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IMMIGRANTS IN INDUSTRIES.

CLOTHING MANUFACTURING.

This report, which was prepared under the direction of the Commission by W. Jett Lauck, superintendent of agents, forms part of the general report of the Immigration Commission on immigrants in industries.

CONTENTS.

PART 1.-GENERAL SURVEY OF THE INDUSTRY.

Page. 259 260 260 260 262 269

271

272 278

283

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

The growth of the industry.
Extent of the territory studied
Households studied..
Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.
Employees for whom information was secured.

The preparation of the report.....
CHAPTER 11.-- Racial displacements:

History of immigration....
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households......

Racial classification of employees at the present time.
CHAPTER 111.- Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied..
Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States...
General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied.
General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied.
The first and second generations compared.....
Weekly earnings..
Relation between period of residence and earning ability.
Annual earnings of male heads of families studied..
Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied..
Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual family income.
Wives at work..
Relation between earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping

boarders or lodgers... Sources of family income.

Relative importance of the different sources of family income. CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Regularity of employment...

The immigrant and organized labor...
CHAPTER V.- Housing and living conditions:

Rent in its relation to standard of living.
Boarders and lodgers....
Size of apartments occupied.
Size of households studied.

(ongestion.
CHAPTER 11.-- Salient characteristics:

Literacy...
Conjugal condition..
Visits abroad.....

Age classitication of employees and members of their households. (CHAPTER VII.-General progress and assimilation:

Ownership of homes..
Status of children in the households studied.
Citizenship.....
Ability to speak English.

286 288 289 290 291 299 304 306 307 307 309

309 311 313

315 316

319 322

324

325 326

331 335 314 346

351 352 334 357

256

Clothing Manufacturing : Contents.

PART II.-CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN NEW YORK CITY.

Page. 365 366

369 370 372

375 376 379

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Extent of the industry in New York City....

Employees for whom information was secured.
CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration....
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees.

Racial classification of employees at the present time...
CHAPTER III.-Economic status:
Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States..
Weekly earnings.

Relation between period of residence and earning ability.
CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Hours of work..
Size of establishments.

The immigrant and organized labor.
CHAPTER V.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy..
Conjugal condition.
Visits abroad.....

Age classification of employees.
CHAPTER VI.-General progress and assimilation:

Citizenship......
Ability to speak English

383 383 387

389 390 394 395

399 400

PART III.-CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN BALTIMORE, MD.

Page.

405

407 408 409 410

411

411

CHAPTER 1.-Introduction:

Employees for whom information was secured...
CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration...
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees.
Racial classification of employees at the present time.
Reasons for the employment of immigrants.
Methods used in securing immigrant labor.

Effect of employment of immigrants upon former employees....
CHAPTER III.-Economic status:
Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States...
Occupations entered and progress of immigrants in the clothing industry..

Weekly earnings.
CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Hours of work...
Effect of the industrial depression of 1907 and 1908.
Effect of employment of immigrants upon establishment of new industries.

Employers' opinions of recent immigrants.
CHAPTER V.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy..
Conjugal condition.
Visits abroad..

Age classification of employees...
Chapter VI.-General progress and assimilation:

Citizenship....
Ability to speak English..

413 413 414

417 417 417 418

419 420 422 423

425 425

PART IV.-CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN CHICAGO, ILL.

Page. 429

431 431 433 434

435 436 439

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Employees for whom information was secured....
CHAPTER II.--Racial displacements:

History of immigration...
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees.
Racial classification of employees at the present time..

Reasons for employing immigrants.....
Chapter 111.-Economic status:

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States.... Weekly earnings.

Relation between period of residence and earning ability.
Chapter IV.-Working conditions:

The factory system.
Hours worked
The effect of the employment of recent immigrants on industries.

Employers' opinion of recent immigrants.
CHAPTER V.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy....
Conjugal condition..
Visits abroad.

Age classification of employees.
CHAPTER VI. --General progress and assimilation:

Citizenship......

Ability to speak English.
General tables....

General explanation of tables.
List of text tables...
List of general tables.
List of charts...

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