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PART III.—CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN BALTIMORE, MD.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION. Employees for whom information was secured—Text Table 124 and General Table 70).

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED. About 405 households, the heads of which were engaged in the clothing industry, were studied in detail in Baltimore, Md., but the returns secured have been tabulated with those secured from the household study in other localities in the general survey of the industry and have not been separately tabulated for Baltimore. Detailed information, however, was secured for 1,938 employees in Baltimore and is used as the basis for the following statistical survey of the clothing industry in the city. The table submitted below shows, by sex of individual, the number and percentage of employees of each race for whom information was secured. Table 124.Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
Number.

Per cent distribution.
General nativity and race.

Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Native-born of native father: White...

62 133 195 5.7 15.8 10.1 Negro...

.2 Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father:

Australia.
Austria-Hungary
Denmark.

1

.1 England.

.7 France.

.2 Germany

107
226

11.7 Ireland.

.5 Italy.

.5 Russia.

34
104

5.4 Servia.

1

.1 Turkey.

.1
.0

.1 Foreign-born, by race: Bohemian and Moravian.

47 16

1.9

3.3 Bulgarian..

.1

.1 English Finnish

.1 German.

2.3 3.5 Hebrew, Russian.

373 213

25.3 30.2 Hebrew, Other

26

2.3

2.3 Italian, North..

4.6 Italian, South

5.9

4.9 Lithuanian

225 14.3

8.1 11.6 Magyar..

.3 Montenegrin.

1
1

.1 Polish.

34
72 3.1 4.5

3.7 Portuguese. Roumanian

.0 Russian..

2.8 Scotch. Servian.

.3

.2 Slovak..

2
3

.2 Austrian (race not specified).

1

.1 Grand total......

1,096 842 1,938 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total native-born of foreign father...

176
230
406

20.9 Total native-born.....

363 605 22.1 43.1 31.2 Total foreign-born...

854 479 1,333 77.9 56.9 68.8

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History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born

employees-Racial classification of employees at the present time-Reasons for the employment of immigrants-Methods used in securing immigrant labor-Effect of employment of immigrants upon former employees- [Text Tables 125 and 126 and General Table 71).

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

The clothing industry of Baltimore has been a factor in the employment market of the city for nearly forty years. Prior to the year 1870, the making of clothing in the city was carried on in the homes of the operatives upon contracts let out by a few of the larger tailor shops, and in workshops conducted by journeymen tailors, who in all cases operated independently. This system was found'impracticable when an expansion of the industry became imperative to meet the trade demands, and about 1870 several farseeing operators undertook to organize the industry of the city along lines which had been adopted in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. It was at that time that machines for cutting were introduced in the North Atlantic States and valuable improvements made on the sewing machines, which had been invented in 1850. Consequently but little difficulty was encountered in introducing what is now termed "factory system. The impetus which the civil war had given to the manufacturer of ready-made clothing was taken advantage of, and by 1905 Baltimore was advanced to fourth rank among the clothing manufacturing cities of the United States.

The development of the industry was undertaken with German operatives almost exclusively. Germans had been employed in the clothing shops since the earliest days of the industry in the city, and to meet the demands for labor created by the expansion of the industry a large number of Germans were induced to immigrate from the northern States and from Europe. This race was almost exclusively employed in the shops during the period from 1870 to 1890. During the past thirty years, however, the heavy immigration from Russia of the Hebrews has brought a new people to Baltimore seeking employment.

No women had been employed in the organized workshops before the coming of the Russian Hebrews, but with the entrance of these people into the industry, and a few years later with the establishment of shops for the manufacture of women's wearing apparel, the employment of women in the clothing manufacturing establishments became general. Women of all races are now employed in the shops of the city. The majority of the Russian Hebrews who came to Baltimore had worked in the clothing shops of Russia and many of them were tailors by trade, so that very few, if any, entered any other industry outside of that of the manufacture of clothing: They entered the lowest occupationsin allestablishments, principally in tailoring departments, and the Germans confined themselves to the higher and more skilled occupations grouped under the cutting departments. This condition did not last long, for about 1895 the Russian Hebrews were confronted with opposition in the lower occupations by the entrance of the Lithuanians, followed in 1900 by a heavy immigration to the city of Bohemians, Poles, Italians, and a few of the other AustroHungarian races. All of the latter races entered the occupations in the tailoring departments, and the few Germans who had remained in the unskilled occupations were either forced up into the more skilled work, or out of the industry entirely. Since 1905 the immigration to the shops has been composed chiefly of Russian Hebrews, Lithuanians, and Italians, and these races constitute the present immigration. The Italians as compared with other races entering the industry during this period have shown the greatest annual increase.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN

EMPLOYEES.

The character of recent and past immigration to the clothing establishments in Baltimore may be seen in greater detail by reference to the following series of tables which show the period of residence in this country of foreign-born employees. The first table submitted shows, by sex and race, the per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years: Table 125.—Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number

of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

MALE.

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471

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22.5

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