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ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The table next presented shows, by sex and race of individual, the proportion of foreign-born employees who were able to speak English. TABLE 162.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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This table contains a report for 5,209 persons, 3,020 of whom are males and 2,189 females. Of the grand total 60.3 per cent speak English, but only 54.9 per cent of the females as compared with 64.3 per cent of the males were able to use the English language. The Germans and Hebrews other than Russian show each over 83 per cent who speak English. Next follows the Russian Hebrew with 78.8 per cent and the Russian with 71 per cent. With only 34.5 per cent speaking English, the Lithuanians show the least efficiency in that regard. The males in all races excepting the Bohemian and Moravian, German, Polish, and Russian show a slightly higher English-speaking proportion than do the females.

The advancement made by the younger as compared with older immigrants in acquiring the ability to speak English according to age when they came to this country is set forth in the table on the following page. It shows, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English.

TABLE 163.—Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Out of a total of 5,209 males and females, 94 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age at the time of coming to the United States are able to speak English, while of those who were that age or over, 51.5 per cent can speak the language. Regardless of age at time of coming to this country 60.3 per cent speak English. It will be observed that by far the greatest adaptability is shown on the part of those who were under 14 years of age at time of immigrating. Comparing the males and females, it will be noted that both as to those who were under 14 at the time of coming and those who were that age or over, the males show the greater proportion in both groups who can speak English, but the difference is most pronounced among those who were 14 years or over, the males showing 58.8 per cent as compared with 39.2 per cent of the females who can speak

English. The highest proportions with ability to speak English are shown by the Germans, Hebrews other than Russian, and Russian Hebrews, while the Lithuanians and North and South Italians show the least ability in this direction.

The progress in acquiring the ability to speak English is exhibited by the following table, which shows, by sex, years in the United States, and race, the per cent of foreign-born employees of nonEnglish-speaking races who were able to speak English:

TABLE 164.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Of 5,209 persons for whom information was secured, 60.3 per cent are able to speak English. Of those who have been here under five years, 40.6 per cent speak English; of those who have been here

from five to nine years, 71.1 per cent do so, while 88.1 per cent of those who have been here ten years or over are able to speak English. As regards the males and females, 64.3 per cent of the former and 54.9 per cent of the latter speak the language. The lowest degree of proficiency is shown for both sexes of all races among those who have been here under five years, the proportion of the females being considerable lower than those of the males. Almost equal proportions of males and females who have been here from five to ten years speak English, the proportion in both instances being about 70 per cent. Greater efficiency is shown by all races of both sexes among those who have resided in this country ten years or over, but in this instance, the females show the greatest ability to speak English.

Greater proportions of Germans, Russian and other Hebrews, and Russians than of any other race are able to speak English, while the lowest proportions thus qualified are shown by the Lithuanians and North and South Italians. Of individual instances, the Hebrews other than Russian, and Russians display the most marked proficiency in speaking English, each of these races showing 100 per cent of the females who have been here ten years or over who can speak that language.

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