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LONGMANS'
CIVIL ENGINEERING SERIES

EDITED BY THE AUTHOR OF “ NOTES ON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION”

With Illustrations, Medium 8vo.

TIDAL RIVERS: their Hydraulics, Improvement, and Navigation.

By W. H. WHEELER, M.Inst.C.E. Author of “ The Drainage of Fens and Low Lands by Gravitation and Steam Power." 16s. net. NOTES ON DOCKS AND DOCK CONSTRUCTION.

By C. COLSON, M. Inst.C.E., Assistant Director of Works, Admiralty. 215. net. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF HARBOUR CON

STRUCTION. By WILLIAM SHIELD, F.R.S.E., M. Inst.C.E., and Executive Engineer of the National Harbour of Refuge, Peterhead, N.B. 155. net.

RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION.

By W. H. Mills, M.Inst.C.E., Past President of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland, and Engineer-in-Chief of the Great Northern Railway of Ireland. 185. net.

CALCULATIONS IN HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING.

By T. CLAXTON FIDLER, M.Inst.C.E., Professor of Engineering, University College, Dundee. Author of "A Practical Treatise on Bridge Construction.''

Part I.-Fluid Pressure, and the Calculation of its Effects in Engineering Structures.

A COURSE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING.

By L. F. VERNON-HARCOURT, M.A., M.Inst.C.E., Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London. Author of “Rivers and Canals" ; “ Harbours and Docks”; “ Achievements in Engineering.” [In preparation.

Other Volumes are in preparation.

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO..

LONDON, NEW YORK AND BOMBAY

CALCULATIONS

IN 759713
HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

A PRACTICAL TEXT-BOOK FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS,

DRAUGHTSMEN, AND ENGINEERS

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS AND EXAMPLES

BY

T. CLAXTON FIDLER, M.INST.C.E.
PROFESSOR OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, DUNDEE

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PART 1.
FLUID PRESSURE, AND THE CALCULATION OF ITS

EFFECTS IN ENGINEERING STRUCTURES

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY

1898
All rights reserved

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PREFACE

This little book does not profess to be a treatise on hydraulics, but relates to those calculations which have to be made-many of them very frequently, and others perhaps more rarely, in connection with works of hydraulic engineering.

It is hoped that the complete book may be found useful to those practical engineers, assistants, and draughtsmen, who are often engaged in carrying out such calculations, as well as to engineering students; and with this object in view, it has been written in the language of practical men rather than in that of the schools or of the mathematician. In all cases, it has been the author's desire to discuss the rational groundwork of these problems in the simplest and plainest terms; and the student who happens to be accustomed to a more rapid mathematical treatment may perhaps find these preliminary discussions unnecessary; but they may nevertheless be acceptable to other students, whose training has been of a more practical kind, and whose ideas have been cast in a somewhat different mould.

Some apology should perhaps be offered for the way in which diagrams B and C have been drawn in Fig. 24. If the diagrams had been inverted they would have better indicated the negative character of the quantities; but the chief thing to

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