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Germans report the largest percentage of males and Russians the largest per cent of females in the United States five to nine years who are able to speak English, the smallest percentages being shown by the Bohemians and Moravians for the males and by the North Italians, for the females. Germans also report the largest percentage of males who have been here ten years or over able to speak English, and Germans and Russian Hebrews each with 95.5 per cent, the highest per cent of females in this period able to speak English, the smallest percentage for each sex in this period being shown by the South Italians. The Germans show the highest total percentage able to speak English, and South Italians show the smallest percentage.

PART II.-CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN NEW YORK CITY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Extent of the industry in New York City-Employees for whom information was

secured-[Text Tables 96 and 97 and General Table 54).

EXTENT OF THE INDUSTRY IN NEW YORK CITY.

The factory-inspection law of the State of New York provides for the inspection of all tailoring and dressmaking establishments. The number of establishments inspected in New York City in the year 1907 and the composition of the working force are shown by the following table:

TABLE 96.- Number of establishments inspected and number and per cent of employees of

each sex in the clothing industry in New York City, 1907, by department. (Compiled from Report of the New York State Bureau of Factory Inspection, 1907, Vol. II, pp. 190–191.]

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It is of course possible that some establishments in the city escaped the attention of and were not visited by the inspectors, but the proportion of places not visited is doubtless very small. The data presented in the table may, therefore, be regarded as a fair indication of the extent of the industry in the city. Of the 7,291 establishments inspected 4,033 were tailoring and 3,258 dressmaking establishments. The maximum number of employees during the year 1907 was 71,557 for the tailoring and 108,372 for the dressmaking establishments, a total of 179,929 employees, but at the time of inspection there were only 63,020 employees in tailoring and 86,733 in dressmaking establishments. It will be noted that while the tailoring establishments exceed the dressmaking establishments in number, the latter employ a considerably larger working force than do the former. There seems, also, to be a considerable variation in the number of employees in the course of the year, both in tailoring and in dressmaking.

At the time of inspection 58.7 per cent of the employees in all establishments were males. In the tailoring establishments the males considerably outnumber the females, and in the dressmaking establishments the females slightly outnumber the males.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

A detailed study was made of 406 households in New York City, the heads of which were employed in the manufacture of clothing. The data thus obtained, however, were not tabulated separately for New York, but are included in the tables for the industry as a whole, along with the returns secured for households in Baltimore, Chicago, and oRochester, N. Y. In addition to the households studied, detailed information was also secured for 7,258 individual employees in New York City, and this information is used as the basis for the following general survey of the industry in the city.

The following table shows by sex the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured:

TABLE 97.-
Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race.

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Native-born of native father:
White....

129

55 Negro.. Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Austria-Hungary.

28

30 Belgium..

1 Denmark. England.

22

6 France.

3

5 Germany

205

126 Ireland

56 Italy

16

57 Netherlands. Norway.

1 Roumania.

1 Russia..

68

30 Scotland.

2

5 Sweden.

2 Switzerland..

Turkey..
Foreign-born, by race:
Bohemian and Moravian.

3
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.

3 Croatian.

2
Cuban.
Danish.
English.

15
Finnish
French.

5 German.

123

29 Greek..

7 Hebrew, Russian.

1.412

439 Hebrew, Other

756 Irish..

17

19 Italian, North

282

349 Italian, South

1,066 925 Lithuanian.

97 Magyar..

74
Montenegrin.
Norwegian..

3
a Less than 0.05 per cent.

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Table 97.Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

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