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ancients votively relegate an offender ὑπὲς Ἡρακλέους ἐσχάτας hs, beyond the extreme pillars of Hercules. "The emperor struck out the negative from the 'Ne plus ultra' of Hercules, and proclaimed to the world that there were no limits to Spanish ambition," says a writer in the Quarterly Review (lxii. 128). But the emperor meant to proclaim something more than this, namely, the actual extent of Spanish rule.]
YEAR-BOOK.-I copy part of the title-page of a volume lying before me, and should be glad to know what it is; i. e. what name it bears among lawyers:
"In hoc volumine continentur omnes anni Regis Henrici Septimi, ab anno primo usque ad annum vicesimum secundum eiusdem Regis, qui antea impressi fue
"Or novelment imprimee & corrigee, &c. &c. Londini in ædibus Richardi Tottelli, 1585. Cum privilegio."
The colophon is —
"Imprinted at London in Fleet Strete, within Temple Barre, at the signe of the hand and starre, by Rycharde Tottel, 1583. Cum privilegio."
[This is a volume of the Year-Books printed by Richard Tottel, containing the 1st to the 22nd year of Henry VII. The last two years were printed in 1583; but a new and revised edition of the previous years was reprinted in 1585, which accounts for the colophon having the former date. (Herbert's Ames, ii. 824, 825.) The Year-Books were published annually, which explains their name, from the notes of persons, four in number, according to Lord Coke, who were paid a stipend by the crown for the purpose of committing to writing the proceedings of the courts.]
ANONYMOUS.I have a thick 8vo volume, entitled The Contest of the Twelve Nations; or, a View of the different Bases of Human Character and Talent (Edinburgh, 1826); but without the author's name. Who was he? The work appears to be rather curious; and I cannot find any mention of it in Bohn's edition of Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual.
[This work is by William Howison, the author of the "Ballad of Polydore," who has been so graphically described by Sir Walter Scott in his letter to Joanna Baillie, July 11, 1823. His other works are-1. Fragments and Fictions, published under the name of M. de Peudemots. 2. An Essay on the Sentiments of Attraction, Adaptation, and Vanity. To which are added, A Key to the Mythology of the Ancients, and Europe's Likeness to the Human Spirit. Edin. 1822, 12mo. 3. 4 Grammar of Infinite Forms; or, the Mathematical Elements of Ancient Philosophy and Mythology, 1823, 12mo.]
THOMAS EARL OF CLEVELAND. - What is the history of Wentworth, Earl of Cleveland, whose noble portrait by Vandyck (the property of the Earl of Strafford) is now exhibited in the British Institution in Pall Mall? CONSTANT READER. [Thomas Wentworth, created Feb. 5th, 1626, Baron Wentworth of Nettlested, and Earl of Cleveland, was one of the most zealous supporters of the royal cause in the
civil wars of Charles I., and was imprisoned in the Tower of London for his loyalty. He had the satisfaction, however, of witnessing the restoration of the monarchy, and
THE KNIGHTS HOSPITALLERS, ETC.
In my last communication I proposed to submit to my readers a parallel showing the respective claims to legitimacy put forth by the Roman Council and the English Langue. I now beg to redeem my pledge to that effect, and shall commence my present observations with a reference to the leading event in the modern history of the Order-an event in which both parties may date the origin of their separation-namely, the dispersion of the knights from the seat of their sovereignty at Malta in 1798; for down to the period of that date, the statutory model of the institution had been formally preserved, and the English Langue (arbitrarily deprived of its possessions by Henry VIII.), and the three French Langues (which had with equal injustice been despoiled of their estates by the Directory) were still accounted by the Order itself integral portions of the general fraternity. The capture of Malta by the French, which gave a death-blow to the Order as a sovereign state, severed into fragments the hitherto associated Langues, and the dispersed knights were reduced to the miserable expediency of seeking a home wherever humanity might offer a refuge. To suppose that, from this period to the date of the downfall of Napoleon, any assemblage existed which could constitute a legitimate representation of the body of the Order, would be but an idle perversion of the true facts of the case; and that such a misstatement should ever
have appealed to our belief is only to be grounded on the interested efforts made by the Italian members to resolve themselves, practically, into a sort of chapteral association, that might claim for itself an independent and supreme authority, supported by the countenance of the Pope, and the protection of certain of the Catholic princes. The principle advocated in support of this expedient was couched in the assertion that property
was the only basis of the existence of a Langue; and that, inasmuch as the English Langue had been stripped of its revenues at the period to which I have alluded, and the three French Langues had been equally denuded of their respective domains during the great Revolution, while those of Spain and Portugal had withdrawn from the government of the Order when the Order could no longer govern itself, it followed that the German and Italian Langues which alone retained some infinitesimal portion of their former estates, should constitute the only surviving remnant of the institution, and of course exercise a plenary jurisdiction over its scattered members. But that such a theory was ever accepted by the main body of the Order, which, though existing in dispersed fragments, and deprived of any collective power by the adverse course of events, still claimed an indefeasible right to exercise all the acts of sovereignty whenever an opportunity of re-union presented itself, is, on the very face of the question, a most palpable and absurd imposture. The acts of the few fugitive knights who sought an asylum at St. Petersburg, and who, in concert with the members of the Russian Grand Priory, elected the half-mad and wholly barbarous Paul I. their Grand Master, and this too reckless were they as to what they did to relieve themselves from the pressure of destitution before even the existing Grand Master, Baron de Hompesch, had abdicated his office, could never, as a matter of principle only, have been sanctioned and confirmed by men of established honour and chivalric sentiments. The impression of just ridicule which hailed the event throughout Europe is still well remembered; and the proclamation of Paul, with his address to the nobility of Christendom, urging them to become Knights of the "regenerated" order, met with no echo but the scarcely suppressed taunts of general derision. The farce was played out; everything in the socalled Order was ludicrously Russianized; and the prostitution of the cross for money, and for mere purposes of political intrigue, quickly followed. The assassination of Paul soon afterwards set adrift the crowd of hapless hangers-on, who had vainly hoped to find a permanent harbour from distress in the Russian dominions. It were bootless to particularise the efforts that were then made to rally the dispersed exiles of St. Petersburg. At length, an Italian Knight, Giovanni Tomasi, obtained the authority of the Pope to succeed the unfortunate Czar as Grand-Master, but he soon sickened with disappointment, and followed Paul-leaving the "regenerated" order in the hands of a party so small and uninfluential that the Pope could no longer conscientiously assist in the appointment of another GrandMaster, and, from that day to this, an officer called the "Lieutenant of the Mastership," has
been successively substituted for the former dignitary. I write with a desire to state nothing that is not founded in perfect truth and candour; and, in describing the state of the Order as thus represented by a minute fraction of its members, under the protection of the Pope, and as thus taking upon themselves the reputed supremacy of the institution, I shall prefer to use the graphic words of a most memorable Bailiff of the Order, the Count de Litta, the very Knight who, as ambassador from the Grand Master de Hompesch, invested Paul with the office of Protector in 1797. In speaking of the débris of the Order assembled at Rome in 1838, he says, in a letter to the Council of the English Langue, still preserved in its archives:
"Yes," he exclaimed, "I am Secretary, or anything else you please! Chancellor, if you will! The fact is, I do the work of the Order, and it is too poor to have its grand offices filled up, so that you may look upon me as representing any or all of them. We have crosses and uniforms, but very small funds. The order has an existence, and an ostensible chief in its Lieutenant, but Metternich really governs it."
One more glimpse of still later date, that will satisfy the most erigeant reader of the miserable state of degradation into which the Romish party has at length floundered, after all its intrigues and manœuvres to gain and exercise a sovereignty over the whole of the disintegrated branches, one more glimpse, I say, of this wretched fall of the once potent Order "from its high estate" into hopeless and almost irremediable abasement, and I will drop a friendly curtain over the too distressing picture. We read, under the date of 1858, that
"A scheme has been laid at the feet of the Holy Father, as Head of the Church and of all Religious Orders, and that his Holiness received the proposals very favourably, and submitted them to a committee of seven Cardinals, to which was added the Head of the Order, His Excellency the Count Colloredo!"-Sir G. Bowyer's Ritual of Profession, &c.
limits, I shall pause here, requesting my reader's My paper having far exceeded its anticipated attention to its continuation in a following number, when I will give a concise account of the circumstances which led to the re-incorporation of the English Langue- the only Protestant and independent section of the Order.
SOURCE OF THE NILE.
(3rd S. iii. 470.)
I beg to call your attention to the passages subjoined in writers of the sixteenth century, many years earlier than those referred to in your Editorial article, or in Dr. Beke's work, entitled -
"The Sources of the Nile; being a General Survey of the Basin of that River, and of its Head-Streams. With the History of Nilotic Discovery, 1860."
I shall not attempt to compare the numerous authorities on the various relations of this interesting subject to history and geography, but merely point out memorable statements of authors who have not, I believe, been cited in the notices recently published:
"De Barros," observes Dr. Beke, "speaks of a great lake in the interior, of which accounts had been received both in Congo and Sofala, as sending forth three rivers : namely, the Tacuy, or Nile; the Zaire, or Congo; and the Zambese, or Cuama. Later writers describe the Nile as flowing from two lakes: the information received being vague and uncertain, and giving rise to controversy; but being, nevertheless, substantially correct."-P. 110.
Similar statements then, and opinions of those who lived in the beginning of the sixteenth century, are perhaps as worthy of insertion as those of Pigafetta and Lopez; and I shall not further detain the reader than by giving the title of the work from which they are extracted, viz.:
"De Natura et Incremento Nili Libri duo. In quibus inter disputandum plures aliæ quæstiones explicantur. Authore P. Joanne Baptista Scortia, Genuensi, Theologo Societatis Jesu. Lugduni, 1617."
"Ultima igitur vera et omnino indubitabilis sententia est, scaturire Nilum in Ethiopia loco edito ex quo etiam, ut postea dicemus, originem capit Zuama, quae opposito cursu a Nilo, in Oceanum Meridionalem exoneratur, et Coanza, quæ influit in Atlanticum, ad radices montium inter Regnum Goyamum, Congense, Caffatense et Monomotapæ, qui ab incolis, ut habet Paulus Jovius lib. 18, Cardanus, et Franciscus Alvarez, Beth appellantur, ab aliis Caffates, a Theophrasto Montes Lunæ, quod sua altitudine videantur lunam attingere, a Promatio Samio, Aristotele, lib. i. Meteor. sum. 4, cap. 1, et Authore libri de Nilo, Montes Argenti.. Probatur igitur veritas hujus sententiæ testimonio oculati et fide dignissimi Davidis Regis Ethiopiæ, qui in litteris datis anno 1521, ad Emanuelem Lusitaniæ Regem, et aliis datis anno 1524, ad Pontificem Romanum, allatisque Clementi VII. Bononiam, ubi cum Carlo V. Imp. aderat, a Francisco Alvarez, lectisque coram Cardinalibus et universo populo anno 1533, die 29 Januarii, quæ habentur impressæ apud Damianum Goëz libro de moribus et relig. Æthiopum [vide Schotti Hispania Illustrata, ii. 1293 et 1299], et Jo. Baptistam Ramnusium in fine Æthiopica peregrinationis Fr. Alvarez [i. 258, 9], scribit se in Ethiopia imperitare multis Regnis et in primis Regno Goyamo, ex quo Nilus habet originem. Item, Antonius Fernandus, Societatis Jesu qui diu in Ethiopia vixit, et tandem sanctissime obiit, in epistola inde scripta, quam ponit Nicolaus Godignus lib. i. de reb. Abyss. c. 11, ait. Magna hujus piscis (scil. torpedinis) copia in Nilo reperitur ad extremos Provincia Goyama fines, ubi palus est fundo carens, perennes
SERMONS UPON INOCULATION.
I believe that Dr. Smiles is quite correct, and that Dr. Jenner was assailed from the pulpit. I have a distinct recollection of reading a sermon in which vaccination was referred to as an impious interference with the designs of Providence, and well as Mr. King. I do not remember by whom in which Dr. Jenner was distinctly referred to as the sermon was preached; and it would be difficult to trace it, as vaccination was given as only one of the many impieties of the age. It was written in the same fanatical spirit as the former ents, however, of Dr. Jenner, were found among one of Dr. Massey's in 1722. The great opponthe members of his own profession, the most violent of whom was a Dr. Benjamin Moseley, at that time a physician to the Chelsea Hospital. It may interest your readers to supply an example of his arguments, and a specimen of his style.
In 1799, he published a volume of Medical Tracts, in which he vigorously attacked "the new mania." This volume was republished in 1800. He was not content with this, but made it a subject of a separate treatise. This was published in 1804, and entitled A Treatise on the Lues Bovilla, or Cow Pox. The opening paragraphs will show
the character of the work:
"In the year 1798, the cow POX Inoculation Mania seized the people of England en masse.
"It broke out in the month of April-like a symptomatic eruption of Nature: the planet Mercury- the delusive author of 'vain and fond imaginations'-being then in the Zodiacal sign of the Bull.
"It increased as the days lengthened; and at Midsummer large societies of the medical profession, which were first attacked, were distempered to an intolerable degree."
This is a very curious pamphlet, and is a fair sample of the kind of hostility Dr. Jenner had to encounter. The opposition called forth the publication of a jeu d'esprit-The Vaccine Phantasmagoria; published by J. Murray, 1808. This is a poem of some merit; but principally valuable as an introduction to several curious notes, citing a large number of the cases which Dr. Moseley had produced against the new practice, and which
exhibit as large an amount of folly and extravagance as can be anywhere met with. In one of the notes a publication is referred to, written in the same style as those of Dr. Moseley's, but bearing the name of Ferdinand Smyth Stuart, Esq. Mr. Stuart announces that he is a physician, and relates the following story, which is an advance upon the extravagance of Moseley himself:
"Among the numerous shocking cases of cow pox
which I have heard of, I know not whether the most horrible of all has yet been published, viz. that of a child at Peckham, who, after being inoculated with the cow pox, had its natural disposition absolutely changed to the brutal; so that it ran upon all fours like a beast, bellowing like a cow, and butting with its head like a bull!!"
Dr. Stuart tells us, that he has not had time to ascertain whether this case be true. This avowal proves the character of the whole opposition, and the perfect recklessness of the opponents. It is a proper sequel to the whimsical notions of Dr. Moseley, who, in his treatise, asks:
"Can any person say what may be the consequences of introducing a bestial humour into the human frame after a long lapse of years?"
Can any of your readers supply the name of the author of The Vaccine Phantasmagoria? I have some suspicion that it was a lucubration of Samuel Rogers.
(3rd S. iii. 491.)
Many continental families of note claim descent from the fairy Melusine, and the story on which this claim is founded is, in all probability, the one inquired for by L. M. M. R. I am away from my books at present, and consequently cannot give a direct reference; but Jean d'Arras collected all the legends concerning this fairy princess about the beginning of the fifteenth century, and the collection was printed at Lyons in 1544, under the title- S'ensuyt ung beau liure en Francoys nomme Melusine. Qui fut fille au Roy Helynas et femme a Raymondin.
A reprint of this work was not long since published in some of the French antiquarian collections, but I cannot at present say in which, or under what title. Having, however, at one time made some research into the subject of alleged supernatural ancestry, I am acquainted with the story of Melusine, which may briefly be told thus. Pressine, a fairy, married Helynas King of Albanie [Wales is probably the country referred to], and gave birth to three daughters; the eldest being Melusine, who married Raymondin, Count of Forez, and, by her occult art, built for him the magnificent chateau of Lusignan. All her chil
dren were of surpassing beauty, though each was distinguished by some pecularity of feature, derived from the supernatural character of the mother. Vriam, her eldest son, had one eye red, the other blue; and ears as large as the sails of a windmill. Odon, the second son, had one ear larger than the other. Guion, the third, had one eye higher up than the other. Antoine, the fourth, had a lion's claw projecting from his cheek-bone. Regniault, the fifth, had only one eye, but he could see to the distance of twenty-one leagues with it. Geoffroi, the sixth, had a great tooth projecting from his mouth. Froimond, the seventh, had a large mole on the tip of his nose; and the eighth, whose name, I believe, history does not mention, had three eyes; one being placed in the back of his head, so that he could see all around him. Vriam married the heiress of a King of Cyprus, and founded a dynasty: Guion married a princess of Armenia; Antoine married Christine, daughter of a duke of Luxembourgh; and Reignault married Aglantine, heiress of a king of Bohemia. Of the other four sons, one became King of Brittany, another Lord of Lusignan, another Count of Parthenay, and the last entering the church, rose to the chair of St. Peter. Historians do not tell us which of them was the ecclesiastic, but I may be excused for saying probably the three-eyed one, as he would naturally be considered the most circumspect of the family.
When Melusine married Raymondin, she stipulated that she was ever to pass Saturday alone in her private apartment. But after several happy years of wedlock, Raymondin, incited by a fatal curiosity, bored a hole in the wall with the point of his sword, and peeping through one Saturday, saw his wife in the form of a serpent. She immediately disappeared with a shriek of despair, and never since has been seen, though not being a mortal, she still exists, and is heard wailing around the castles of her numerous descendants, previous to death visiting their families. Apartments are said to be still kept for her sole use in several old chateaux in France and Belgium.
Melusine is a very ancient superstition, and consequently a very widely spread one. She is the German Undine, the Irish Banshee, &c. &c.; and, to the student of Comparative Mythology, affords a very interesting study, in more ways than
Writing from recollection alone, I would refer L. M. M. R. to most works on French genealogy and heraldry for notices of the alleged descendants of Melusine; and Bullet, Dissertation sur la Mythologie Française, entertains the subject from a Celtic point of view. I have somewhere read, gravely stated as a historical fact, that when the Chateau de Lusignan was confiscated by the crown, Melusine was not only heard but seen lamenting on the platform for twelve nights; she
then removed from it for ever, taking up her residence in the Chateau d'Enghien.
THE LOOKING GLASS. (3rd S. iii. 450.)
The little book entitled The Looking Glass, which, to my sorrow, I have not seen, is to be found mentioned in "Antiquity "Smith's Nollekens and his Times, where, in his account of Banks, the sculptor (vol. ii. p. 185), he gives an extract. At p. 200 Smith says,—
"Little did Mr. Banks think, when he was questioning this youth, that nature had enriched him with some of her choicest gifts, and that the Royal Academy would, in him, at this moment, have had to boast of one of its brightest members in the name of Mulready."
Many years ago the late Thomas Uwins, R.A., lent to my brother Mr. Felix Roffe, a rare and curious little book, the title of which my brother has unfortunately forgotten, narrating the early career of an artist. Mr. Uwins himself informed my brother that the young artist was no other than William Mulready, and that copies of this little book, on account of its rarity, and the artist alluded to, were valued at two guineas. ABHBA may tell whether this is the same work as The Looking-Glass, for my brother informs me that the book he perused was adorned with some facsimile woodcuts of drawings made upon the wall, while the little boy-artist sat upon his father's knee. Of the father it was stated that he had been a soldier "in his youth."
As it is very laborious and somewhat painful to wade through the rubbish heaps with which the modern two-volumed "Lives" of artists are encumbered, such a work as I understand The Looking Glass to be is very refreshing, as I find to be the case with a rare little book I have in my possession, entitled Fortune's Football. It is a brief autobiography of Isaac Jenner, a painter and engraver, and written in a familiar style, being, as the titlepage informs us, "most humbly dedicated, by permission, to the young family of the Right Hon. Lady Ann Hudson." To this book there is a rudely-engraved frontispiece, representing Isaac Jenner when a boy, as he himself says, "looking over the treasures of an old book stall." At page 91 occurs a little wholelength portrait of Jenner, in his crippled condition; it is agreeably engraved in the stipple style, being doubtless executed by himself. As a specimen of his manner of addressing young folks, which is often equally pleasing to "children of a larger growth," I offer the following extract, which will, I trust, be of some interest to many Kentish worthies:
"The beautiful bespangled sky smiled on our short voyage, and the gentle breeze wafted us, in a few hours, to the Albion shore. We soon reached town, where, like Noah's dove, we found no resting place; so, in the spring, we went to the camp on Boxheath, where I assumed the character of Daub; and having obtained a verbal leave only from General Pearson, was, while exploring the right wing of the camp, taken up as a French spy by the orderly captain of the quarter-guard, a gentleman who had lately purchased his commission. This occurred from a joke by some senior officers, who urged him on by saying he would be rewarded with thanks and preferment ; assuring him that I was the one for whom a great reward had been offered, which he would obtain as a farther remuneration for his signal service. My friends were soon informed of this, and application for my release was presently made at the head-quarters; but General Pearson was from camp, so I remained in durance from eleven till eight at night, when the General returned, who sent orders for my liberation, and a written permission: this last was delivered to me privately, and I was in solemn pomp marched between two soldiers, who escorted me to the mess room of my particular friend, the officer of the Dorset; and after they had been amused with my recital of the adventure, they sent me home to my own quarters, which were opposite their quarter-guard: to this I was escorted by a centinel, lest a worse mischance should happen to me.
"The next day I continued my employment, and met with no more impediments; so I finished my drawing, which comprised a plan, view, and survey, from which I engraved a large plate, under the patronage of General Pearson. This obtained me a handsome subscription. On the strength of this, and the encouragement I had in portrait painting, I returned to town in November, 1779." EDWIN ROFFE.
(3rd S. iii. 489.)
I possess the accompanying notes relative to persons of the name of Bainbridge. I fear that they are too fragmentary to be of much service to B. A. H. :
1432. "Willelmo Baynbrigg, pro conductu j paris de beloos pro smeltura plumbi, &c. 12d."- Fabric Rolls of York Minster, 1859, p. 50.
1514. Christopher Bainbridge (Cardinal), born at Hilton near Appleby, co. Westmoreland, died 1514. His tomb is in the cloister of the English College at Rome.Wood's Athena Oxon, sub nom. " N. & Q." 1st S. vol. xii. p. 411.
1568. Mr. Francis Baynbrigg of Wheatley Hill, one of the supervisors of the will of Christofer Hall of Wyngate.-Durham, Wilts (Surtees Soc.), vol. ii. p. 276.
1573. Ralphe Blaxton of Silksworth, gent., leaves "to everie one of my brother Roger Bainbrige's children whiche he had by sister Margaret, the elder excepted, 3s. 4d."-Ibid. vol. ii. p. 202.
1575. John Middleton of Barnard Castle, gent., married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Baynbrigg of Snotterton, co. Durham, gent.; their son Antony Myddleton of Newton dates his will Dec. 8, 1575.—Ibid. vol. ii. p. 35.
1587. In the list of debts attached to the will of" Raiphe Hedworthe of Pockerley," co. Durham, occurs "Henrie Banbrige for an oxe 40s."—Ibid. vol. ii. p. 311.