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THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which the operatives are identified with labor organizations is exhibited by the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over in the households studied, who were working for wages: TABLE 45.-- Afiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Based on information secured from 340 males in this industry, only 4.1 per cent are affiliated with trade unions, the foreign-born reporting 3.1 so affiliated, as compared with 19 per cent of the nativeborn of native father. Among the foreign-born the Armenians and Syrians have manifested no active interest whatever in trade unions, while the Hebrews, with 8.1 per cent affiliated with these organizations, show a larger proportion than do the North Italians, Poles, or South Italians.

CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments occupied—Size of households studied— Congestion—[Text Tables 46 to 58 and General Tables 23 to 34).

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The rent payments of the households the heads of which were employed in the silk industry are chiefly significant in their bearing upon standards of living because of congestion within the households arising from the practice, especially among households the heads of which were of recent immigration, to crowd their apartments in order to reduce the per capita outlay for rent. The first table submitted in this connection shows the average monthly rent payment per apartment, per room, and per person, according to general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 46.- Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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This table shows that the average monthly rent paid by 247 households connected with the silk industry was $9.30 per apartment, $2.34 per room, and $2.03 per person. The races which show the most variations from these averages are the Armenians and Hebrews, who pay more than the average per apartment, and the South Italians and Poles, who pay somewhat less than the average.

The range of monthly rents for apartments is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment: TABLE 47.Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

races.)

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The average rent per month per apartment of the 247 households included in the foregoing table is $9.30, 1.2 per cent paying under $5, 20.2 per cent under $7.50, 59.5 per cent under $10, and 90.3 per cent under $12.50.

The average rent of the households the heads of which are nativeborn is slightly higher than that of those the heads of which are foreign-born.

Considering the households the heads of which are foreign-born, by race, it is seen that those the heads of which are North Italian or Polish are the only ones showing a proportion paying under $5 rent per month per apartment. Over 20 per cent of those of each race except Hebrew or Armenian, pay under $7.50. Those the heads of which are Armenian or Hebrew show the smallest proportion paying under $10 or under $12.50, the average rent of these households being above $10, while the average rent of the households of each other race except Syrian is below $9.

The table next presented exhibits, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per room.

TABLE 48.--Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

races.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. The greater proportions of foreign-born households pay under $3 per month per room; all of the households pay under $4. The North Italians and Poles show relatively large proportions of families paying under $2. Comparatively high rent per room is most frequent in Hebrew families, which show the smallest proportion paying under $3.

In the following table, which shows the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, the real situation relative to congestion is set forth, the crowding within the households being indicated by the large proportion of households having a low rent payment per capita: Table 49.- Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

races.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. 48296°—VOL 11-11--5

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