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The preceding table shows that 94.7 per cent of the males for whom information was secured can read and 90.9 per cent of the females are able to read. A greater proportion of the males in Chicago can read than in Baltimore. The per cent of males who are able to read in New York City is somewhat smaller than the per cent having this ability in Baltimore. Chicago shows the highest per cent of females who are able to read, followed closely by Baltimore, while the per cent of those able to read in New York City is considerable below that in the two other localities named.

Native-born whites of native father show 100 per cent of both males and females who are able to read in each locality;

nativeborn of foreign father follow in slightly smaller proportions. Foreignborn show smaller proportions who are able to read than native-born of foreign father. For both males and females New York City shows a smaller proportion able to read than is shown for the other localities.

The relation between literacy and period of residence in this country is set forth in the following table. It shows, by years in the United States and race of individual the per cent of foreignborn persons 10 years age or over who read and the per cent who read and write.

of

TABLE 69,- Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent

who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all foreign-born.)

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Between 80 and 90 per cent of the 2,449 persons included in the preceding table can both read and write, the proportion who both read and write being slightly smaller than the proportion who read only: This is true as regards those with each specified period of residence in the United States. The Bohemian and Moravian is the only race showing its entire number who have been in the United States under five years entirely literate.

As regards the progress manifested by the younger immigrants as compared with the older, the table next presented is instructive. It sets forth, according to age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons in the households studied 10 years of age or over who could read and the per cent who could read and write.

TABLE 70:—Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all foreign

born.) Number

Per cent who read, by Per cent who read and age at time of com

write, by age at time Race of individuai. reporting ing to United States.

of coming to United complete

States. data.

Under 14. 14 or over. Under 14. 14 or over. Bohemian and Moravian..

490
98.6
95.2
97.8

94.0 Hebrew

1, 195
93.0
80.5
92.6

78.3 Italian, South.

486
96.4
83.2
95.5

78.5 Lithuanian..

179
91.3
75.6
91.3

72.4 Polish.

59
91.7
85.1
91.7

85.1 Total..

2, 449
94.9
83.5

94.4

81.0

A greater proportion are literate of those who were under 14 at the time of coming to the United States than of those who were 14 or over. Moreover, it should be noted that the age at time of coming affects ability to read and write more than ability to read.

Every specified race has the largest proportion who are literate among those who were under 14 when they came to the United States. The Lithuanians show the most marked difference between the literacy of those who were under 14 and those 14 or over. Of the latter, 72.4 per cent read and write; of those who were under 14, 91.3 per cent read and write.

CONJUGAL CONDITION. The table next presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the per cent of employees 20 years of age or over who were in each conjugal condition: Table 71.- Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by

sex and general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EM PLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

MALE.

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TABLE 71.Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by

sex and general nativity and raceContinued.

FEMALE.

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Native-born of native father, White...

9.7 Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Austria-Hungary. Germany. Ireland...

Russia....
Foreign-born, by race:

Bohemian and Moravian.
German..
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other
Italian, North..
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Polish.
Russian.
Slovak.
Grand total.

13,741 Total native-born of foreign father.

2,282 Total native-born..

2,972 Total foreign-born..

10,769 The above table shows that of the male employees 20 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 62.8 per cent are married and only 1.8 per cent widowed. The proportion married is much larger for the foreign-born than for the whites, native-born of native father and slightly larger for the latter than for the native-born of foreign father, while the proportion of widowed is smallest for the foreign-born and slightly smaller for the native-born of foreign father than for the native-born of native father. Among the foreign-born males, the Germans have the largest, followed by the Magyars, Bohemians and Moravians, and Hebrews other than Russian, in the order mentioned, and the Lithuanians and Slovaks the smallest proportions married.

Of the females 20 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 63.6 per cent are single and 8.7 per cent are widowed. The

proportion single is considerably larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the whites native-born of native father and larger for the latter than for the foreign-born, while the proportion of widowed individuals is largest for the whites native-born of native father, second largest for the foreign-born, and smallest for the native-born of foreign father. Among the foreign-born females, the Russian Hebrews have the largest proportions, followed by the Russians, Hebrews other than Russian, and Lithuanians, in the order mentioned, and the North Italians and South Italians the smallest proportions single.

The above table shows that of all employees 20 years of age or over, both male and female, 50.8 per cent are married and only 4.2 per cent are widowed. The proportion of married employees is considerably larger for the foreign-born than for the whites native-born of native father, and larger for the latter than for the native-born of foreign father, while the proportion of widowed is much larger for the whites native-born of native father than for either the native-born of foreign father or the foreign-born. Among the foreign-born, the Magyars have the largest proportion, followed by the Germans, North Italians, Hebrews other than Russian, and Russian Hebrews, in the order mentioned, and the Lithuanians and Poles the smallest proportions married.

The following table divides the totals of the one preceding and shows the per cent of employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups and sex, and by general nativity and race: TABLE 72.- Per cent of employees in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and

by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 200 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

MALE. 20 to 29 years of 30 to 44 years of 45 years of age or 20 years of age or age. age.

over.

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General nativity and race.

177 57.6 40.7 1.7 549 33.3 64.3 2.4

83 47.0 43.4 9.6 133 66.9

33.1 .0

Native-born of native

father, White
Native-born of foreign
father, by country of
birth of father:

Austria-Hungary..
Germany.
Ireland...

Russia...
Foreign-born, by race:

Bohemian and Mors

vian....
German.
Hebrew, Russian..
Hebrew, Other
Italian, North..
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.....
Polish....
Russian..

Grand total.....
Total native-born of for-

eign father. Total native-bom. Total foreign-born....

198 54.0 46.0 .0 207 8.290.3 1.4 83.090.4 9.6 488 25.4

72.3 2.3 67 59.7 38. 8 1.5 156 12.8 84.6 2.6 188 3.2 87.2 9.6 411 16.1 78.3 5.6 1, 123 55. 7 44.3.1 876 4.2 95. 1.7 225 .4 97.3 2.2 2,224 29.8 69.6 .5 374 62.3 36.6 1.1 396 5.8 93.4.8 169 3.6 91.7 4.7 939 27.9

70.5 1.6 232 56.9 43.1 .0 125 11.2 84.8 4.0 36.0 97.2 2.8 393 37.2

61.3 1.5 654 61.2 38.7.2 418 17.0 80.4 2.6 184 6.0 85.9 8.2 1,256 38.4 59.5 2.1 282 77.7 22.3 .0 214 25.7 71.0 3.3 37 13.5 75.710.8 533 52.3 45.6 2.1 388 66.0 33.8 .31 176 17.6 80.7 1.7 56.0 96.4 3.6 619 46.4

52.7) 1.0 155 58.7 41.3.0 111 14.484.7.9 22.095.5 4.5 288 37.2

62.2.7 4,418 62.4

37.2 .4 3,349 11.9 86.1 1.9 1,274 3.190.4 6.5 9,041 35. 462.8 1.8

558 71.1 28.3.5 365 19.776.2 4.1 139 5.0

89.2 5.8 1,062 44.8

52.7 2.4 719 70.2 28.9.8 460 19.3

77.4 3.3 172 4.1 89.0 7.0 1,351 44.5 53.1 2.4 3,609 60.938.8 .3 2,889 10.8 87.5 1.7 1,102 2.990.7 6.4 7,090 33.864.5 1.7 a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

TABLE 72.Per cent of employees in each conjugal condition, by sex and age groups, and

by general nativity and race—Continued.

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362 64.1 34.0 1.9 243 7.4 87.2 5.3 89 .088.8 11.2 694 36.0 59.7 4.3

174 67.2 29.3 3.4 207 20.8 70.0 9.2 207 5.3 81.6 13.0 588 29.1 62.18.8 1,506 64.7 34.7 .6 912) 4.5 93.1 2.4 228 .9 96.5 2.6 2,646 38.5 60.1 1.4 511 70.3 28.4 1.4 418) 6.5 89.5 4.1 174 3.4 89.1 7.5 1,103 35.5 61.1 3.4

492 51.6 47.4 1.0 258 11.6 80.6 7.8 67 7.5 86.6 6.0 817 35. 461.1 3.5 1,161 58.1 40.7 1.1 670 13.3 81.2 5.5 264 4.2 80.7 15.2 2,095 37.0 58.7 4.3

423 80.4 19.4.2 245 24. 1 70.6 5.3 39 12.8 74.4 12.8 707 57.1 40.2 2.7 595 71. 1 27.6 1.3 213 16.9 75.1 8.0 63 1.6 88.9 9.5 871 52.8 43.6 3.6

245 71.0 28.2 123 13.0 80.5 6.5 22 .095.5 4.5 390 48.7 48.5 2.8 7,792 69.6 29.1 1.2 4,383 15.6 78.0 6.4 1,566 5.2 82.4 12.4 13,741 45.0

50.8 4.2

1,494 84.7 14.1 1.3 598 34.8 55.0 10.2 190 12.6 74.7 12.6 2,282 65.6 29.8 4.6 1.892 83.0 15.4 1.5 806 32.9 56. 2 10.9 274 11.7 69.0 19.3 2,972 62.9

31.4 5.7 5,900 65.3 33.5 1.2 3,577 11.7 82.9 5.4 1,292 3.8 85.3 10.9 10,769 40.1 56.1 3.7

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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