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CHAPTER V.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Citizenship-Ability to speak English- [Text Tables 111 to 115 and General Tables

80 to 82).

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which foreign-born employees have acquired or manifested an interest in attaining citizenship is set forth in the following table which shows, by race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country. Table 111.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the t'nited States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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It appears from the data presented in the preceding table that, of the male employees for whom information was secured, 35.4 per cent are fully naturalized and 18.8 per cent have first papers only. The proportion of employees fully naturalized is largest for the Germans, second largest for the Dutch, and smallest for the South Italians, while the proportion of employees having first papers only is largest for the Dutch, second largest for the South Italians, and smallest for the Germans.

The interest exhibited by silk-dyeing employees of foreign birth in acquiring citizenship after designated periods of residence in this country is indicated in the following table, which shows, by years in the United States and race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States: Table 112.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years

of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the 362 male employees studied 35.4 per cent are fully naturalized and 18.8 per cent have first papers only. From the total figures, as well as by the only race shown in this table, it is seen that interest in civic affairs increases as the period of residence in the United States is extended.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The next table presented shows, by race, the percentage of foreignborn male employees of non-English-speaking races, who were able to speak English: TABLE 113.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, how.

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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From the data presented in the above table it appears that 69.8 per cent of the foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured speak English. The proportion of individuals speaking English is largest for the Dutch and Germans, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the North Italians.

The table next submitted makes possible a comparison by age at time of coming to the United States and race, the per cent of foreignborn male employees who were able to speak English.

TABLE 114.Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time

of coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, how.

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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It appears from the data presented in the above table that 96.3 per cent of the foreign-born male employees who came to the United States when under 14 years of age can speak English, as compared with 65.6 per cent of those who came here when 14 or over. All of the Germans and a larger proportion of the North Italians than of the South Italians who came to the United States when under 14 can speak English, while the proportion of individuals who came when 14 or over who are able to speak English is largest for the Germans, second largest for the South Italians, and smallest for the North Italians. In the case of all three races, for which the percentages are given, a considerably larger proportion of individuals who came to this country when under 14 than of individuals who came here when 14 or over can speak English.

The advancement manifested by employees of foreign birth and non-English-speaking races in acquiring an ability to speak English after designated periods of residence is shown in the table following. The table shows, by years in the United States and race, the per cent of foreign-born male employees who were able to speak English. Table 115.Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by years in the

United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the l'nited States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

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781

33.8

57.3

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The proportion of foreign-born male employees who speak English is 33.8 per cent for individuals who have been in the United States under five years; 57.3 per cent for individuals who have been here from five to nine years, and 89.6 per cent for individuals who have been here ten years or over. Of the three races for which the percentages are given the Germans have the largest and the North Italians the smallest proportion of individuals in the United States under five years, and from five to nine years who

speak English, while the Germans have the largest and the South Italians the smallest proportion of individuals in the United States ten years or over who speak English. There is in the case of all the races mentioned a steady increase in the proportion of individuals who are able to speak English, with length of residence in the United States.

GENERAL TABLES.

1.-GENERAL SURVEY: TABLES 1-53. II.-PENNSYLVANIA: TABLES 54-69. III.-SILK DYEING: TABLES 70-82.

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