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Table 101.- Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

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Of the male employees for whom information was secured, 75.1 per cent are foreign-born, 14.2 per cent are native-born of native father, and 10.7 per cent are native-born of foreign father. Among the foreign-born, the South Italians, North Italians, Germans, and Dutch have, in the order mentioned, the largest representation.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States

Weekly earnings - Relation between period of residence and earning ability - [Text Tables 102 to 104 and General Tables 72 to 74).

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

In order that an intelligent conception may be had of the economic status of immigrant employees in the silk-dyeing industry, it is necessary to set forth their industrial condition before emigrating from their native countries. Such an exhibit is also valuable in showing what training and experience foreign-born employees had abroad in the same industry in which they are now employed; consequently before entering into a discussion of their present economic status, the following table is submitted, which shows, by race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born male employees of the silk-dyeing industry in each specified occupation before coming to the United States:

Table 102.Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the l'nited States, by race.

(STIDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the male employees for whom information was secured, 16.2 per cent were employed, before coming to the United States, in textile manufacturing; 7.6 per cent in other manufacturing; 29.3 per cent in farming or farm labor; 12.5 per cent in general labor; 15.7 per cent in hand trades; 7.5 per cent in trade; and 11.1 per cent in occupations not specified. The proportion of individuals employed abroad in textile manufacturing is much larger for the Germans than for the North Italians, and much larger for the latter than for the South 452°-VOL 11-11--9

123

Italians, while the proportion of individuals employed in farming or in farm labor, or in general labor is largest for the South Italians, second largest for the North Italians and smallest for the Germans. A much larger proportion of the Germans than of either the North Italians or the South Italians were employed in manufacturing other than textile manufacturing.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 18 years of age or over, who were earning each specified amount each week:

Table 103.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the male employees, for whom information was secured, almost all earn $7.50 per week or over; 96.9 per cent, $10 or over; 27.3 per cent, $12.50 or over; 6.9 per cent, $15 or over; 3.6 per cent, $17.50 or over; and 2.6 per cent, $20 or over. The proportion of individuals earning $10

per week or over is largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the native-born of native father. The proportion of individuals earning $12.50 or over and $15 or over per week, respectively, is larger for both the native-born of native father and the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born; and the proportion of individuals earning $17.50 or over and $20 or over per week, respectively, is largest for the native-born of foreign father, second largest for the foreignborn and smallest for the native-born of native father. Of the foreign-born, the Germans and North Italians have the largest proportion of individuals earning $12.50 or over, $15 or over, $17.50 or over, and $20 or over per week, respectively.

RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The extent to which the industrial efficiency or earning capacity of employees increases after designated periods of residence in this country is shown in the following table, which shows, by race and length of residence in the United States, the per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount

per week:

Table 104. - Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each 8 pecified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

Race and years in

United States.

'Per cent earning each specified amount per week.
Number
reporting
complete

$7.50 or $10 or $12.50 or $15 or $17.50 or
$5 or over.
data.

over. over. over. over. over

$20 or over.

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost ilmne from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual carnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

It appears from the percentages of the above table that the proportion of South Italian male employees earning the larger sums specified increases, in general, with length of residence of employees in the United States.

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