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IMMIGRANTS IN INDUSTRIES.

SILK GOODS MANUFACTURING AND DYEING.

This report, which was prepared under the direction of the Commission by W. Jett Lauck, superintendent of agents, forms part of the general report of the Immigration Commission on immigrants in industries.

SILK GOODS MANUFACTURING AND DYEING.

CONTENTS.

PART 1.-GENERAL SURVEY OF THE INDUSTRY.

Page.

5
6

6
7
9

10

15

20 27

31

34 35 36 36 40 42 44 44

45

(HAPTER 1.--Introduction:

Growth of the industry
Increase in the number of employees.
Territory studied.
Households studied .
Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.
The preparation of the report ..

Employees for whom information was secured. ('HAPTER II.--Racial displacements:

History of immigration..
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households..

Racial classification of employees at the present time. (HAPTER III.-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied..
Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States,
General occupation of males at the present time, in the householdsstudied.
General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied.
Weekly earnings.
Relation between period of residence and earning ability.
Annual earnings of male heads of families studied..
Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual family income....
Wives at work....
Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers. Sources of family income.

Relative importance of different sources of family income. Chapter IV.-Working conditions:

Regularity of employment....

The immigrant and organized labor.
(HAPTER V. - Housing and living conditions:

Rent in its relation to standard of living..
Boarders and lodgers....
Size of apartments occupied
Size of households studied.

Congestion....
(HAPTER VI.-Salient characteristics:

Conjugal condition.
Visits abroad..

Age classification of employees and members of their households. (Chapter VII. General progress and assimilation:

Ownership of homes..
Status of children in the households studied.
Citizenship...
Ability to speak English.

46

46

48
50

53
55

63

Literary....

69 72 79

85 86 87 89

4

PART II.-SILK GOODS MANUFACTURING IN THE PENNSYLVANIA

ANTHRACITE COAL REGION.

l'age.

95

95 96

97 98 99

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Explanation of study.
Reasons for locating the industry in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal

region....

Employees for whom information was secured.
CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration....
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees.

Racial classification of employees at the present time...
CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Occupations entered in the industry.
Weekly earnings.
Hours of work per day and week in the industry
Effect of improved machinery upon industry and employees.

Employers' opinions of recent immigrants.
CHAPTER IV.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy..
Conjugal condition.
Visits abroad...

Age classification of employees..
CHAPTER V.-General progress and assimilation:

Citizenship...
Ability to speak English..

101 103 106 106 106

107 108 111 112

115 115

PART III.-SILK DYEING.

Page.

117 117

119 119 120

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Explanation of study...

Employees for whom information was secured.
CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration...
Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees.

Racial classification of employees at the present time....
CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States..
Weekly earnings.

Relation between period of residence and earning ability.
CHAPTER IV.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy.
Conjugal condition..
Visits abroad...

Age classification of employees..
CHAPTER V.-General progress and assimilation:

Citizenship.......
Ability to speak English..

123 124 125

127 127 130 131

133 134

General tables....

General explanation of tables.
List of text tables...
List of general tables.
List of charts.....

137 139 241 247 251

SILK GOODS MANUFACTURING AND DYEING.

PART 1.-GENERAL SURVEY OF THE INDUSTRY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Growth of the industry-Increase in the number of employees, Territory studied

Households studied-Members of households for whom detailed information was secured- The preparation of the report-Employees for whom information was secured-(Text Tables 1 to 8 and General Tables 1 to 3).

GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY.

During the past thirty years the silk goods manuiacturing industry has undergone a remarkable expansion. In 1880 the capital invested in the industry in the United States amounted to only $19,125,300 and the annual output was only $11,033,045, as contrasted with a capital commitment of $109,556,621 in 1905 and an annual production to the value of $133,288,072. The growth of the industry in the United States and in the principal silk goods manufacturing States during the period 1880-1905 is shown in the table which immediately follows:

Table 1.--Growth of the silk goods manufacturing industry in the United States and in

selected States, 1880-1905.
From l'nited States Census Report, Manufactures, 1905, Part III, Table 16.)

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INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES,

From the standpoint of recent immigration the most significant feature in connection with the growth of the silk industry has been the resultant increase in the number of employees due to the fact that the necessary operatives have been obtained largely from among recent immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. The expansion of the operating force of the industry may be readily understood from the fact that only 31,337 wage-earners were employed in 1880, as contrasted with 79,601 in the year 1905. The table below shows the increase in the number of operatives in the United States as a whole and in the principal producing States during the period 1880– 1905:

Table 2.- Increase in the number of silk goods wage-earners in the United States and in

selected States, 1880-1905.

(From United States Census Report, Manufactures, 1905, Part III, Table 16.)

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The investigation of the industry was restricted to the principal silk goods producing localities of the Middle and New England States, special emphasis being placed upon Paterson, N. J., and the anthracité coal region of Pennsylvania.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

A total of 272 households the heads of which were employed in the industry, were studied in detail. In the following table the number of households studied is shown according to general nativity and race of head of household:

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