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TABLE 81.- Per cent of employees within each age group, by sex and general nativity and

race—Continued.

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From the data presented in the above table it appears that 13 per cent of male employees for whom information was secured are from 14 to 19 years of age, that 23.8 per cent are from 20 to 24 years of age, that 18.9 per cent are from 25 to 29 years of age, that 12.9 per cent are from 30 to 34 years of age, that 19.2 per cent are from 35 to 44 years of age and that only 3 per cent are 55 or over. The proportion of male employees from 14 to 19 years of age is much larger for the whites, native-born of native father and for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born; and the proportion of male employees from 25 to 34 years of age is considerably larger for the foreign-born than for either the native-born of native father or the native-born of foreign father. Among the foreign-born the Roumanians and Poles have the largest proportions for males from 20 to 24 years of age, the North Italians, Lithuanians, and Slovaks the largest proportions from 25 to 29 years of age, and the Lithuanians and Roumanians the largest proportions for male employees from 30 to 34 years of age.

Of the females for whom information was secured 45.3 per cent are from 14 to 19 years of age, 28.9 per cent are from 20 to 24 years of age, 10.3 per cent are from 25 to 29 years of age, and only small proportions are included in the other age groups specified. The proportion of female employees from 14 to 19 years of age is largest for the native-born of foreign father, second largest for the foreign-born, and smallest for the whites native-born of native father, while the proportion of female employees from 20 to 24 years of age is largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the native-born of native father. Among the foreign-born the Russian Hebrews and the Roumanians have the largest and the Germans the smallest proportions for females from 14 to 19 years of age and the Roumanians and Lithuanians have the largest and the North Italians the smallest proportions from 20 to 24 years of age.

The above table shows that of the employees, both male and female, for whom information was secured, only a fraction of 1 per cent are under 14 years of age, 27.6 per cent are from 14 to 19, 26.1 per cent are from 20 to 24, 15 per cent are from 25 to 29, 9.2 per cent are from 30 to 34, 13.7 per cent are from 35 to 44, 6.3 per cent are from 45 to 54, and only 1.9 per cent are 55 or over. The proportion of individuals from 14 to 19 years of age is largest for the native-born of foreign father, second largest for the whites native-born of native father, and smallest for the foreign-born; the proportion of individuals from 25 to 29 years of age is largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the whites native-born of native father, and smallest for the native-born of foreign father. Among the foreign-born, the Roumanians, North Italians, Russians, and Russian Hebrews have the largest proportions for individuals from 14 to 19 years of age, the Roumanians and Poles the largest proportions for individuals from 20 to 24 years of age, and the Lithuanians, Slovaks, and North Italians the largest proportions for individuals from 25 to 29 years of age.

CHAPTER VII.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Status of children in the households studied-Citizenship

Ability to speak English–[Text tables 82 to 95, and General Tables 45 to 53.]

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

Home ownership by families the heads of which were of foreignbirth may be considered as a strong indication of permanent settlement, and the facts in this connection relative to the families the heads of which were employed in the clothing manufacturing industry are set forth in the following table, according to general nativity and race of head of family: TABLE 82.- Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race of

head of family
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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From information secured for 937 families in this industry, it will be seen that only 24.7 per cent own homes, the foreign-born reporting 23.5 per cent as compared with 60.7 per cent of native-born of foreign father. The proportion of Bohemians and Moravians, both foreignborn and native-born of foreign father, owning homes stands out in striking contrast to the proportion shown by any other race-the foreign-born Bohemians and Moravians reporting 76.3 per cent and those native-born of foreign father reporting 65.4 per cent. No Poles and only a very small proportion of the Hebrews, Lithuanians, or South Italians own homes.

STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The status of children in the households studied may be seen in the following table, which shows by general nativity and race of individual the per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age who were at home, at school, and at work:

Table 83.—Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more children reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of foreign father, by race of father:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Hebrew
Italian, South

Lithuanian
Foreign-born:

Hebrew..
Italian, South

Grand total..
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born.

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1,147

7.8

5.1

87.1

750 776 371

7.9
7.7
7.8

88.1
88.3
84.6

4.0 4.0 7.5

Of the total number of children of the prescribed age 87.1 per cent are at school, 7.8 per cent are at home, and 5.1 per cent at work. The native-born of foreign father have a greater proportion at school than the foreign-born. The latter have the largest proportion, 7.5 per cent, at work.

Attendance at school is more general among male children than among female. The latter show a greater proportion at home and a slightly greater proportion at work than the males. It should be noted, however, that the proportions of foreign-born male and female Hebrews at school are almost equal.

The native-born of foreign father generally show a greater proportion of males at school, but the Lithuanians of that class have 73.9 per cent males at school and 95.2 per cent females.

The table next presented makes possible a comparison of the status of the children of native and of foreign birth in the households studied, showing, according to general nativity and race of father and birthplace of child, the number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age who were at home, at school, and at work.

TABLE 84.- Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more born

abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.)

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The above table shows a report from 1,147 children between 6 and 16 years of age, of whom 7.8 per cent remain at home, 87.1 per cent attend school, and 5.1 per cent are at work. Generally, there are more children of foreign birth at home, fewer at school, and more at work than is the case among those of native birth.

The native-born South Italian, with 11.5 per cent, show a greater proportion of children at home than any other race; the foreign-born South Italian showing only 5.8 per cent.

The native-born Hebrews show over 90 per cent attending school. Only 84.5 per cent of the Hebrew children born abroad are found in school. The South Italians and Bohemians and Moravians show over 85 per cent of both United States born and foreign-born children at school.

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