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“Desirous to render the occupation of New Mexico by the United States troops subservient to the advancement of science, and to make known the vegetation of a region which had scarcely been visited by a naturalist, Dr. Engelmann and myself, with the coöperation of one or two friends who patronized the enterprise, induced Mr. Fendler to undertake a botanical exploration of the country around Santa Fé. In execution of this plan, Mr. Fendler left Fort Leavenworth, on the Missouri, on the 10th of August, 1846, with a military train, he having been allowed by the Secretary of War a free transportation for him. self, his luggage, and collections.
“Mr. Fendler travelled the well-beaten track of the Santa Fé trad. ers to the Arkansas, and then followed that river up to Bent's Fort, which he reached on the 5th of September. On the 25th of September the Arkansas was crossed, four miles above Bent's Fort, and the westerly course was now changed to a southwestern direction, through an arid and very barren region, where the shrubby Alriplex was the most characteristic plant, and furnished almost the only fuel to be obtained. Thus far the country was a comparatively level, or rather rolling, prairie, rising gradually from one thousand to more than four thousand feet above the sea. But on Sept. 27th, the base of the moun. tain chain was reached, which is an outlier of the Rocky Mountains, and attains in the Raton Mountains the elevation of eight thousand feet. West of these, in dim distance, the still higher Spanish Peaks appear, which have only been visited, very cursorily, by the naturalists of Major Long's expedition in 1820. Scattered Pine-trees are here seen for the first time on the Rio de los Animos (or Purgatory River of the Anglo-Americans), which issues from the Raton Mountains. The par. ty several times crossed large perfectly level tracts, which at this sea. son, at least, showed not a sign of vegetation ; in other localities of the same description, nothing but a decumbent species of Opuntia was observed. The sides of the Raton Mountains were studded with the tall Pinus brachyptera, Engelm., and the elegant Pinus concolor. Descending the mountains, the road led along their southeastern base, across the head-waters of the Canadian.
“On the 11th of October, Mr. Fendler obtained the first view of the valley of Santa Fé, and was disagreeably surprised by the apparent sterility of the region where his researches were to commence in the following season. The mountains rise probably to near nine thousand feet above the sea-level, two thousand feet above the town, but do not reach the line of perpetual snow, and are destitute, therefore, of strictly alpine plants. Their sides are studded with the two Pines already mentioned, with Pinus flexilis, &c.
“ The Rio del Norte, twenty-five or thirty miles west from Santa Fé, is probably two thousand feet lower than that town. Its flora is meagre; but some interesting plants were obtained on its sandy banks, or on the black basaltic rocks, which in other places rise directly from its brink. South and southwest of Santa Fé, an almost level and sterile plain extends for fifteen miles, which supports little vegetation, except four or five Cacteæ, some Grasses, and here and there a bush of the Shrub Cedar. To the west and north there is a range of gravelly hills, thinly covered with Cedar and the Nut Pine. The valleys be. tween the hills appear to have a fertile soil, but cannot be cultivated for want of irrigation. They furnished some very interesting portions of Mr. Fendler's collection.
“By far the richest and most interesting region about Santa Fé, for the botanist, is the valley of the Rio Chiquito (little creek) or Santa Fé Creek. It takes its origin about sixteen or eighteen miles northeast of the town, from a small mountain lake or pond, runs through a narrow, chasm-like valley, which widens about three miles from Santa Fé, and opens into the plain just where the town is built. Below, the stream is almost entirely absorbed by the numerous irrigating ditches, which are most essential for the fertilization of the otherwise sterile fields. Most of the characteristic plants of the upper part of the creek and of the mountain-sides are those of the Rocky Mountains, or of allied forms ; some of which, such as Atragene Ochotensis or alpina, Draba aurea, &c., have never before been met with in so low a latitude (under 36°).
“Mr. Fendler made his principal collections from the beginning of April to the beginning of August, 1847, in the region just described. At that time, unforeseen obstacles obliged him to leave the field of his successful researches. He quitted Santa Fé on the 9th of August, followed the usual road to Fort Leavenworth, which separates from the • Bent's Fort road' at the Mora River, and unites with it again at the • Crossing of the Arkansas.' The first part of the route from Santa Fé to Vegas leads through a mountainous, wooded country, of much botanical interest, crossing the water-courses of the Pecos, Ojo de Ber. nal, and Gallinas. From Vegas the road leads northeastwardly through an open prairie country, occasionally varied with higher hills, as far as the Round Mound (6,655 feet high, according to Dr. Wislizenus). The principal water-courses on this part of the route, all of which furnished different remarkable species, were the Mora, Ocaté, Colorado (the head of the Canadian), and Rock Creek, all of which empty into the Canadian. Rabbit's Ear Creek and McNees Creek (the head-waters of the north fork of the Canadian) are east of the mountains altogether. From thence the Cimarron was reached, where the Cold Spring, Upper, Middle, and Lower Spring, and Sand Creek are interesting local. ities. On September 4th, Mr. Fendler recrossed the Arkansas, and reached Fort Leavenworth on the 24th of that month.
“ The systematic enumeration of the plants collected by Mr. Fend. ler, at this time presented to the Academy, extends to the close of the Compositæ (Nos. 1 – 462); and embraces the following new species, viz.: – Thalictrum Fendleri. Berberis Fendleri, a beautiful and very distinct species, allied to B. Canadensis. Argemone hispida, — also gathered by Fremont and Wislizenus, — allied to A. grandiflora. Nasturtium sphærocarpum, a species with almost exactly globose sili. cles, as its name indicates. Streptanthus micranthus, and S. lineari. folius. Cardamine cordifolia, a species most resembling C. asarifolia of the Old World. Sisymbrium incisum, which has the pods of S. Sophia, but with longer pedicels and much coarser foliage. Vesicaria Fendleri, a very distinct species of a genus which appears to have its principal focus in Texas and New Mexico. Lepidium alyssoides, which was also found by Fremont. Drymaria sperguloides, and D. te. nella, two remarkable narrow-leaved species. Arenaria Fendleri, a grassy-leaved species of a group not before found in the New World. Sidalcea Neo-Mexicana, and S. candida, belonging to a new genus, of which Sida diploscypha, Torr. f. Gr., is the type. Ceanothus Fendleri. Dalea nana, Torr. ined., allied to D. aurea. Astragalus diphy. sus, and A. cyaneus ; and four new species of Phaca, viz. P. Fendleri, P. gracilenta, P. macrocarpa, and P. picta. Calliandra herbacea, a small, depressed herb. Mimosa borealis, a shrub, found north of lat. 37°, also gathered in flower by Mr. Gordon. Potentilla diffusa, and P. crinita. (Enothera (Pachylophis) eximia, the largest and most striking species of the section, and apparently one of the handsomest of the genus ; and E. (Salpingia) Fendleri, also a very showy species. The new Cacteæ are Mammillaria papyracantha, Cereus Fendleri, and Opuntia pheacantha, described by Dr. Engelmann, who has very successfully investigated this family. Ribes leptanthum. Philadelphus microphyllus, a charming species. Archemosa Fendleri. Cy.
mopterus Fendleri. Thaspium ? montanum. Of Loranthaceæ, Phoradendron juniperinum, Engelm., with two Arceuthobia which Dr. Engelmann considers distinct from the A. oxycedri of the Old World. Galium Fendleri, and G.'asperrimum.
“ The following are the new Compositæ of the collection, viz. : Clavigera brachyphylla. Brickellia Fendleri. Aster Fendleri. Erigeron canum, E. cinereum, and E. flagellare. Townsendia Fendleri and T. erimia, two interesting additions to a genus characteristic of the region (and still another is added from farther south). Gutierrezia (Hemiachyris) spherocephala. Franseria tenuifolia, and F. tomentosa. Bidens tenuisecta. Sanvitalia Aberti. Heterospermum tagetinum. Lowellia aurea, a new genus allied to Dysodia. Schkuhria NeoMexicana. Actinella argentea, the most showy species of the genus. Amauria? dissecta, also found by Fremont. Senecio Fendleri. Cir. sium ochrocentrum. Crepis ambigua. Macrorhynchus purpureus.
“Numerous species and several new genera are characterized in notes to the memoir, of which the greater part are from the NorthMexican collections of Dr. Wislizenus and Dr. Gregg."
Mr. James D. Dana, of New Haven, presented a continuation of his brief synopsis of the characters of the Crustacea obtained during the cruise of the vessels of the United States Exploring Expedition, as follows:
Conspectus Crustaceorum quæ in Orbis Terrarum circumnavigatione,
CAROLO Wilkes e Classe Reipublicæ Fæderatæ Duce, lexit et de. scripsit JACOBUS D. Dana. Pars II.*
Familia III. CALANIDÆ.
Oculi simplices ; etiam sæpe alii duo inferiores deorsum spectantes.
Pedes mandibulares maxillaresque articulati et longe setigeri. Sacculus oviger unicus. Antenna antica elongatæ, non appendiculatæ.
Antenna posticæ apice setigeræ.
• Vide Parlem I., Vol. I. p. 149.
1. Pedes mandibulares duo (membra cephalothoracis, ad normam, quarta, ct. iv.). II. Maxillæ duæ (ct. v.). VOL. II.
Oculis inferioribus nullis.
(Pedibus anticis (ct. vii.) majo
ribus quam maxillipedes (ct. Pedibus posti vi.), lateraliter porrectis, non
cis (ct. xii.) | geniculatis. ... ... 1. CALANUS. Antennis an non prehenticis nec an silibus, sæpe | Pedibus anticis minoribus gulo flexis, obsoletis. quam maxillipedes. Maxillinec articula
pedibus sub corpore geniculatione geni
( tis. Abdomine longissimo. 2. SCRIBELLA. culatis.
Pedibus posticis elongatis, subulatis, uno sub-
sub corpore gestis, apice deflexis.... 3. EuchÆTA.
(Maxillipedibus duplo genicu
latis, inflexis, setis longis, nuAntennâ anticâ maris dextrâ ) dis. . . . . . . . . 5. CANDACE. I geniculante.
Max. rectis, setis longis, setu
I losis. . . . . . . . 6. CYCLOPSINA. Oculis superioribus nullis, inferioribus grandibus. Antennâ anticâ dextrâ maris geniculante ; aliis Calano affinibus. . . . . 7. Catopia.
Antennà anticâ dextrâ maris non geniculante, ambabus.
flexilibus, setis diffusis. Pedibus posticis parvulis, uni
articulatis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. ACARTIA. | Antennâ anticà dextrâ maris geniculante ; setis non dif| fusis. Pede postico dextro crasso, prehensili. ... 9. PONTELLA.
Oculis inferioribus et superioribus.
Genus I. CALANUS. (Leach.) Rostrum furcatum. Antenna antica sive leviter curvatæ, sive rectæ,
maris non geniculantes. Pedes postici (ct. xii.) obsolescentes, maris non prehensiles. Pedes antici (ct. vii.) elongati, latè porrecti, maxillipedibus (ct. vi.) majores, non geniculati. Oculi inferiores nulli. Cephalothorax 4 - 5-articulatus. Rami antennarum posticarum subæqui, ramo breviore ad apicem 3-setis instructo, in dorso se. tigero.*
III. Maxillipedes (vel maxillæ) duo (ct. vi.).
V., VI., VII., VIII., et sæpe IX. Pedes biremes octo vel decem (ct. viii., is., X., xi., xii.).
In ambiguis, etiam numeri (scil. ct. iv., ct. v., etc.) sæpe subjuncti.
Mandibulum articulus pedis mandibularis primus est, et “palpi" articuli sequentes pedis reliqui sunt.
* Species optime distinguendæ sunt:
1. Per gestum antennarum anticarum; etiam per setas, præcipuè apicales et subapicales ; per longitudinem et numerum articulorum :
2. Per maxillipedes, et pedes anticos :