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CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS. Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad--Age classification of employees and

members of their households-[Text Tables 59 to 70 and General Tables 35 to 44).

LITERACY.

As regards the literacy of silk goods manufacturing employees and members of their households, the following series of tabulations not only sets forth the degree of literacy which prevails among them at the present time, but also indicates the elements of progress evidenced by the foreign-born after their arrival in this country. The table first presented shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of employees able to read and the percentage able to both read and write: Table 59.-- Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of native father,

White.
Native-born of foreign father,

by country of birth of
father:

Austria-Hungary
England..
Germany.
Ireland
Italy
Netherlands
Russia..
Scotland
Switzerland.

Wales.
Foreign-born, by race:

Canadian, French.
Dutch..
English.
French
German.
Hebrew, Russian.
Irish..
Italian, North
Italian, South
Polish
Scotch...

Grand total...
Total native-born of foreign

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father... Total native-born. Total foreign-born.

4,070

8.706 12,776

98.7

99.0

98.9

98.2

98.5

98. 4

4, 619

99.5

99.5

1,124 1,770 2,300

5.743 8.397 4,379

99. 7
99.8
97.8

99.7
99.7
96.8

99.7
99.7
97.3

99.6
99.7
97.1

2,079

95.1

The preceding table shows that of 12,776 employees reporting, 98.9 per cent can read and 98.4 per cent can read and write. The employees who are native whites born of native father show the highest percentage who can read and the highest percentage who can read and write, the employees who are native-born of foreign father and those who are of foreign birth following in the order named. Of the employees who are native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in Wales, Switzerland, Scotland and the Netherlands show 100 per cent of both males and females able to read and write. Of the foreign-born employees the Scotch and English show 100 per cent of both the males and females able to read and write. The South Italians show the greatest degree of illiteracy, only 85.6 per cent being able to read and write.

The table next presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied who can read and the per cent who can both read and write:

TABLE 60.Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and

write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

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Of 867 persons reporting complete data, the preceding table shows that 86.4 per cent read and write. A larger proportion of the males than of the females are literate. The entire proportion of the nativeborn, whether of native or of foreign father, both males and females, read and write, as compared with 92.4 per cent of the foreign-born males and 74.8 per cent of the foreign-born females. The proportion of foreign-born able to read is slightly larger than the proportion able to both read and write, as regards both males and females. Of the foreign-born races the North Italians and Poles show the entire proportion of males and 91 per cent and 86.1 per cent, respectively, of the females to have ability to both read and write, the South Italian showing the smallest proportion.

The relation between literacy and period of residence in this country is set forth in the following table, which shows, according to years in the United States and race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and the percentage who read and write: Table 61.-- Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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A total of 746 persons reported complete data in the foregoing table. Of those who have been in the United States under five years, 83.5 per cent read and write and 85.1 per cent read. Of those who have been here from five to nine years, 82.8 per cent read and write and 83.3 per cent read, and of those who have been in this country for ten years or more, 85.9 per cent read and write and 87 per cent read. Of the persons who have been in the United States under five years, the North Italians show the largest proportion of persons who can read and write, their percentage being 97.4. The Poles, of less than five years' residence, show a proportion of persons who can read and write almost as large—97.1 per cent—while the Syrians, of whom only 55.2 per cent can read and write, show the smallest proportions. Of those who have been in the country from five to nine years the Hebrews show the largest proportion of persons who read and write. The percentage in that case is 93.1, and is closely followed by the Poles, '90 per cent of whom read and write, while the smallest proportions are shown by the Syrians, only 72.2 per cent of whom read and write and 77.8 per cent read. Among those whose residence in this country has been for ten or more years, the North Italians show the largest proportion of persons who read and write.

The table next submitted is of interest as indicating the progress manifested by the younger immigrants as compared with the older. It shows, according to age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write.

TABLE 62.- Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent

who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of a total of 746 persons reporting complete data in the above table, it will be seen that of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States, all of those who read (96.3 per cent) also write, while of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, a small proportion, or 1.4 per cent, of those who read can not write (82.2 per cent less 80.8 per cent). Of the several races the South Italian is the only one showing a proportion of those under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States who can neither read nor write.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The conjugal condition of silk goods manufacturing employees and members of their households is set forth in the series of tables following. The table first presented shows the percentage of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by sex and general nativity and race:

TABLE 63.-Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by

sex and general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of native father, White.....
Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of
father:

England.
Germany
Ireland..
Netherlands.
Scotland..
Switzerland.

126
170
130
90
34
36

25.4
41.2
43.1
43.3
26.5
41.7

70.6
56.5
53.8
51.1
73. 5
52.8

4.0 2.4 3.1 5.6

.0 5.6

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