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The preceding table shows the living conditions prevailing among 906 households in the clothing industry. As far as this table goes it does not show great congestion; the average for all is less than 1.5 persons per room. The per cent of households who have 3 or over to a room is very small, and for those having 2 or over to the room it is not large, being less than one-quarter of the entire number. Among the foreign-born the Lithuanians show the greatest degree of crowding, the Hebrews coming next. The foreign-born Bohemians and Moravians are more crowded than the second generation of the same race.

The table next presented shows the range in the number of persons per sleeping room, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

Table 64.- Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of a total of 906 households, which show an average of 2.57 persons per sleeping room, 85.5 per cent have 2 or more, 41.9 per cent 3 or more, 15.8 per cent 4 or more, 5.7 per cent 5 or more, and 2.4 per cent 6 or more persons per sleeping room. The foreign-born show a slightly larger proportion having each specified number, except 4 or more, per sleeping room than do the native-born of foreign father. It should be noted, however, that the native-born of foreign father are only Bohemians and Moravians.

The last table in the series which immediately follows indicates the effect upon living arrangements of congestion within the households studied. It shows by general nativity and race of head of household the number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms.

Table 65.- Number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

Average Number of households Per cent of households
Total
Average number sleeping in-

sleeping in
number of
General nativity and race

number
of

of rooms sleeping of head of household.

house

per rooms house

All ex- All ex. holds.

ALI per

All ex- All er

All hold. house- rooms.

cept 1 cept 2

cept 1 cept 2

rooms. room. rooms.

room, hold.

rooms.

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Of the 906 households studied in the preceding table only 5.6 per cent use all rooms for sleeping purposes, 33.1 per cent having 1 room and 35.4 per cent 2 rooms used for other than sleeping purposes. The native-born of foreign father shows none as compared with 5.8 per cent of the foreign-born households using all rooms for sleeping purposes. The foreign-born also show a larger proportion of their households sleeping in all except 1 as well as all except 2 rooms, consequently a smaller proportion having more than 2 rooms which are used for other than sleeping purposes.

Among the foreign races the Polish shows the largest and the Bohemian and the Moravian the smallest proportion of their households sleeping in all rooms as well as in all except 1 room, while the South Italian shows the largest and the Polish the smallest proportion sleeping in all except 2 rooms.

CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees and

members of their households—[Text Tables 66 to 81 and General Tables 35 to 44).

LITERACY.

As regards the literacy of the employees of the clothing manufacturing industry, the series of tables submitted below sets forth not only the degree of literacy which prevails among them at the present time, but the elements of progress evidenced by the foreign-born employees after their arrival in this country. The first table presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows by sex and general nativity and race, the per cent of employees who were able to read and per cent who were able to both read and write.

TABLE 66.- Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

Number reporting com

plete data

Per cent who read.

Per cent who read and

write.

General nativity and race.

Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.

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Native-born of native father,
White

375 Native-born of foreign father,

by country of birth of
father:
Austria-Hungary.
Germany.
Ireland.
Italy..

37 Russia..

211 Foreign-born, by race:

Bohemian and Moravian. 518
German......

425 Hebrew, Russian. 2,519 Hebrew, Other

1,030 Italian, North...

451 Italian, South

1, 481 Lithuanian.

536 Magyar..

154 Polish. Rou.nanian..

39 Russian.

319 Slovak...

107 Grand total.. 10,370 Total native-born of foreign father....

1, 406 Total native-born..

1,791 Total foreign-born..

8,579

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The preceding table shows that of a total of 18,924 employees 93 per cent can read and 91.7 per cent can read and write. Native-born of native father whites report 100 per cent able to read and write, followed closely by native-born of foreign father, with less than 1 per cent reporting inability to read and write, while the foreign-born of foreign father have a materially larger percentage unable to read or read and write, the males showing a greater degree of literacy than the females.

Among the native-born of foreign father, 100 per cent of those whose fathers were born in Austria-Hungary are able to read and write, and the lowest percentage of literacy in the group is shown by those whose fathers were born in Italy.

In the foreign-born group, the Bohemains and Moravians show the greatest percentage of literacy, followed by the Germans, Slovak, Magyar, and Polish. South Italians show the largest percentage unable to read and write. The percentage of literacy is much larger for the males than for the females of these races.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of persons in the households studied, 10 years of age or over, who could read and the per cent who could both read and write:

TABLE 67.Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and

write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the total number of persons, 3,123, included in the above table, 89 per cent read and 87.4 per cent read and write. In each case a greater proportion is found for the males than for the females. Of the males, 94.4 per cent can read and 92.5 per cent can read and write, while of the females 83.3 per cent can read and 82.1 per cent can read and write.

Comparing the foreign-born with the native-born of foreign father it is seen that while only a small difference exists, in favor of the latter, among the males, the foreign-born females show a much smaller per cent than do the native-born of native father who can either read or write.

Among the native-born of foreign father, the Bohemian and Moravian and the Hebrew males each show 100 per cent who can both read and write. Also 100 per cent of the Bohemian and Moravian females can both read and write, but the proportion of Hebrew females who can read or write is slightly smaller. Of the South Italian males, 93.8 per cent can read and write, while 93.1 per cent of the females can read and 89.7 per cent can read and write.

Among the foreign-born persons studied, the Polish males show the highest proportion who can read and write, the per cent being 100. The Bohemians and Moravians, with 98.1 per cent, are second in the list of those who can read. The Hebrews and South Italians each show over 90 per cent. In every case the females show a much smaller proportion who can read than do the males; especially is this true in the case of the Poles, of whom only 72.4 per cent of the females can read.

The Bohemians and Moravians and Hebrews each show a proportion in excess of 90 per cent who can read and write, while between 80 and 90 per cent of the South Italian and Lithuanian males can read and write. Of the Lithuanian females, only 64.3 per cent can read and write as compared with 92.5 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians.

The per cent of employees who read, according to locality, sex, and general nativity and race, is shown in the table next presented: TABLE 68.—Per cent of employees who read, by locality, by sex, and by general nativity

and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.

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