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Table 142.- Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number

of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

MALE.

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From the foregoing table it is seen that of 5,544 persons reporting complete data, 3,204 are males and 2,340 are females. Of the total number, 50.7 per cent have been here under five years, 22.7 per cent have been here from five to nine years, 5.2 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 8.5 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 12.8 per cent have been here twenty years or over. The Germans, with 21.7 per cent, and the Lithuanians, with 71.2 per cent, show the smallest and largest proportions, respectively, who have been here under five years, while each of the remaining races, excepting Bohemians and Moravians, Hebrews other than Russian, and Poles show the greatest proportion of their numbers to have immigrated to the United States within the last five years. Fair proportions of all races have been here from five to nine years, but the Germans alone show the greatest proportion of their numbers as having been here ten years or over, while the Slovaks show the smallest proportion having resided here during a similar period.

Comparing males with females, it will be observed, generally speaking, that the males are the older immigrants.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The table next submitted showing by sex the number and per cent of the employees for whom information was secured is believed to be representative of the racial make-up of the entire operating force of the industry in Chicago at the present time.

Table 143.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general natirity

and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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1.2

Native-born of native father:
White.

120 Negro.

2 Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Australia.

2 Austria-Hungary

243 701 Belgium

3 Canada.

4

5 Denmark.

7
England
France.
Germany

275 Ireland

14 Italy.

9 Netherlands.

3 Norway.

18

16 Russia

101 230 Scotland.

4 Sweden.

21

23 Switzerland

3
Turkey..
Foreign-born, by race:
Bohemian and Moravian..

504

352 Bulgarian...

2 Canadian, French.

3 Canadian, Other

5 Croatian.

24 Danish

11 Dutch

5 English

19 Finnish

5 French German

205

146 Greek.

3

3 Hebrew, Russian.

736

370 Hebrew, Other

256

93 Irish..

6

14 Italian, North..

75 242 Italian, South..

150 240 Lithuanian..

270 150 Magyar....

80

39 Mexican

1 Norwegian

15

32 Polish...

524 374
a Less than 0.05 per cent.

9.9 (a)

12.8 4.0

.2 3.7 4.5 4.9 1.4

12.8

10.4

Table 143.- Employees for whom information was secured, by set and general nativity

and race-Continued.

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This table shows that of 8,627 persons for whom information was secured, 4,538 are females, 4,089 are males. Of the total, 65.2 per cent were foreign-born, 31.8 per cent native-born of foreign father, and 3 per cent native-born of native father, white. Among the foreignborn, a considerably larger proportion of those reporting are males than are females, while with the native-born groups the contrary is the rule. The Russian Hebrews, Poles, and Bohemians and Moravians have the largest representation in this table of any foreignborn races.

REASONS FOR EMPLOYING IMMIGRANTS.

To certain extent immigrants have been employed in the clothing trades of Chicago, because of their peculiar skill.

This is more especially true of the Bohemians, who are considered the best coat makers in the world; of the German Hebrews, who make excellent tailors and managers; of the Scandinavians, who are the best workers on pants and vests; and of the Italians, who are the best hand sewers. The Bohemians had learned much of their skill in Bohemia. This is also true of the Italians and of the Germans, although the latter have ceased to constitute an appreciable element in the industry.

The chief explanation, however, of the large employment of foreign races is given by the manufacturers as twofold; first, the rapid expansion of the industry, and, second, the fact that American employees were not available; as a matter of fact, the Americans had a very marked prejudice against the business and refused to work at

It is diflicult to state the exact reasons for this prejudice. It is evidently due to the conditions of work, perhaps more with reference to past conditions than to those now prevailing.

it.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States

Weekly earnings-Relation between period of residence and earning ability- [Text Tables 144 to 152 and General Tables 88 to 93).

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

In order that a comparison may be made between the industrial condition of immigrant employees in this country and abroad, before considering their economic status in the clothing industry in Chicago, two tables are presented in which the principal occupations in their native countries are set forth for employees of foreign birth. The first of these two tables shows by race the per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States.

Table 144.— Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Over 60 per cent of the total number of persons in the above table were engaged in clothing manufacture before coming to this country; more than 10 per cent were engaged in trade and in farming or farm labor. Nearly 80 per cent of the Germans were engaged in clothing manufacture, while in each of the other specified occupations the proportions for that race are less than 7 per cent. The Slovaks and Bohemians and Moravians show proportions almost as large in the clothing industry. The Hebrews other than Russian show the smallest proportion to have been so engaged. For no race does the proportion of persons who were engaged in manufacturing other than clothing reach as much as 8 per cent. Slightly more than 25 per cent each of the Lithuanians and Poles were employed in farming or farm labor, while almost similar proportions of the Hebrews, both Russian and other, were engaged in trade.

The following table shows by race the per cent of foreign-born female employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States: TABLE 145.Per cent of foreign-born female employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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While 596 persons are included in the foregoing table, Russian Hebrew is the only race specifically reported. Of the total number the principal proportion of females was engaged in sewing, embroidering, and lacemaking before coming to this country. Less than 4 per cent were employed in other manufacturing or in other unspecified occupations." Nearly 75 per cent of the Russian Hebrews were employed in sewing, embroidering, and lacemaking.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The average weekly earnings and range in earning ability of the foreign-born operatives in Chicago are exhibited in the two tables next submitted. The table on the next page shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week.

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