles not accessible to the English reader, but of interest to our meteorological observers, and to persons generally who are interested in the progress of knowledge. With the addition of this appendix each report forms a volume of between 400 and 500 pages, bound in boards, with a cloth cover. The first volume of this series contains a reprint of all the previous reports of the Secretary, the will of Smithson, and the enactments of Congress in regard to the bequest, and hence in the full set of these reports a continuous history of the Institution is given from its organization to the present time. The whole number of volumes, including the present, is fifteen; of these it is to be regretted that the greater part of the extra numbers were destroyed in the fire of 1865. All the reports since 1862 have been stereotyped, and the plates of these have been preserved.
During the past year the 15th volume of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge has been published, and, in conformity with the rules adopted, has been distributed to institutions in this country and abroad, The volume contains 604 pages, and is illustrated with 43 woodcuts and 17 plates. The several articles contained in this volume which were published separately, and an account of which was given in previous reports, are as follows:
1. An investigation of the Orbit of Neptune, with general tables of its motion, by Professor Simon Newcomb.
2. On the fresh-water glacial drift of the northwestern States, loy Charles Whittlesey.
3. Geological researches in China, Mongolia, and Japan, during the years 1862 to 1865, by Raphael Pumpelly.
4. Physical observations in the Arctic seas, by Isaac I. Hayes, M. D. Another publication during the year, which is intended to form a part of the 16th volume of the Contributions, is entitled “Results of meteorological observations at Marietta, Ohio, between 1826 and 1859," by Dr. S. P. Hildreth. An account of this was given in the last report under the head of meteorology, and copies of it have been distributed to the meteorological observers. It contains 46 quarto pages, and is illustrated with 14 woodcuts.
Several parts of the miscellaneous collections have also been published. The first is a catalogue of the Orthoptera or upright winged insects of North America, described previous to 1867, prepared for the Smithsonian Institution by Samuel H. Scudder, of the Boston Society of Natural History. This work is intended as an index in which the student can find a reference to every published account of any species of Orthoptera found on the continent of North America or in the West Indies, together with the exact names given to the insects in the original descriptions. The publication and distribution of this list will assist the author himself in obtaining materials for a contemplated elaborate monograph on the same subject, while it will tend to advance science by calling attention to this interesting but heretofore little studied order of insects; an order which includes, however, among others, the cockroach and the grasshopper-the one so prejudicial to domestic comfort, and the other so often subversive of the hopes of the farmer. The preparation of this work is a gratuitous contribution by Mr. Scudder to the branch of natural history in which he is specially interested. It consists of 89 octavo pages, and will form a part of the eighth volume of miscellaneous collections.
The next publication of the year 1868 is a volume forming part four of a series of monographs of the Diptera, or two-winged insects of North America, by Baron R. Osten Sacken, Parts one and two of the same series previously published by the Institution were prepared by Dr. H. Loew, of Prussia, and the third part is in an advanced state of preparation by the same author. This volume contains the first part of a monograph of the North American Tipulidæ, the representative of which is known as the crane-fly, an insect whose larvæ are extremely destructive to crops of various kinds, devouring the roots of cereals and pasture grasses, and almost all the plants ordinarily cultivated in fields or gardens. The ground covered by the author in this monograph embraces all the known North American species, exclusive of those of the West Indies and Mexico. The principal areas from which the specimens described have been obtained are the environs of the cities of Washington and of New York, but the author also made collections during occasional excursions to different parts of New York, Pennsylvania, and New England, besides receiving contributions from other parts of this continent. Thus, as far as the more common species are concerned, the middle and northern States may be said to be tolerably well represented in this volume, the regions west of the Allegha