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Table 143.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race-Continued.

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This table shows that of 8,627 persons for whom information was secured, 4,538 are females, 4,089 are males. Of the total, 65.2 per cent were foreign-born, 31.8 per cent native-born of foreign father, and 3 per cent native-born of native father, white. Among the foreignborn, a considerably larger proportion of those reporting are males than are females, while with the native-born groups the contrary is the rule. The Russian Hebrews, Poles, and Bohemians and Moravians have the largest representation in this table of any foreignborn races.

REASONS FOR EMPLOYING IMMIGRANTS.

To certain extent immigrants have been employed in the clothing trades of Chicago, because of their peculiar skill. This is more especially true of the Bohemians, who are considered the best coat makers in the world; of the German Hebrews, who make excellent tailors and managers; of the Scandinavians, who are the best workers on pants and vests; and of the Italians, who are the best hand sewers. The Bohemians had learned much of their skill in Bohemia. This is also true of the Italians and of the Germans, although the latter have ceased to constitute an appreciable element in the industry.

The chief explanation, however, of the large employment of foreign races is given by the manufacturers as twofold; first, the rapid expansion of the industry, and, second, the fact that American employees were not available; as a matter of fact, the Americans had a very marked prejudice against the business and refused to work at it. It is difficult to state the exact reasons for this prejudice. is evidently due to the conditions of work, perhaps more with reference to past conditions than to those now prevailing.

It CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States

Weekly earnings—Relation between period of residence and earning ability -[Text Tables 144 to 152 and General Tables 88 to 93).

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

In order that a comparison may be made between the industrial condition of immigrant employees in this country and abroad, before considering their economic status in the clothing industry in Chicago, two tables are presented in which the principal occupations in their native countries are set forth for employees of foreign birth. The first of these two tables shows by race the per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States.

Table 144.— Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Over 60 per cent of the total number of persons in the above table were engaged in clothing manufacture before coming to this country; more than 10 per cent were engaged in trade and in farming or farm labor. Nearly 80 per cent of the Germans were engaged in clothing manufacture, while in each of the other specified occupations the proportions for that race are less than 7 per cent. The Slovaks and Bohemians and Moravians show proportions almost as large in the clothing industry. The Hebrews other than Russian show the smallest proportion to have been so engaged. For no race does the proportion of persons who were engaged in manufacturing other than clothing reach as much as 8 per cent. Slightly more than 25 per cent each of the Lithuanians and Poles were employed in farming or farm labor, while almost similar proportions of the Hebrews, both Russian and other, were engaged in trade.

The following table shows by race the per cent of foreign-born female employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States: TABLE 145.Per cent of foreign-born female employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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While 596 persons are included in the foregoing table, Russian Hebrew is the only race specifically reported. Of the total number the principal proportion of females was engaged in sewing, embroidering, and lacemaking before coming to this country. Less than 4 per cent were employed in other manufacturing or in other unspecified occupations. Nearly 75 per cent of the Russian Hebrews were employed in sewing, embroidering, and lacemaking.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The average weekly earnings and range in earning ability of the foreign-born operatives in Chicago are exhibited in the two tables next submitted. The table on the next page shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week.

Table 146.—Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

General nativity and race.

Per cent earning each specified amount per week.
Number
reporting
Average

$7.50

$12.50

$10 or
per week. $5 or
data.

$15 or $20 or $25 or or

or
over.
over.

or over. over. over.

over.

complete earnings

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the total number of persons in the foregoing table 99.3 per cent earn $5 or over per week and 1.8 per cent earn $25 or over per week. In each of the specified rates of earnings below $12.50 the foreignborn show a larger proportion than either of the other general nativity groups, but in each of the specified rates of earnings above and including $12.50 the foreign-born show the smallest proportion. Of the foreign-born races none of the Germans earn below $5 per week, and for each of the other races the proportion earning below $5 per week is less than 5 per cent. The Germans show the largest proportion earning $10 or over per week and the Lithuanians show the smallest proportion earning that amount. None of the South Italians, Lithuanians, or Slovaks earn as much as $25 per week, while among the other races the proportion who earn $25 or over is in no case as high as 5 per cent.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over who were earning each specified amount per week:

TABLE 147.Per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during ihe year.

Of the total number of persons in the foregoing table 96.3 per cent earn $5 or over per week, while only 4 per cent earn $15 or over per week. In each specified rate of earnings the foreign-born show a smaller proportion than do any one of the other general nativity groups. Among the foreign-born races the Bohemians and Moravians show the largest proportions of females who earn $5 or over per week, and the Lithuanians show the smallest proportion, although for no race is the proportion less than 90 per cent. Only 7 per cent of the Lithuanians earn $10 or over per week, while 43.7 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians earn that amount. None of the South Italians and less than 1 per cent of the Lithuanians earn $15 or over per week. The Germans, with 10.5 per cent, show the largest proportion.

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