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Information was obtained in this industry for 794 foreign-born persons. Of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States 99.1 per cent now speak English, as compared with 71.5 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming. Of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming, each race, except the North and South Italians, reports 100 per cent who now speak English, while of those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States the Hebrews, with 79.3 per cent, report a slightly larger proportion than do thé Syrians, South Italians, Poles, Armenians, and North Italians, in the order named.

The progress made by persons of non-English-speaking races in acquiring the ability to speak English after designated periods of residence in this country is set forth in the table following:

Table 79.- Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by

6
years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 10 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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Of a total of 794 persons reporting complete data in the above table, 65.2 per cent of those in the United States under five years, 83.6 per cent of those with a period of residence of from five to nine years, and 89.5 per cent of those here ten years or over now speak English. The Hebrews show the largest and the North Italians the smallest proportion who speak English, as regards each period of residence. With the exception of the Hebrews, the proportion of each race speaking English increases with the length of residence.

4$296° — VOL 11-11-7

The following table shows the percentage of foreign-born employees now able to speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States:

Table 80.- Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of

coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total,

however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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It appears from this table that in the case of each race, without exception, a considerably larger proportion of the persons who came to the United States as children than of those who were 14 years of age or over are now able to speak English. The least difference appears among the Dutch males, and the greatest difference among the Polish females.

The following table shows the percentage of foreign-born employees who speak English, by years in the United States:

TABLE 81.--Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the

United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

MALE.

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From the preceding table it appears that 48.7 per cent of the males and 43.4 per cent of the females who have been in the United States under five years can speak English, as compared with 76.2 per cent of the males and 83 per cent of the females who have been here from five to nine years, and 91.2 per cent of the males and 91.7 per cent of the females who have been here ten years or over. Almost without exception the percentages increase with length of residence in the United States. All of the Russian Hebrews, both males and females, who have been in the United States ten years or over can speak English. On the whole, the North Italians exhibit the smallest percentages reported in the table.

PART II.-SILK GOODS MANUFACTURING IN THE PENNSYLVANIA

ANTHRACITE COAL REGION.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Explanation of study-Reasons for locating the industry in the Pennsylvania anthra

cite coal region-Employees for whom information was secured-(Text Table 82 and General Table 54).

EXPLANATION OF STUDY.

The following report has been prepared for the purpose of comparing the status of the immigrant employees in the silk mills of the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania with the older and more important divisions of the industry. It is based upon a study of employees, the data received from the households investigated being included in the tabulations for the industry as a whole.

REASONS FOR LOCATING THE INDUSTRY IN THE PENNSYLVANIA

ANTHRACITE COAL REGION.

While several reasons are assigned for locating silk mills in this section of the State, there are two that are worthy of more than passing comment: (1) The cheap labor available at the time the first mills were established, and (2) the low cost of fuel.

Before silk mills were erected in this section there was no industry in which young girls could secure employment. It is claimed that prior to the establishment of the silk industry the young girls who were employed as domestic servants received for their services only about $1 per week and that there was not much demand for their services.

In those days fuel could be had for the hauling, for the coal companies had not then learned that they could treat with advantage the quality of coal they were giving to the silk companies. With plenty of cheap labor and cheap fuel it would be difficult to conceive of a more promising locality in which to erect a silk mill. These conditions, however, have materially changed at the present time, as will be noted by comparing the cost of labor and fuel in 1891 and at present. The wages paid and the amount per pound received by a silk company for one process, twisting, affords a good illustration of the changed conditions. For this work in 1891 the employee, according to the statement of the officials of the company, received from $2.75 to $3.25 for a week of sixty hours, and the mill received for this work from $1.25 to $1.50 per pound. To-day the employee for this same class of work receives from $4.50 to $5.25, and in some

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