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Budeaux, as your correspondent J. A. C. VIN- At these and other words of the saint, the fishes CENT, states? Were such double entries common opened their mouths, and gave signs of joy; all in former days? And if so, can any other in- bowing their heads, and praising God in the best stance be pointed out? Lysons's Devon (p. 89) manner they could; and, after receiving the holy says St. Budeaux is a daughter church to St. man's blessing, they replunged into the deep. Andrew's, Plymouth. As the entry is so pecu.

The miracle led to the conversion of all those who liarly written in the St. Andrew's register, I before had obstinately refused to listen to the should think it most probable that the body of saint.

F. C. H. the Lady Marie was there interred. Can her tomb or grave be pointed out in either church or I cannot at this moment refer to an authen

G. P.

tic copy of this sermon; but Mr. Dalton will

find a description of the congregation in Des ST. ANTHONY OF PADUA PREACHING TO

Knaben Wunderhorn, and moreover distinct eviTHE FISHES.

dence of the excellent frame of mind with which

it was received by each individual of it. What (3rd S. iv. 289.)

gives an air of truthfulness to the story is, that Though I have many works on the Lives and the sermon seems to have had precisely the effect Legends of the Saints, I find the sermon of St. of two-thirds of those of our own day :Anthony of Padua to the fishes given at length

“ Die Predigt geendet, in only one, which is in Portuguese, with the fol

Ein jedes sich wendet: lowing title:

Die Hechten bleiben Diebe,

Die Aale viel lieben. “Flos Santorum, Historia das Vidas e obras insignes

Die Predigt hat gefallen, dos Santos. Pelo Padre Frey Diogo do Rosario da Or.

Sie bleiben wie alle. dem dos Pregadores. Em Lisboa, 1620."

“ Die Krebs gehn zurücke, But as this' saint was a native of Lisbon, and is

Die Stockfisch bleiben dicke, so highly venerated in Portugal, a lengthened

Die Karpfen viel fressen, detail of his life and miracles would be most likely

Die Predigt vergessen. to be given in a Portuguese work of saints' lives.

Die Predigt hat gefallen, The account states that the saint, preaching, at

Sie bleiben wie alle."

G. H. KINGSLEY. Rimini, and being unable to inake any impression upon several heretics there, walked down to the sea, and called upon the fishes to come and bear The sermon will be found in Addison's Travels the word of God, since those men refused to listen in Italy. Salvator Rosa's fine picture on this subto him. A multitude of large and small fishes ject is in Earl Spencer's collection at Althorpe, immediately raised their heads out of the water, Northamptonshire. (Vide Moule's Heraldry of and arranged themselves in order before the saint, Fish, p. 289.)

JOAN WOODWARD. who preached to them in these words, which I New Shoreham. translate from the Portuguese work:

“My brethren ye fishes, you are under a great obliga- Let me inform MR. DALTON that there is a vertion to return thanks to our Lord, as far as you are capa- sion of St. Anthony's sermon to the fish in the ble, for he is your Creator, and you are his creatures, who 4th chap. of part ii. of a book much read in Wales, have received from his hand being and life, and also so noble an element for you to live in; and that you

and entitled, Drych y Prif-Oesoedd, or View of have sweet and salt waters according as he has dis- the Primitive Ages, by Theophilus Evans, a Breckposed them for you. He has also given you many

nockshire vicar, where it is quoted as from Adplaces where you can escape the fury, of tempests, dison's Travels into Italy, p. 26. If MR. DALTON and provided that your element should be transpa- cannot procure this last work, which of course rent and clear, so that you may better see the ways by will bring him one step nearer to the original Itaces which you have to avoid. Also that he has provided lian, I will translate the discourse as it stands you with fins, and power to move in what direction you in the Welsh, and forward it to “N. & Q." please. You, at the creation of the world, were blessed I can assure your readers that the saint imby God, and through his blessing you received power to proved the occasion to the utmost, and displayed multiply. You, at the deluge which destroyed so many

in a wonderful degree the power, so rare among living creatures, were preserved without any destruction. To you it was committed to preserve the prophet Jonas, modern homilists, of exactly adapting his ideas and after the third day to cast him upon the land sound and expression to the intelligence and circumand safe. You paid the tax and tribute for our Lord stances of his audience. It is quite a model of a Jesus Christ when living as a poor man upon earth, he practical sermonette (for it is by no means lengthy), had not wherewith to pay, offering in your mouth pay and must have gone straight home to the hearts for Christ and St. Peter. You, before and after the resurrection, were eaten by the eternal King Jesus Christ;

of the hearers. so that for these and many other things you are bound to It does begin “Dearly beloved Fish,” and it praise and glorify God."

ends with an injunction to the finny congrega

tion, " though they cannot sound forth the glory on retiring, was presented by the Dauphin with of God with their tongues to express their rever- his “chemise de nuit," which was aired by a valet ence in the best way they are able, namely, by of the wardrobe, and his majesty then rose out of bobbing their heads." This they did, and dispersed his chair to put on his robe de chambre, bowing in the most orderly manner.

to his courtiers as the signal for their dismissal. I await the expression of Mr. Dalton's wishes In the morning after breakfasting, Louis took off and your own.

G. C. GELDART. his morning gown (robe de chambre), and the

Marquis de la Salle assisted him in taking off

his night-vest (chemise de nuit) by the left-hand, BED-GOWN AND NIGHT-DRESS.

while Bontemps was similarly employed on the (3rd S. iv. 246.)

right. (Penny Mag. 1841, p. 34, 35.)

Lord Hervey, in describing the bedding of the The circumstances described by Fielding (Joseph Prince of Orange with the eldest daughter of Andrews, bk. i. chap. v.) imply that Lady Booby George II. says (Memoirs, i. 310) :had some dress on, and that the word naked is not

“ But when he was undressed, and came in his nightto be taken absolutely but relatively; which is

gown and night-cap into the room to go to bed, the apconfirmed by the description of Parson Adams

pearance he made was as indescribable as the astonished (bk. iv, chap. xiv.), who is said to be naked whilst countenances of everybody who beheld him. From the he is “standing in his shirt.” The same chapter, shape of his brocaded gown, and the make of his back, in describing Didapper's adventure, distinguishes he looked behind as if he had no head, and before as if he the shirt from the night or dressing gown, and we

had no neck and no legs.” may infer from its diamond buttons and laced In the Gentleman's Magazine (April, 1756, vi. ruffles that he slept in his day shirt. The night- 231), the marriage of her brother, the father of gown of Fielding was probably the modern dress- George III. is thus described :: ing-gown, as appears from John Evelyn (died “ Their majesties retiring to the apartments of the 1706), who, in describing “ ladies dresses,” says :- Prince of Wales, the bride was conducted to her bed"sTwice twelve day-smocks of Holland fine,

chamber, and the bridegroom to his dressing room, when With cambric sleves, rich point to joyn

the Duke undressed him, and his Majesty did his Royal (For she despises Colbertine).

Highness the honour to put on his shirt. The bride was Twelve more for night, all Flanders lac'd,

undressed by the Princesses; and being in bed in a rich Or else she'll think herself disgrac'd.

undress, his Majesty came into the room, and the Prince The same her night.gown must adorn,

following soon after in a night-gown of silver stuff anil With two point waistcoats for the morn."

cap of the finest lace, the Quality (nobility] were ad

mitted to see the bride and bridegroom sitting up in the The night-gown was called also night-rail ; the bed, surrounded by all the royal family. His majesty word rail, according to Horne Tooke, being Anglo- was dressed in a gold brocade turned up with silk, emSaxon for to cover, to cloak, thus carrying back

broidered with large flowers in silver and colours, as was its use many centuries; but rail was not appro

the waistcoat; the buttons and star were diamonds.

Several noblemen were in gold brocades of 3001. to 500L. priated to night-dress exclusively. It was worn at day time also in the streets, in the reign of

T. J. BuckToN. Anne :

“ Amongst many other ridiculous fashions that prevailed in this country, since the reign of Queen Anne,

Your correspondent W. P. will find many referwas that of the ladies wearing bed-gowns in the streets

ences on this subject in Mr. Halliwell's Archaic about forty years ago. The canaille of Dublin were so Dictionary, in voce “Naked Bed.” To these I disgusted with this fashion, or perhaps deemed it so pre- would add Othello, IV. 1, and the chapter of Joseph judicial to trade, that they tried every expedient to abolish it. They insulted in the streets and public places

Andrews succeeding to that he has quoted (vi.), those ladies who complied with it, and ridiculed it in

p. 25. (My references are to the 2nd edition, 1742.) ballads. But the only expedient that proved effectual

This phrase would seem to have lingered much was, the prevailing on an unfortunate female, who had | later than the custom which occasioned it. Beau been condemned for a murder, to appear at the place of Didapper retained his shirt (vol. ii. p. 279), execution in a bed-gown.” (Walker's Historical Memoirs though we are told (p. 278) that he had “disen of the Irish Bards, 1818.)

cumbered himself from the little clothes he had Although women wore night-rails, the men did on"; and Parson Adams was endued with the not in Middleton's time, * for in his Mayor of same garment (p. 286), though he had "jumped Quinborough it is said, “ Books in women's hands out of

bed without staying to put a rag of clothes are as much against the bair, methinks, as to see on ” (p. 279). If W. P. will turn up his Tristram men wear stomachers or night-railes." (Fairholt, Shandy, at the scene of the hero's baptism (ed. Costume in England, p. 570.)

1761, vol. iv. chap. xiv), he will find additional The night-shirt or bed-gown was distinct from proofs that at least as far back as a century ago the dressing-gown, for Louis XIV. (1643-1715), our ancestors had attained to a sleeping-dress. Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I.

J. D. CAMPBELL.

a suit.”

QUAINT SURNAMES.

Cornish origin ; Burt may be the same as Bright,

and Wilks is from Wilkins, a diminutive of Will; (3rd S. iv. 163.)

Maid is doubtless the same as Mead and Meadow. The number of curious surnames is legion. A Jack is not from Jacques, as some assert, but from pamphlet of twenty or thirty pages, in which every Jannock, a diminutive of Jan, i. e. John; Luce other word would be a queer surname, might be seems to be from Lucius; Eel is probably from Eli ; written. But these sort of names, like most things and Tench is doubtless the same as Dench, and in the present age of progress, seldom mean what the Gaelic name Tainsh ; Par is from Pierre, they seem, and may be generally accounted for whilst Herring and Whiting are either patronywith very little research. Thus in such names as mics, or compounded of ing, a meadow. Among Image and Marriage, the last syllable is from wich, very many names relating to the medical world a dwelling-place; whilst such names as Balaam we have Bark, Bowell, Brain, Fever, Glister, and Sneezum are compounded of ham, of the same Gumboil, Lance, Lancet, Morter, Motion, Pestel, meaning. Death, Dearth, and Dark are from Physick, Pill, Plaster, Truss, Whitlow. Brain is De Ath, De Arth, and D'Arques, in France. corrupted from an Irish name; Bowell is proBottle is from the Sax, botl, bold, an abode, dwel- bably i. q. Powell, i. e. Ap-Howell; Fever is ling. Names ending in sel, sell, saul, shull, sole, the same as the Fr. name Le Fevre, “ the smith "; hall

, all, are generally from the Sax. heal, D. hal, Motion is a diminutive (perhaps of Mote or saal, G. saal, Dan. and Sw. sal, Fr. salle, It. Sp. Mott); Gumboil is corrupted from the German sala, all from the L. aula, Gr. ajan. Cf. the sur- name Gumpold or Gumbold; Physick is from a names Bentall, Bramhall, Counsell, Gomersall, Cornish local name; Pill is the same as the PeckMansell

, Minshull, Mothersole, Plimsaul, Plimp- sniffian name Peel, signifying a fortification ; Truss sall, Plimsol, Plimsoll, Shrubsole. Grief is i. q. is probably from Theresa, and Whitlow may mean Greave, i.e. Reeve, from the Sax. gerefa, G. graf, the white mound.

R. S. CHARNOCK. a bailiff; Comfort, from the Cornish cwm-rordh, the great way; Stiff is from Stephen ; Simper from St. Pierre ; Rainbird from Rambert, the

DON QUIXOTE. inverse of Bertram, by corruption, Bertrand.

(3rd S. iv. 227.) Tubb and Tubbs may, like the Cornwallian Tubby, be nicknames of Thomas ; Perfect is pro

Your reference to the new Catalogue of the bably from some place named Pierrefitte in Library of the British Museum has probably put France; Coward is doubtless i. q. Goward, a

CANON Dalton in the way of obtaining the inpatronymic of Gow or Gough, from the W. gof, formation sought for in the queries above quoted, å smith; and Cobbell is a diminutive of Cobb. 1 but the following jottings may possibly supply an take it that Bugg is i. q. Bach, from G. bach, a occasional fact otherwise overlooked. CANON brook, or backe, a hill; hence, as French diminu- Dalton asks in the first place for the titles and tives, Bacot

, Bacon, by corruption, Buggin. Sig, dates of the Latin, Danish, and Portuguese transSigg, Seak, Sug, in names of Gotho-Teutonic lations of Don Quixote. The title and date of origin, is generally = to the Greek vix in Nie the Portuguese version are given in Brunet (new cander, and the Latin vic in Victoria ; and is ed. p. 1750) as follows: derived from the A.-S. sige, 0.-N. sigr, vic- “() ENGENHOSO fidalgo D. Quixote de la Mancha, tory; hence Segar, Sigar, Siggers, Seager, Sugar, traduzido em vulgar. Lisboa, 1803, 6 vols. in-8.” Sigbert, Sigmund, Sigismund, Sigrist, Sigwin, This is probably a reprint of the Portuguese Seakins, i. q. Siggins. Stott may be from stot, a translation mentioned by Navarrete, the title of horse; in the Scottish, a young bullock, a steer, which he gives more fully: from the Sax. stotte ; hence Stotter may mean “ O engenhoso Fidalgo Dom Quixote de la Mancha. one who has the charge of stots ; hence also as Por Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Traduzido em patronymics, Stoddard, var. Stoddart, Stodhart, vulgar. Lisboa, na tipogratia Rollandiana, 1794. 6 tomos, Stothard, Stothert, Stothurd, Studdard, Stuttard.

8o. Although we have many names from beasts, and An exceedingly interesting dramatic version in some few from birds, I doubt much whether we Portuguese, of Don Quixote is given in the have a single one from the finny tribe, notwith. Teatro Comico Portuguez of the unfortunate standing the existence of some forty names which Antonio José da Sylva (Lisbon, 1759, t.1), under would appear to be so derived. Thus Dace is i. q. the following title: Days, i. e. David's; Roach means a rock; Whale is

“ Vida

grande D. Quixote de la Mancha, E do a foreigner; Turbot is for Tebbut, corrupted from Gordo Sancho Pança, que se representon no Theatro do

Bairro Alto de Lisboa no mez de Outubro de 1733." Theobald ; Gudgeon, Sturgeon, and Mullet are diminutives of Gouge, Sturge, and Mull; and An excellent French version of this drama Chabot is another diminutive. Gurnard and by M. Ferdinand Denis is given in the Chefs Pilchard are patronymics. Dolphin is possibly of @uvre des Théâtres E'trangers (Paris, 1827).

For the biography of poor José da Sylva him- The “ Tolondron. Speeches to John Bowle, self, see also the Resumé de l'Histoire Littéraire about his edition of Don Quixote, together with du Portugal (Paris, 1826), by the same writer, some account of Spanish Literature," by Joseph and the Histoire de la Littérature Brésilienne of Baretti, London, 1786, is certainly one of the most Ferdinand Wolf, which has been just published whimsical and splenetic of satires. It commences at Berlin by that indefatigable Spanish and Por- with the following Macaronic verses, which may tuguese scholar. (Berlin, 1363, p. 31.)

be interesting to M. Delepierre : As to the Danish translation, it would appear ." Ad Doctum Milordum. Epistola Cocaiana. from Brunet (p. 1754) that two translations of

“O Macaronei Merlini, care Milorde, Don Quixote have appeared in that language; one Qui joca fautor amas, capriciosque probas ! by C. D. Biehl, Copenhagen, 1776, 4 vols. in-8, Cui; debata inter, Parlamentique facendas, and another by F. Schaldemose, Copenhagen, Gustum est privatis ludere quisquiliis ! 1829-31, 4 vols. in-8.

Hunc tibi commendo, preclare Milorde, libellum Brunet makes no mention of the Latin version,

Scarabochiatum poco labore meo.

Impertinenzas narrat, magnasque bugias of which among my own books I can discover no

Commentatoris serio-ridiculi; trace except what may be inferred from the pas- Qui multas linguas et multa idioinata noscens, sage of Ticknor extracted by CANON Dalton, Nescit quam didicit matris ab ore puer. and the following reference to the subject by

Qui bravo binas Quixoto præscidit aures, Navarrete in his Life of Cervantes, already

Nasum Sanchoni sanguineumque dedit:

Qui, tamquam sutor veteramentarius esset, quoted :: :

Johnsono impegit scommata foda sopho: “ Algunos curiosos nos han dado noticia de una traduc- Qui, sine vergognæ grano, quasi rana, coaxat, cion latina del Quijote hecha por un literato aleman; de Innocuas operas vilificando meas." otra en lengua danesa por una dama de Copenhague, y A work which commences so singularly is kept aun de algunos en Sueco y Ruso; pero no constándonos estos hechos per noticias tan positivas como las que hemos up for 338 pages in the same spirit, and terminates dado anteriormente, nos parece propio manifestarlo asi not inconsistently with the following passage:con franqueza para satisfaccion de los lectores."- Vida de

“ To conclude and make an end of this paltry subject, Cervantes, p. 529.

I now pull my night-cap off my white-haired noddle, and With regard to the edition of Don Quixote, making a most reverential bow to Mr. John Bowle, alias published at Boston in 1836 by Francisco Sales, Querist, alias Anti-Janus, alias Izzard Zed, alias Cog. it is evidently an educational book intended for lione, alias Jack, alias Tolondron, and wishing a merry students, the notes being compiled from the stan

Christmas to you all, there goes to the Devil his edition dard Spanish editions, which are all mentioned by

and my pen, quite worn to the stump. Valete omnes.”

D. F. Mac-CARTHY. Mr. Ticknor. Canon Dalton will find that Mr.

Dalkey. Sales has not been overlooked by the distinguished author of the History of Spanish Literature, if he

P.S. I forgot to add in the proper place that refers to vol. ii. p. 191 of the old edition of that Canon DALTON will find, at p. 116 of Prescott's invaluable work, or to vol. ii. p. 229 of the new.

Critical and Historical Essays (a volume which, Mr. Ticknor, speaking of Lope de Vega's Estrella it may be noticed, was dedicated to Mr. Ticknor), de Sevilla, which has been twice reprinted in the

an elaborate criticism on the American edition of United States by Mr. F. Sales (Boston, 1828, and Don Quixote by Mr. Sales, which gives ample 1840), the last time, he says, with corrections

means of forming an opinion as to its merits and kindly furnished by Don A. Duran of Madrid,

character.” adds the following interesting remark:

“A curious fact in Spanish bibliography, and one that EDWARD HARLEY, 2nd EARL OF OXFORD (3rd S. should be mentioned to the honour of Mr. Sales, whose iv. 286.)-Your correspondent is premature in statrarious publications have done much to spread the love ing that in Mr. Pinks's History of Clerkenwell no of Spanish literature in the United States, and to whom I am indebted for my first knowledge of it."

mention is made of the earl's residence in that Canon Dalton's queries relative to the Rev. before his work was finished, and left the whole The copious references given in your note to parish, inasmuch as only about half of the History

has at present been published. Mr. Pinks died John Bowle, leave little to be added. I may men. tion that in my copy of the remarkable and still editing it after the first chapter bad appeared

of bis MS. in a very confused state. I commenced valuable edition of Don Quixote published by him (Salisbury, 1781, 3 vols. 4to), the name of his illustrated monthly parts had been promised. I

before the public in a local newspaper, and the vicarage is given “ Idemestone," and not “Idmiston," as at present. The Anotaciones a Quixote the press. Many matters must of necessity ap

have to work hard to get each number ready for (tome iii. p. 167), are thus somewhat curiously pear in an appendix to the History; amongst dated and signed : “ IDEMESTox, en su Estudio,

[• Nevertheless, the account of Newcastle House, acy Octubre 26, M.DCC.LXXX,

companied with an engraving, had already appeared at “JUAN BOWLE." pp. 97-101.-Ed.]

them will be particulars of the Earl of Oxford. I termed “ un hobereau.” The most recent inthink your correspondent is right in his conjec- stance within my observation of the use of the ture that the earl's residence was Newcastle first title, was in a French translation of M. Ivan House. He was son-in-law to John Holles, Duke Tourgénieff's Scenes from Russian Life. The midof Newcastle. But more of this in my appendix. dle class Russian landholder (of noble blood THE EDITOR OF The History of Clerkenwell. however) was there rendered as “gentilhomme

G. A. SALA. “GOD SAVE THE KING” IN CHURCH (3rd S. iv. terrier.” 288.) – Many years since I used to be an occa

Bailey gives, as the primary sense of the word sional deputy for the organist at the chapel of the in its hunting relation, the hole itself; and hence Royal Hospital, Chelsea, better known as Chelsea the dog who drags the beast out of it. College; and it was then the custom to play as a What is the derivation of the name of our old concluding voluntary, every Sunday afternoon, friend Dog Tray ? so familiar to our childhood, five verses; or “God save the Queen,” five times and now again revived. May it not be a corruprepeated. This also brings to my recollection a tion of " terri," which name occurs accompanying story that is current about Danby, the glee com- a small hound couched at the feet of Lady Cassy, poser, who often officiated at Chelsea College as on her brass at Deerhurst ?

VEBNA. deputy-organist. The “old heathens," i. e. the pensioners, as the Chaplain-General Gleig used to SKETCHING CLUB OR SOCIETY (3rd S. iv. 248.) term them, were in Danby's time much addicted There is in this county an Anastatic Drawing to roaring out the Old Hundredth psalm ; five Society. The subscription is 10s. per annum, and verses being regularly sung every Sunday, even

each member has a book of original drawings down to the time when I played there ; and as (multiplied by the Anastatic printing process) Danby had a perfect horror of the Chelsea vete- annually. The Secretary is the Rev. J. M. rans' melody, he invariably played the first verse Gresley, Over-seile, Ashby-de-la-Zouch,;

who will, in A. Then, by a very long interlude (all the organ I am sure, gladly give every particular. music used to be long in the College Chapel, there

T. NORTH. being a middle voluntary at both services of ten Leicester. minutes duration, so that the congregation had I beg to thank *** for noticing my query reample time to note who was present, and stare at specting the Sketching Society, but it was not my each other,) he managed to get the next verse intention that the members should adjourn to the into B flat'; another interlude landed him in C, country or locate in any fixed spot in the summer. the next in D, and the last and fifth in E. Danby What gave rise to the society in my mind was the well knew that the old men must leave off long fact, that some years ago there was a society combefore he came to the last verse, and he was re- posed of a few members who would meet occapeatedly accosted by some of them; who asked sionally at each others' houses, and spend the him, “ How it was, they never could sing more evening in the execution of some drawing, the than two verses of the tune when he played?” whole of those produced to be the property of the To which he invariably made one reply : “You host. This might not be practicable now for want all are so fond of the tune, that you exert your of room, if the thing was carried out to any exselves too much ; and I am obliged to play very tent, but instead of meeting at private houses, a long interludes to give you breathing time. room could be engaged, which would answer the

M. C.

purpose. A few years since there was an amateur INNOCENTE Coat (3rd S. iv. 286) is, I appre- exhibition annually in Pall Mall, and I well rehend, a white coat. Convicts going to be hanged, member some of the drawings being of a first-class and who protested their innocence to the last, character : how bas this not been continued ? prowere accustomed to wear a white jerkin (some-bably for want of funds. Why not then institute times a nightgown) in addition to the cap and the society again, and have a small subscription to nosegay. There is an allusion to the practice in pay the expenses of the room annually? I merely Peveril of the Peak, and one can scarcely under- throw these hints out in the event of some one, stand how Sir Walter could have jumped so having the time to spare, devoting himself to the easily at the conclusion, that " innocente" meant work of reorganising the society, which would “ mourning."

G. A. SALA. certainly be the means of cultivating a taste for TERRIER (3rd S. iv. 126, 300.)— In old sporting the fine arts, and promote a good feeling among

E. ROBERTS. manuals, all dogs taking the earth are mentioned many amateur artists.

“ terriers." The word comes to us, I think, EXECUTIONS FOR MURDER (3rd S. iv. 268.) — from Normandy. The small patrician-landholder, Your correspondent J. P. D. will find a clue to or gentleman-farmer-a class almost annihilated the information he seeks by consulting the Judiat the Great Revolution - was called “un gen- cial Statistics, annually presented to Parliament. tilhomme-terrier.” In other provinces he was I believe the form of making the returns bas been

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