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beth Lee

LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 8, 1863.

As the Earl of Leicester had “a certain plea

sant and winning majesty, both in his countenance CONTENTS.-No. 84.

and speech, which gained him for a time un

bounded popularity," we may reasonably suspect NOTES :- The “Faerie Queene Unveiled, 101 - Letter from Sir Christopher Wren, 103 - Old Churchwardens that in the third canto Sir Calepine (a beautiful ledge of Africa and the Sources of the Nile, &c., 105 — Sig. Leicester and the Countess of Essex, who were Accounts, 104 - Photo-lithography, Ib. - Ptolemy's Know- speaker) and Serena are intended for the Earl of

niticant Names in Shakspeare, 106. MINOR NOTES:-Bibliographical Note: "Songe du Vergier"

married in September, 1578; but previously her Longevity-Gib -Incomes of Peers in the latter Half of Serene Highness had been grievously wounded the Seventeenth Century - Yorkshire Words and Phrases by the venomous tooth of scandal, and Serena is - Old Almanacs - Fly-Leaf Scribblings York House Water Gato, Buckingham Street, 107.

wounded by the Blatant Beast, which Calidore QUERIES :- Zadkiel's Crystal Ball

, 103 - Dr. Dee's Cry- pursues. The story of Serena falling into the stal - Albion and her White Roses -- The Earliest Auc- hands of Salvages, and being rescued by Sir Caletion Sale of an Estate - Bochart --- Camden's “ Britannia Dr. Chamberlaque --Chatham's Last Words

Domes"
. pine, probably refers to the disgrace of the

earl day and its Difficulties — "Dublin University Review”.

and countess at court, when the queen_was inFast - "The Intrepid Magazine" – Robert Johnson's formed of their marriage by Simier in February “Relations" - "Letters on Literature" - Notes of Ser. mons, 1754-5 – Pike of Martin - The Primrose Regio

or March, 1579. montanus - The Sacrifice of Isaac Obscure Scottish In the fifth canto young Timias, who had comSaints – St. Diggle-Serious and Comical Essays--Thouas pletely recovered the favour of Belphæbe, bas Simon - Theta - Seals, 109.

now three mighty enemies, Despight, Deceit, and QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Queen Elizabeth Yorkshire Poets - Passover William Billyng - Lady Eliza: Defamation, who set the Blatant Beast upon him, Quotations, 111.

and he is wounded; these stanzas evidently allude REPLIES:- Jacob's Staff, 113 - Major-General Heane, 115 to the envy and jealousy of the courtiers at Ra

Exchequer : or Exchecquer-Cheque, 116 Greek Law-Archbishop Leighton's Library at Dunblane legh's high favour with the Queen at this early

Pope and Senault --- Sir Francis Drake - Rooke Family period of his career. Walsall-legged -- Cowthorpe Oak — Wale, 117.

In the seventh canto Timias, completely cured Notes on Books, &c.

of the wound from the Blatant Beast, in attempting to defend a lady riding on an ass from the

ill-usage of two villains, Scorn and Disdain, is Notes.

overpowered, bound with a rope, and driven and THE “FAERIE QUEENE” UNVEILED.*

beaten like a slave, till he is rescued by Prince Arthur. The secret history of this story is singu

larly pleasing and imaginative; and Spenser, in Book VI. "The Legend of Sir Calidore, or of the depicting of Cupid's anger, may have had in Courtesie." - Sir Philip Sidney is acknowledged his recollection the punishment of Erona. The to be the Knight of Courtesie, whose adventure is lady on the ass, Mirabella, wondrous fair, – to pursue and bind in iron bands the Blatant

“Famous through all the Land of Faërie; Beast; and when we remember Philip's defence Though of mean parentage and kindred base, of his father, and that Sir Henry never again Yet deckt with wondrous gifts of nature's grace,” acted as Lord Deputy after his recall in 1578

Book VI. vii. 28,whilst Philip, in the same year, declined joining is the poet's pastoral muse, or rather, the ShepPrince Casimir in the Netherlands on his father herd's Calendar itself; on which poem Sidney, representing to him “bis own situation: the prac- about Christmas, 1580, as President of the Areotises-the information—the malevolent accusations pagus, passed sentence in words almost identical that were assiduously devised against him-and with Spenser's :the assistance which his presence would afford to

“The Shepherd's Calendar hath much poetrie in his him,"—we can readily understand how applicable Eclogues, indeed worthie the reading if I be not deceived. to father and son is the remark of Sir Calidore to That same framing of his stile to an old rustic language, Artegall :

I dare not allow."-Defence of Poesie. “ But where ye ended have, now I begin

To this criticism Spenser seems to allude, when To tread an endless trace."--Book VI. i. 6.

he describes Disdain as — Young Tristram, whom Calidore dubs his squire

“ Sib to great Orgoglio, which was slain in the second canto, is probably a portrait of By Arthur, whenas Una's Knight he did maintain." Philip seventeen years, but tall and fair of face.” Tristram was sent into the Land of Faerie

Mirabella had now been wandering two whole when ten years old; at which age Philip, son of years, undergoing the penalty imposed upon her the Lord President of Wales, was sent to Shrews- by Cupid for her pride and cruelty to her lovers bury school.

during the previous two years; and as the Shep

herd's Calendar was composed in 1578, and pubConcluded from “ N. & Q." 3rd S. iv. 66. lished in 1579, and Sidney's criticism (Cupid's

LETTER III.

r

sentence) was passed at Christmas, 1580, we may mutual friend of Harvey and Spenser, so inti-
suppose the present adventure occurred between mately acquainted with the innermost thoughts of
the autumn of 1582, and the spring of 1583; or, the latter; the writer of the Glosse for the Dreams
in other words, Ralegh on his return from the as well as for the Calendar. Some say Edward
wars in Ireland takes the part of Spenser, in de Kerke, others King; and some, “that the force
fending the rustic language of the Calendar, and of guessing might no further go, imagine even the
thereby exposes himself to the scorn and ridicule poet and the commentator the same person.”
of the classical Areopagites. Such appears to be But how comes it that, to the elegant epistle
the simple solution of this amusing story, the prefixed to the Calendar, only the initials “ E. K.”
punishment of a flirt; but the commentators have are attached ? with the suspicious date, “From
given a far different version thereof.

my lodging at London, this tenth of April, 1579.” According to them, Mirabella, the lady in this Why does Spenser always speak of this bosomunlucky plight, is a satirical portrait of Rosalind, friend as “ E. K.,” whilst he gives us the names of the poet's early love; whilst the rough handling his other friends in full? There is certainly someof the gentle squire by Scorn and Disdain -- as thing mysterious in the case ; and we can scarcely well as his disgrace with Belphæbe, and his wound doubt “E. K.” is Edmund Spenser, on comparing from the Blatant Beast—are supposed to be allu- the following passages in the Glosse to April

, and sions to Ralegh's unfortunate amour, in 1592, at the end of Colin Clout's come Home again :with Miss Elizabeth Throgmorton, whom he after

The poet Stesichorus is said to have doted so much wards married. But we may feel assured the upon Himera, “ that in regard of her excellencie he gentle Spenser, for gentleness was the distinguish scorned and wrote against the beautie of Helena. For ing trait of his character, as imagination of his which his presumptuous and unheedie hardinesse, he is genius, was not so mean and malicious, so paltry- said by vengeance of the gods, thereat being offended, to

have lost both his eyes.”Glosse to April.
minded, as to hold up to scorn and ridicule a
rustic beauty for having jilted him fifteen or six-

And well I wote, that oft I heard it spoken,

How one, that fairest Helene did revile, teen years before; nor so ungrateful and worth

Through judgment of the gods to been ywroken, less as to rejoice, page after page, in heaping Lost both his eyes." insults on his friend, making himself the basest

Colin Clout's come Home again, l. 919—922. and most venomous of Blatant Beasts. Far from

“E. K." also tells us, “ Rosalinde is a fained Spenser were such thoughts when he composed these beautiful tales, full of poetry and humour.

name; which, being well ordered, will bewray the His mind was dwelling on a far distant land, and

verie name of his love and mistresse, whom by on years long gone by-the happiest of his life find that the words Rosalinde and Rondelais are

that name he coloureth.” Consequently, when we before his banishment to the wilds of Ireland, formed of the same letters, the corporal presence, from 1578 to 1584. These lamentable misinterpretations, so inju

the flesh and blood of Rosalind, evanishes into a rious to the character of the poet, seem to have roundelay; which, being a verse of difficult comcommentator, inconsiderately adopted by others. be noted, Rosalind in the poem is everywhere their origin in the overhasty impressions of one position, becomes, in the figurative language of

the poet, a proud and scornful beauty. It should Ah me! Spenser, “my lovely boy," I sympathise with thee. Such was the sad fate of poor dear spelt Rosalind; but in the Glosse always with an

Rosalinde ; and also in the Argument to JanuFootsteps on her first alighting in the Rich Strond of the great Cleopolis. The critical eye of Lon

ary, “a country Lasse, called Rosalinde.” Spenser don, like its gaslight, bedimmed and bemisted by gives us a roundelay in August. a November fog, mistook the gentlest of maidens,

We must now return to Calidore whom we left, the fairest of fairies, for a fiery Fury; and she was

or rather Spenser did, in the third canto, pursuing put on an ass as “a drunken idiot,” led by the the Blatant Beast. The Knight of Courtesie, after carle, silent Contempt, and bewhipped by the foole, dales, through forests, and through plains" — at

"great travel and toyle — through hills, through loud-braying Scorne. Such a penalty was, is, and last, in the ninth canto, “ hostes with Melibee and ever must be paid by the offender against timehonoured prejudices and fixed opinions — be he a

loves fayre Pastorell." In the tenth canto:— . Galileo, a Harvey, a Habnemann, or even the

“ Calidore sees the Graces daunce humble author of the Footsteps of Shakspere.

To Colin's melody:

The whiles his Pastorell is led
But let us have another look at the lovely Rosa-

Into captivity.”
lind. Is she a reality, or a myth? On reading the
Shepherd's Culenılar, I confess I regarded her as

In the next canto, Calidore recovers Pastorell
the poet's pastoral muse; and even when “E. K." from the Brigands; and in the twelfth -
certifies to her identity, I was willing to believe

“ Calidore doth the Blatant Beast Spenser was practising a joke on his friend. But

Subdue, and bind in bands." who is “E. K. ?"- the accomplished scholar, the In these four cantos we have a poetical history

of Sidney's life, from 1580 to 1584. Pastorella, Philip replied in 1584: thus binding the monster the supposed daughter of old Melibée (Sir Francis in an iron chain, and all the people “much adWalsingham), is Sidney's Arcadian, or pastoral mired the Beast, but more admired the knight.” muse. * Her captivity among the Brigands may

C. refer to the last three books of the Arcadia, wbich were finished probably in 1583; and “ Colin's melody" refers to Spenser's return from Ireland,

LETTER FROM SIR C. WREN. when he ravished Sidney's ears with his picture of Despair.

I possess an original letter, signed by Sir ChrisSpenser, when he wrote the fairy scene of the topher Wren, and relating to the supply of PortGraces dancing upon a hill with Colin's love for a land stone for the building of St. Paul's, which I fourth Grace, must have had in his recollection should like to have preserved in “N. & Q.” the song on Elisa in the Shepherd's Calendar,

“London, 12 May, 1705. wherein he says of the lady :

“ Gentlemen,

“ I have perused yours of 9th to my self and Mr. Bate“ She shall be a Grace,

man, and find you'l never make a right use of any kindTo fill the fourth place,

ness, for wch reason you may expect less of mine for the And reigo with the rest in heaven."-April. future. You have been pd beforehand hitherto, but withAnd in the Glosse there is an account of the

out your better behaviour you shall not be pa so again,

tho' yu may always depend on what is right. I shall not three Graces; of which the stanzas 22, 23, 24, in add to my last direction about the money, til that be this tenth canto, are merely an amplification. fully complyd with, nor at present tell you the price (Additional evidence, and good, that “ E. K." and charg'd to the Duke of Buckingham. As for the Stone Spenser are the same person.)

sent to Greenwich, I know no risque you have run, nor of Nor need we wonder, that the fairy scene on

any proposed to you, so that you have no pretence to

higher pay on that acco'. 'Tis all one to me what yor the hill vanishes at the sight of Calidore : for, is Jury dos. "It shall not alter any measures of mine except he not the same as Cupid, Mirabella's judge ? in endeavouring that the Tunnage-money you claim by a And was he not the President of the Areopagus, pretended Grant from the Crown, be disposed to a better that censured the Shepherd's Calendar, wherein purpose than you apply it to, you having no manner of Colin's love, Rosalinde, is so highly praised ? And right to it, as I shall easily make appear; and also rewho is Elisa, the fourth Grace? Is she not also contempt of her authority: for tho''tis in your own power

present to ye Queen your contesting her right, and your Rosalinde? Like her she is of celestial origin- to be as ungrateful as you will, yet you must not think the daughter of Syrinx and Pan ; the oaten reed, that your insolence will be always born with; and tho’ the shepherd's pipe. And thus, whilst by the pub- you will not be sensible of the advantage you receive by lic Elisa is regarded as Queen Elizabeth, amongst taken from you, I believe you might find the want of 'em private friends she would be Rosalinde, rondelais

, in very little time ; and you may be sure that Care will be rond-Elisa. Consequently, in the seventy-fourth taken both to maintain the Queen's Right, and that Such sonnet of the Amoretti, the third Elizabeth must only be employed in the Quarry's as will work regularly also be Rosalind : for how could the poet owe the and quietly; and submit to proper and reasonable direcgraces of his mind to a lady whom he fell in love tions, weh I leave yu to consider of, and am

Your friend, with in his fortieth year ? But we can readily

“ CHR. WREN. grant the said lady may be secretly alluded to,

“I am sorry Mr. Wood has pd you the Tunnage-money and complimented therein; but there appears no But if I have not a better acco of your behaviour, I shal reason for a similar admission as regards the endeavor that you be made to refund it; and whether fourth Grace in this tenth canto, who is the love yor Jury present Mr. Wood or not for the Stone, ’tis all of Colin Clout—"certes but a country lasse

If you take upon you to pay the Duty for and so was Rosalind.

any Stone for St Paul's, or other uses, that I give orders

for, you shall not have one farthing allowed you for it. But Mirabella is not Rosalinde; the one “is a

“ To Mr. John Elliot, gentlewoman of no meane house," the other " of

Bart. Comben, meane parentage and kindred base," — the one is

Juo Ousley, the poet's muse, the other is simply the Shepherd's

Ben. Stone, Calendar. In “ E. K.'s” epistle, we see the ner

Hen. Alwel, and vous anxiety of the new poet for the success of

Robert Gibbs,

at Portland." his adventure, and his strong predilection for the rustic dialect.

Then follows Sir Christopher's direction: We must now conclude with Calidore. His

" To Sir Christopher Wren, att finding the Blatant Beast in a monastery is pro

his house, in Scotland Yard, bably an allusion to Parsons the Jesuit, author of

Whitehall,

London." Leicester's Commonweulth, to which vile libel Sir

W. G. S. Hence we infer that by Stella, in the poem of Astrophel, was intended his more stately muse of chivalry.

one to me.

OLD CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS.

"Holy Communion at weddings." Was this a These are very illustrative of the usages of the general practice ? It is recommended in the Ru

brick at the end of our Marriage Service. times, and are often to be met with lying uncared for in a corner of the parish coffer; but they

H. T. ELLACOMBE, M.A. well deserve to be looked after, as the following extracts from Talaton Devon will

prove: “ 1592. Reca for Ale solde, xx'.

PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHY. 1594. Paide for Breade and Wine against Coronation Days, xvd.

As one of the large body of amateurs who owe Paide to the Register for two Excommunica- their knowledge of photography to the admirable

tions and the sealinge of the same, ij'. papers upon the subject contributed in the early 1595. Paide for bread and wine for three wedinges, vid. days of the art, when it had not a journal of its

Paid for wine against John Drewe's weding, ijd. 1598. Paid for bread and wine against Pridew's mar

own, to the pages of “ N. & Q.” by Dr. Diamond, riage, iiid.

and many of those, whose names now figure so 1601. Payd for Bread and Wine against Thomas Fran- prominently in the photographic world, I would cam's Weddinge, ijd.

suggest the propriety of your preserving in your Payd for Bread and Wine against John Mat- columns the following simple process for photo

thew's Weddinge, iis.
Paid for Bread and Wine for the Comm. on

lithography recorded in The Times of Thursday, Palme Sunday and the weeke followinge and

July 30:-
Easter Day, vij:

“A curious communication was sent in last week to Payd to Mr. Hill for new writtinge the Register the Academy of Sciences by M. Morven, in which he de. Book, vije:

scribes a method of his for obtaining direct photographic Payd for foure yeardes of Cloth to make the impressions upon stone, and which he can afterwards Clarke a Surples, iiij. iiija.

print off. He first gives the stone a coating, applied in Payd for makeinge thereof, vja.

the dark, of a varnish composed of albumen and bi-chroPayd for our Dinner, xxija.

mate of ammonia. Upon this he lays the right side of Payd for mendinge the Piggorme of the 4th the image to be reproduced, whether it be on glass, canBell, vijd.

vass, or paper, provided it be somewhat transparent, Payd for Leather to mende the Bell Coller, vja. This done, be exposes the whole to the action of light for Payd for a Winge and Nayles to mend the a space of time varying between 30 seconds and three Belles, vjd.

minutes if in the sun, and between 10 and 25 minutes, if 1602. Item, payd for Bread and Wine against William in the shade. He then takes off the original image, and

Marker's Weding and Humfrye Pyle's Weding, washes his stone, first with soap and water, and then vd.

with pure water only, and immediately after inks it with Payd for Bread and Wine for two Communions, the usual inking-roller. The image is already fixed, for

one at Michaelmas and the other at Chrismas, it begins to show itself in black on a white ground. He iij. vja.

now applies gumwater, lets the stone dry, which is done The Leather and thonges to mend tbe Bell Col- in a few minutes, and the operation is complete; copies lers, ixd

may at once be struck off by the common lithographic 1610. Paid for Peter's Farthings, xd.

process. The process may be explained thus :— The varItem, paid to Robert Manley for making the nish has been fixed and rendered insoluble by the action of pigme for the fourth bell, xijd.

light wherever it could penetrate; but, on the contrary, 1613. It: the Charges that I was cityd for that there alĩ the parts of the varnish protected by the dark por

ware no sentences of Scriptures upon the tions of the image still retain their solubility, and are Church Walles, iij.. ija."

therefore still liable to be acted upon by the soda and It: to Broke the paynter for setting up of the acid contained in the soap, of which they moreover retain

sentences of Scripture upon the Church Walles, a part of the substance. Hence the action produced on xvj..

the stone is a combination of etching and lithography, The selling of ale brewed by the churchwardens, The advantages of the process may be briefly summed up with malt contributed by the parishioners by a

as follow :-Simplicity and rapidity in the operation, ex

actness in reproducing the design, no need of negative rate, was one way of raising money for the uses impressions on glass or paper, the positive original comes and repairs of the church.

out positive, the original design or model is not spoilt “Peter's Farthings.” What was this payment? during the process, and the cost is trifling, owing to the It occurs again, and I have met with the same

cheapness of the substances.”—Galignani's Messenger. entry in other parish accounts.

My reason for this is obvious. The practice Piggorme, " " Pigme.” What was this? In here described is so simple that, if it be as effecanother parish (Woodbury) in 1537 I find it spelt tive as it is described, no photographer, capable “ Peggyn."

of producing a decent photograph, can now be “ 1613. For Keyes and Ringes and mending the Piggens, under any difficulty in multiplying copies of it. vid

Photography was wisely advocated in“N. & Q." iij Wages for toe wage the Great Bell Pigon, iiju.

as of the greatest possible value to the antiMay it not be the old French word pignon, and quary: How that value will be increased by means pinion and pivot, by which the bell is sus- this simple process of multiplying photo-lithopended, now called the gudgeon ?

graphic copies of views, documents, seals, &c. it

AS A SPECIMEX OF THE TRANSLATION AND EXPLANATION

would be a waste of space to argue. I hope any degree under the Equator too little by one-sixth, correspondents who use M. Morven's process will a fault by no means mended, if 500 stadia are give your readers the benefit of their experience. reckoned to his degree instead of 600. Wherever

AMATEUR. possible, this error was corrected by astronomical

observation; and it is just in such places we can

observe the excellence of the materials with which PTOLEMY'S KNOWLEDGE OF AFRICA AND

he worked. But with the choice, he always preTHE SOURCES OF THE NILE,

fers astronomical observations, and where they

failed him, he was necessarily forced to depend OF THAT WRITER'S “ GEOGRAPHICA."

upon the measurements and itineraries of others; Every map, representing any great portion of though the views he thereby obtained were often the earth's superficies, must necessarily be com- in conflict with the recorded observations made pounded of a number of special ones; a truth that previously : in such cases he held these measurewill be deemed by no one unimportant who has ments as false, and proceeded to amend them by ever occupied himself with Chartography: he will his own judgment. find its application for every atlas, whether con- It will, therefore, be necessary, in the following structed now or a thousand years back.

investigation, to ascertain what observations are The measurements of an engineer or the itiner- his own and what proceed from his judgment aries of the traveller give special maps; the com- exercised upon the opinion of others; and in bination of many such special maps to an entirety doing so we will at present take his map of the of the globe, is the problem of geography. Thus, course of the Nile, leaving other portions of CenPtolemy, at the commencement of his work, says : tral Africa and the Niger to a translation of his “Geographers need not necessarily be draftsmen; entire work, which we hope to accomplish. they only combine what has been previously de- Following the course of the Nile in Ptolemy's lineated, and bring together by the aid of mathe- works we find that, from Alexandria to Syene, it matics (uedódov uaðnuatıkîs) the materials afforded is pretty correctly laid down; and that occasional them by the topographers. His task, therefore, is variations from its modern run are perhaps due easy, where a sufficient number of special maps more to the changes of its bed than to any

fault are laid before him."

of the geographer. From Syene to Meroe we The

maps which Ptolemy constructed for Cen- observe generally all the bends the stream still tral Africa, though generally wrong, are so upon pursues, but with a neglect of specialties for principle, and on a settled plan. When we have generals. The N form sinuosity, known already the clue to his principle, it will be found that his to Erastosthenes and other ancient writers, is old map possesses more truth than his most en- truly and possibly better drawn than upon maps thusiastic admirers have ever contemplated. It which were projected at the beginning of the will be, therefore, our object to follow him into present century. his library, to watch over his mode of proceeding, The geographical latitude of Syene has, as is to discover the rationale of his errors : for as on well known, been fixed by astronomical calculathe one hand they proceed from the faults of tion. projection, which more than anything have dis- Had Ptolemy, with the shortened degree mentorted his map, so on the other, from the want of tioned above as his basis, and without astronomiknowledge in his commentators of this method, cal correction, formed his map of the Upper Nile, which has hitherto prevented them from properly he must soon have come too far South, and the understanding him.

difference must have been plainly perceptible at The method then followed by Ptolemy, which Erchoas (18° N. L.). On the way from Erchoas he had copied from Martinus Tyrius, his prede- to Napata, this error was again rectified; though cessor, and which had been adopted by others, is this latter place has a situation that is at least as follows:- He carried the single maps, from half a degree too low with reference to Syene. which he constructed his general one, on to a At Meroe, the error from this mode of computa. globe, taking as his basis the astronomical ob- tion would not be less than a degree, but in reality servations already made by himself and others: we do not find this supposition confirmed by inAfter all his material was thus arranged, it was spection. Meroe and Erchoas are nearly in their easy to fix to each the proper degree of latitude right latitudes, and Napata much too far north. and longitude. As, however, a globe of the re- From this it follows, that the latitudinal observaquisite size would be difficult to procure, Ptolemy tions in the eighth book on Napata and Meroe gives various methods of drawing meridians and cannot both be taken from the same particular parallels upon a plane, that it may be similar to maps ; one of them must have been from his own the globe, after the special maps are laid on to it. projection. Meroe has the best right to claim

Unfortunately one radical error pervades Pto- observations for its site, which Napata can scarcely lemy's entire work: he takes the length of a expect, as it is almost half a degree wrong. Now,

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