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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS. Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States-

Occupations entered and progress of immigrants in the clothing industry- Weekly

earnings-Text Tables 127 to 130 and General Tables 72 to 77]. PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES. The general industrial condition while abroad and the extent of training and experience of foreign-born employees in the industry in which they are now engaged in Baltimore may be seen from the table submitted below. It shows, by race, the per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before coming to the L'nited States. Table 127.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The greater proportion of all foreign-born male employees had been occupied in the manufacture of clothing before coming to the United States. Excepting this occupation, trade and farming or farm labor were the most common employments. Of the Russian Hebrews 50.2 per cent were occupied in the manufacture of clothing and 29.6 per cent in trade. That race, however, shows a larger proportion in manufacturing other than clothing than in farming or farm labor. OCCUPATIONS ENTERED AND PROGRESS OF IMMIGRANTS IN THE CLOTH

ING INDUSTRY. Occupations in the clothing industry of Baltimore, to meet the requirements of this report, may be grouped under two heads or departments. The skilled occupations may be grouped under the head of cutting" department, and the unskilled occupations under that of “tailoring" department. In the largest establishments tho employees in the cutting departments are almost all Germans, while only a very few Germans are found in the unskilled occupations, due to their displacement, which took place at the entrance of the Russian Hebrews and other races into the shops. The occupations in the tailoring departments furnish employment for the Russian llebrews, Lithuanians. Bohemians, Poles, and Italians, and but little progress

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is being made by these races. To illustrate this condition the following statement, submitted by an important clothing house employing 950 immigrants, covering the distribution of these labor forces, by races, is presented: Cutting department (no women):

Per cent. German

90 All other races..

10 Tailoring department (men and women):

Russian Hebrew...
Lithuanian

40 Italian

5 All other races

15 For the industry as a whole the reports of the operators credit the Germans with being the most industrious and progressive race employed. Next to the Germans the Russian Hebrews and Poles are showing the greatest tendency to move upward in the scale of occupations, but the Lithuanians, Bohemians, and Italians have exhibited no tendency to progress, and remain in the same grade of work year after year. The Germans, besides being progressive, are reported to be very tractable, while the other races, with the exception of the Russian Hebrews, are said to be intractable and hard to manage.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The average and range in weekly earnings of immigrant male operatives is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week: Table 128.Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

The greater proportion of the total number of male employees 18 years of age or over earn $10 a week or over; 29 per cent earn $12.50 a week or over. The greater proportion of foreign-born males earn $10 a week or over; 24.8 per cent earn $12.50 or over. The employees who were native-born of foreign father report 53.4 per cent earning $12.50 a week or over, and 42.5 per cent $15 a week or over.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week: Table 129.- Per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and ruce.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

Number Average

Per cent earning each specified amount per week. General nativity and race.

reporting earnings complete

per week.

$5 or
over.

$7.50 or
over.

$10 or
over.

$12.50 or

over

data.

$15 or over.

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the total number of females 18 years of age or over, 76.7 per cent earn $5 a week or over and 16 per cent earn at least $7.50 a week. Only half of 1 per cent earn as much as $10 per week. The highest average earnings is among the native-born women of foreign father. There is a very slight difference in the earnings of the native-born of native father as compared with the foreign-born women.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week: Table 130.Per cent of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each

specified amount per ucek, by general nativity and race.**

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

Per cent earning each specified amount

Number Average
General nativity and race.

reporting earnings
complete

per week.

data.

per week.

$2.30 or
over.

$3 or
over.

$7.50 or
over.

$10 or over.

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual Earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the total group of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age, all but a negligible proportion earned $2.50 a week or over; less than half $5 a week or over; and only 4.1 per cent earned as much as $7.50 a week. The foreign-born report 51.6 per cent earning at least $5 each week. Of the native-born females of foreign father, however, only 31.3 per cent earn $5 a week or over.

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