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President, to distribute copies of the Memoirs to the Fellows of the Academy resident in foreign countries as they shall deem expedient.'

3. “ That five hundred copies of the fourth volume (New Series) be printed, of which one hundred shall be furnished to the authors of the memoirs respectively, for immediate distribution.”

Three hundred and fourteenth meeting.

January 2, 1849. — Monthly Meeting. The PRESIDENT in the chair.

Dr. Charles T. Jackson stated that he had discovered the presence of manganese in the water of streams, &c., almost universally. He had detected it in water from the middle of Lake Superior, in Cochituate water, &c. It has usually been regarded as iron in previous analyses. He regarded the observation as having an important bearing in accounting for the deposits of bog manganese at the outlets of lakes and in bogs, as well as for the source of the oxide of manganese in the blood.

Dr. Jackson also remarked upon the importance of having permanent marks fixed along our coast, at mean low water, to serve as a future indication in respect to the elevation or subsidence of the land. It was thought that the proper observations might best be made, and the marks fixed, by the United States Coast Survey. On motion of Dr. Jackson, a committee, consisting of Dr. Jackson, Mr. Desor, and Dr. Gay, was appointed to confer with the proper authorities upon this subject.

Professor Peirce presented a memoir entitled “ Researches in Analytical Mechanics. No. I. Upon the Fundamental Principles of Mechanics.” In this memoir, the various principles which have been proposed and adopted as a basis of the science are discussed historically and philosophically, and a new form is proposed, which is thought by the author to be more general, and less exceptionable than the others which have been given. “A system of bodies in motion," he re

marked, “must be regarded mechanically as a system of forces or powers which is a perfect representative of all the single powers of which the system is compounded, and this, too, at whatever time or times the component powers may have been introduced into the system. The question of the simultaneous introduction of the partial powers is of no importance. Any power which is at any time communicated to the system is preserved in the system unchanged in amount or direction."

Dr. B. A. Gould, Jr., presented a discussion of the observations of the planet Metis, with a determination of its orbit, accompanied by a computation of the subsequent perturbations of the orbit, and an ephemeris.

“ All observations known to me have been used, with the exception of a few extrameridional ones at times when meridian observations were numerous. They are as follows, - corrected for parallax and reduced to Berlin mean time and decimals of a day.

“ OBSERVATIONS of Metis, 1848. Mean Berlin

Ast. Soc. Ast. Place.

Not. Nachr.

VIII. XXVII. 1 Apr. 26.510104 E. 223 53 387 -12 31 463 Markree p.175 p. 334 .584930 M. 52 29.1 31 33.1

174 192,331 .633460 E. 51 48.9 31 26.9

175 334 28.478664 E. 24 22 2 26 31.6

175 334 29.488233 E. 11.5 23 50.0

175 334 30.499384'E. 222 53 49.2 20 52.4 Camb. E. 177 .547582 M. 53 5.2 20 46.6

176 May 1.511634 E 38 28.0 18 10.3

177 .544158 M 38 5.4 18 2.5

176 2.540726 M. 22 52.6 15 25.3

176 .566836 E. 22 264 15 25.4

177 3 444364 E. 9 12.6 13 8.0 Markree 175 334 ,517743 E. 8 1.6 12 52.8 Camb. E. 177 .537294 M.

12 47.11

176 4.533866 M. 221 52 36 0

10 10.4

176 .571414 E. 52 52

10 8.4

177 5.477282 E. 38 19.5

7 47.3 Markree 175 334 .503099M. 37 54.5 7 42.7 Hamburg

202 .503183 M. 37 548 7 377 laltona

209 .530446 M. 37 37.5

7 32 6 Camb. E. .554108 M. 37 8.4

7 33.0 Markree 174 331 6.499673 M. 22 50.2

5 12.1 Hamb. .499761 M 22 54.5

5 6.6 Altona .527015 M. 22 27.0

5 2.8 Camb. E. .588627 E. 21 30.0

4 46 6

177 7.480770 M. 7 54.5

2 37.9 Berlin

222 .496248 M. 7 485

2 40.9 Hamb. 177 .496322M 7 51.6

2 36.6 Altona

209 .523590 M. 7 25.8

2 31.4 Camb. E. 8.483351 M.220 52 59.3 -12 0 11.8 Berlin

222

No

a

Time.

177

177

202

209

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“ The letters E. and M. show whether the observation was made with a meridian or with an equatorial instrument.

A.

“ The declination of the comparison star Bessel XIV. 424, used at Markree on the 2d, 3d, and 5th of June, is apparently wrong.

Weisse gives -11° 11 44.4
Challis finds -11 11 33.0

Rümker“ -11 11 41.6 “ In the four observations at Markree where the planet was referred to this star, the mean between the declinations given by Professors Challis and Rümker has been assumed for the comparison star, and the planet's south declination therefore diminished by 7".1.

“In the star to which the planet was referred at Markree on the 18th and 19th of May, the conclusion of Mr. Graham, that there is an error of 4' in the R. A. of 4848 Br. Assoc. Catal., is evidently correct. The observations of Metis on those days harmonize much better with the rest of the series, however, by taking the position of the star there given, with this correction, than by taking the one which Mr. Graham obtained on the 25th of May, and the former has therefore been used for the comparison. The other determination gives, –

Af 70 -371 +66

72 -9.1 +5.6 “ The right ascension of the Cambridge observation of May 16 (A. S. Notices, p. 177) is given 145. 33m. 47*.46, where the minutes should evidently be 35, instead of 33.

“ In the Cambridge observation of July 27, as given in the Notices of the Astr. Soc., p. 206, there is an error in the right ascension of 20 seconds of time. The observation clearly was 14". 28m. 42.1.

“ Is there not a mistake of 1m. in the Hamburg observations of May 15th and June 6th, and the Cambridge Mer. of June 5th ?

“From three normal places for April 23.5, June 16.5, and August 4.5, I have computed three different ellipses, the normal places differing from one another according to the number of observations from which they were constructed. The observations of Professor Challis at Cambridge in England, on the 4th of August, have been of great service, and contributed in a high degree to the precision of the new orbit. The fact that so small and faint an object was observed so near the sun, three weeks after any other published observations, furnishes of itself a sufficient tribute to the skill and unwearied efforts of the observer, and the great power of the Northumberland equatorial. It

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