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CLOTHING MANUFACTURING.

PART 1.- GENERAL SURVEY OF THE INDUSTRY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION. The growth of the industry-Extent of the territory studied-Households studied

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured-Employees for whom information was secured—The preparation of the report Text Tables 1 to 7 and General Tables 1 to 3).

THE GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY. The clothing manufacturing industry has undergone a rapid expansion during the past forty years, the value of men and women's clothing made in this country being $436,881,648 in the year 1900 as contrasted with only $161,560,836 in 1870. No statistics for the country as a whole are available since 1900, but during the past ten years it is thought that the extension of the industry has been relatively greater than in preceding decades.

From the standpoint of immigration, the development of the clothing manufacturing industry has been chiefly significant in the demand for labor which has been created. The result of this demand is seen in the increase in the number of the operatives, the total number in 1870 being only 119,824 as compared with 205,633 in 1900. The increase in the number of persons employed in the manufacturing of clothing in the country as a whole during the period 1870–1900 is shown in the table immediately following, together with the geographical distribution of the operating force in the year 1900. The table also furnishes in a summary form an exhibit of the growth of the industry in the whole country during the period 1870-1890 and the localization of the industry in the year 1900. Table 1.--Growth of the clothing industry in the United States, 1870 to 1900, and status

of the industry in selected States, 1900. (Compiled from United States Census Report, Manufactures, 1900, Part 3. Table 1, p. 261; Table 3, pp. 263-264; Table 11, pp. 272-279; Table 12, p. 280; Table 13, pp. 280-281; Table 14, p. 283; Table 16, pp. 284– 286; and Table 23, pp. 292-295.]

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8,581 $169, 298, 434 $436, 881, 648
6, 291

149, 703, 193 319, 967, 683
6, 728

88,068, 969 241, 553, 254 9, 705

53, 743, 598 161,560, 836 1,N

16, 645, 651 47, 185, 9N) 208 9, 306, 756 20, 039, 783 316 5, 411, 719 15,040, 648 201 5,675, 148 12,064, 021

2, 370, 768 5,663, 533
4,283 80,804,525 233,721, 052

673 13,614, 486 24, 400, !
729 15, 659, 606 35, 185, 804
915 19, 405, 655 43, 519,364

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EXTENT OF THE TERRITORY STUDIED.

In the collection of data employees were studied in four of the principal clothing manufacturing centers, New York, Chicago, Baltimore, and Rochester, N. Y., and to a smaller extent in other cities east of the Mississippi River. Households were studied in detail in New York City, Rochester, N. Y., Baltimore, Md., and Chicago, Ill. The extent of the statistical information secured is shown in the series of tables which follow.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In the course of the investigation of the clothing industry original information was received for 19,502 employees, and 906 households the heads of which were employed in the manufacture of clothing were studied in detail. The following table shows the households studied, according to general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 2.--Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

Households.

General nativity and race of head of household.

Per cent Number. distribu

tion.

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Native-born of foreign father, by race of father, Bohemian and Moravian..
Foreign-born:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Hebrew.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian
Polish..
Russian.

Grand total.
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total foreign-born...

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Of the 906 households studied in this industry, 97.2 per cent are households the heads of which are foreign-born and 2.8 per cent are households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father.

The Ilebrew households constitute 44.9 per cent of all households studied. This, it will be seen, is in excess of the combined proportions of Bohemian and Moravian and South Italian households studied. The number of Lithuanian, Polish, and Russian households constitute but little over 10 per cent of all households studied in this industry.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS

SECURED.

The table next presented shows, by genera, nativity and race of head of household, the persons in the households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured.

TABLE 3.-Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured in the households studied:

Table 4.-Sex of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Of the 4,686 persons in this industry for whom detailed information was secured, 51.1 per cent were males and 48.9 per cent females. Both the foreign-born and native-born of foreign father report a proportion of males slightly in excess of females. With the exception of the foreign-born Bohemians and Moravians, each race shows a smaller proportion of the females than males. While the difference in proportions of males and females of each race is very small, it is more noticeable with the Russians than any other, this last-named race reporting 59.4 per cent males as compared with 40.6 per cent females.

The table next submitted shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the persons for whom detailed information was secured in the households studied.

TABLE 5.—Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race of individual.

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In addition to the households studied, as already stated, data were received for 19,502 employees. The following table and charts show, by sex, the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured:

TABLE 6.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race.

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Native-born of native father.

White....

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by country
of birth of father:

Australia.
Austria-Hungary.
Belgium.
Canada.
Denmark.
England.
France.
Germany.
Ireland.
Italy..
Netherlands.
Norway.
Roumania
Russia.
Scotland.
Servia..
Sweden
Switzerland.
Turkey..

Wales.
Foreign-born, by race:

Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian...
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other
Croatian..
Cuban.
Danish..
Dutch.
English.
Finnish.
French..
German..
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian
Hebrew, Other
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Mexican.
Montenegrin.
Norwegian..
Polish...
Portuguese..
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian
Scotch..
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian
Spanish..
Swedish.
Syrian.
Welsh.
Australian (race not specified)..
Austrian (race not specified).
Belgian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified).

Grand total...
Total native-born of foreign father..
Total native-born...
Total foreign-born...

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17 3,618 1,390

72 1,114 2,815

805 238

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