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TABLE 88.--Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States each specified number of years and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by locality and by race--Continued.

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Of the total number of persons included in the above table who have been in the United States for from five to nine years, 7.5 per cent are fully naturalized and 28.8 per cent have first papers only. Among those whose residence in this country has been for ten years or over, more than 50 per cent are fully naturalized while only 14.4 per cent have first papers only. The total showing for the industry is that while nearly 30 per cent are fully naturalized, 21.8 per cent have first papers. In the period of five to nine years' residence the proportion of Russian Hebrews who are fully naturalized differs only slightly between Chicago and New York City, whereas for those who have first papers only the proportion for Chicago is 61.6 per cent as compared with 30.2 per cent for New York City. In the period of ten or more years' residence in this country, the Russian Hebrews in Chicago show a much larger proportion of fully naturalized persons than does the same race in New York City, while for those who have first papers only the proportion in New York City is 22.7 per cent as compared with but 3.2 per cent for Chicago. The Russian Hebrew is the only race reporting in numbers sufficiently large for computation.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

As regards the ability to speak English the table next presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of persons in the households studied, 6 years of age or over, who

6 could speak English.

TABLE 89.—Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how

ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Of the total number of males 81.1 per cent speak English and of the females 72 per cent. The proportion who do not speak English is confined almost entirely to the foreign-born. Of the latter class 74 per cent of the males speak English and 60 per cent of the females.

It will be noted that a larger proportion of the males of every race of foreign-born are able to speak English than are the females. The degree of difference between the proportions shown varies widely. It is smallest between the Bohemian and Moravian races. The greatest difference in respect to speaking English is among the Lithuanians.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the per cent of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who speak English: TABLE 90.- Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Bohemian and Moravian.
German.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Polish,
Roumanian
Russian..
Slovak..

532

408 2, 436 1,008

440 1, 457

347 196 902 306

623 1, 215 230

879

604 3,398 1, 314 1,063 2, 672

753

56.0 89. 2 69.8 78.0 58.9 45.0 58.3 70.6 51.1 70.0 60.4 43.3

54.8 86.2 72.2 85.0 34.7 36. 5 30.9 65.7 49.9 76.7 71.7 31.1

55.5 89. 2 70.5 79.6 44. 7 41.1 49.9 69.1 50.6 73.5 64.8 39.6

523 153 667

40 313 104

70 431

43 198 45

223 1,098

83 511 149

Total.

8,268

4, 865

13, 133

63.0

54.1

59.7

The preceding table shows that of 13,133 persons reporting 59.7 per cent speak English. The per cent of males who can speak English is somewhat higher than that of females. Germans show a considerably higher per cent of persons who are able to speak English than any of the other races. "Hebrews other than Russian, Roumanians, and Russian Hebrews follow in the order named, with over 70 per cent. Lithuanians, North Italians, South Italians, and Slovaks, in the order named, show less than 50 per cent of persons who are able to speak English. Russian Hebrews, Hebrews other than Russian, Roumanians, and Russians show a higher per cent of females who are able to speak English than males. All other races show a greater proportion of males than females who have ability to speak English.

The relative extent to which English is spoken in the different cities is set forth in the following table, which shows, by locality, by sex, and by race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born employees who could speak English: TABLE 91.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by locality, by sex,

and by race.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

MALE.

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Total clothing.

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73.7

64.3

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Excluding races whose native language is English, the foreign-born persons employed in the manufacture of clothing report 59.7 per cent of their number able to speak English. The proportions so reported are 69.5 per cent in Baltimore, 60.3 per cent in Chicago, and 56.9 per cent in New York City.

The Germans make by far the most creditable showing, ranking first in practically all classifications. The Hebrews other than Russian rank second, their total of 79.6 per cent being considerably in advance of the 70.5 per cent of the Russian Hebrews and the 69.1 per cent of the Magyars, which follow. The North and South Italians, Lithuanians, and "Polés show per cents considerably below those shown for the other races.

The progress of immigrants in acquiring an ability to speak English, according to age at time of arrival in this country, is considered in the two tables next submitted. The first of these tables, which immediately follows, shows, by race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons in the household studied who speak English, by sex and age at time of coming to the United States.

TABLE 92.Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English,

by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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From information secured for 2,588 foreign-born persons in this industry it will be seen that 93.2 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States now speak English, as compared with 57.1 per cent who were 14 years of age or over. With the exception of the Lithuanians and Poles, each race reports over 90 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States now able to speak English, the Lithuanians and Poles reporting 84 and 82.4 per cent, respectively. Among those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States the Bohemians and Moravians, with 69.2 per cent who now speak English, report a considerably larger proportion than do the Hebrews, Poles, and South Italians, and a very much larger proportion than do the Lithuanians.

The table following shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons in the households studied 6 years of age or over who could speak English,

Table 93.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by

years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table

includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Of a total of 2,588 persons reporting complete data in the above table, 48 per cent of those who have been in the United States under five years, 65.1 per cent of those with a period of residence of from five to nine years and 81.9 per cent of those with a period of residence of ten years or over, speak English.

Each race, except the Polish (which shows the same proportion of those with a period of residence under five years as from five to nine years), shows a larger proportion of those with a period of residence of from five to nine years than under five years, and a larger proportion of those with a period of residence of ten years or over than from five to nine years, who speak English.

The Lithuanian shows the smallest proportion as regards each period of residence.

The following table shows, by age at time of coming to the United States and race, the per cent of foreign-born employees studied who could speak English. Table 94.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of

coming to the l'nited States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, how.

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

MALE.

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