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JOHN FREER (3rd S. iv. 325.) — John Freer, named John Fryer in the Annual Army Lists, joined the 66th Foot as an ensign on the 4th March, 1767. His Lieutenancy he gained on the 14th November, 1771; and ceased connection with the army on the 31st August, 1773: on which date he either died, or sold out, as his name does not occur in the half-pay roll.

This is but a little; every little, however, helps, and it may serve Σ.. for a cue to further inquiries and research. M. S. R.

Brompton Barracks.

"DUBLIN UNIVERSITY REVIEW" (3rd S. iv. 110.)-This serial, of which only four numbers appeared, was started by a talented student of Trinity College, Dublin, Cæsar George Otway, now a poor-law inspector, son of a distinguished clergyman and author, the late Cæsar Otway. One of my contributions to its pages, an dápiov, now lies before me a translation of which only was inserted, Greek type not being at hand. I would send the original to "N. & Q.," but fear the neglect of prosody might shock your classic scholiasts; and yet, in my humble judgment, Greek is of all languages the most susceptible of musical rhythm, unrestricted by the rigid scansion of the ancient metres. J. L. Dublin.

FICTITIOUS APPELLATIONS (3rd S. iv. 306.) Queen Anne's correspondence with the Duchess of Marlborough (1702-1714) was carried on under the fictitious names of (I think) Freeman and Morley. J. WOODWARD.

WAND OF GRAND MASTERS OF THE TEMPLARS (3rd S. iv. 307.)—I have generally seen the Grand Master of the Templars represented as

* See Burke's Armory.

holding a slender wand, apparently between five and six feet in height, having on the top an octagonal plate charged with a cross patée. The only in Keightley's Crusaders, p. 238; and Churton's references I can give at present are to woodcuts J. WOODWARD. English Church, p. 321.

EXPLANATION OF WORDS (3rd S. iv. 167, 260.)— "Avernot" is probably the same as "Avernat," (6 a sort of grape;" properly "Auvernat," from "Auvergne. "Auvernat" is also the name of a wine from the same province. R. S. CHARNOCK. FAMILIES OF TREPSACK AND FORSTER (3rd S. iv. 325.) The Rev. (Jean) Trepsac was a minister of the French Protestant congregation at Canterbury in 1698. There was some imputation on his character, for in the "Actes" of the consistory of that church, is a notice (Oct. 16, 1698) of "M. Trepsac and the rich Jew of the Hague," many of the congregation opposed his ministry, and he was depart quietly: this he refused to do, and the requested," after the exposure of his crime," to consistory therefore sent for two of the members of the London Walloon Church (Dr. Primrose and M. Blanc) to take the matter in hand. In December following M. Trepsac sent in his resignation. If C. J. R. has any particulars of M. Trepsac I should be glad to have them for my

Biography of the French Protestant Clergy.

The Grove, Henley.


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COMMONERS USING SUPPORTERS (3rd S. iv. 255.) Some commoners have a right to supporters; others have used them for generations out of mere ignorance and mistake, because an ancestor used them in right of some office or dignity, which in reality died with him. The Wardenship of the Stannaries, the title of Knight Banneret, &c. &c. may be cited as instances. Descendants look at the old seal, or the old stone carving over the door, and fancy they may use the supporters too, whereas they went out with the dignity of office which conferred them. P. P.

BERRY OR BURY (3rd S. iv. 304.)-In the West of England this name is frequently given to large mounds or other earth prominences. In Cornwall I know of four spots so designated. One is not far from Newton Park on the Tamar, and seems to have been an ancient encampment and burialground. Another is Hensbarrow Hill, a desolate spot, perhaps the highest in the county. The people around all call it "Hens-berry," or "the Berry,"

and in an old map of the county," performed" by the industrious Speed in 1610, I observe that it is designated as "Hens-bery." Excavations have been made here, and ancient implements and relics of former burial rites discovered. I take it that the term "Berry" is an old designation with country people for the ancient earth remains of the Britons, Saxons, and Danes, as well as the Romans. Burgh, boro, barrow, borough, a place devoted to the living or to the dead, appears to have come down to us in the popular or corrupted form of "the Berry." JOHN CAMDEN HOTTEN. Piccadilly.

SMITH OF NEVIS (3rd S. iii. 417.)—I am greatly obliged to A. D. for his memoranda respecting Mary Smith, but as yet I have no clue to the family to which Lieut.-Governor Smith, and, in all probability, this Mary Smith belonged. His arms were gules, on a chevron between three bezants or, three cross-crosslets, sable.

I am however informed that a coheiress of the governor, or of his brother, married into an old Surrey family named Budgen.

The name of the family of Burt referred to was not spelt with i. They appear to have been also connected with our old West Indian proprietary families of Payne (Lord Lavington), and Buckley. I observe that in my former query (p. 307) a misprint accidentally occurs, William Matthew, Bart., M.P., being printed for William Matthew Burt, M.P., a gentleman resident or. his estate in Berkshire, but never, I believe, a colonial go


It is most likely that the Matthew family came originally, as stated by A. D., from Glamorganshire; but I am told two other distinct Welsh families of the name existed in Merioneth and in Denbigh.



The arms were sable, a stork bearings seem very uncommon in England, though borne on the continent by the counts of Gruyère, the Cicognas, and other names.

I should be extremely glad to obtain any further particulars of the families I have mentioned through the columns of "N. & Q." C. E. S.

MR. SERJEANT BIRCH, CURSITOR BARON (3rd S. i. 29; iv. 319.) - Beatson's Political Index is inaccurate in the entries relative to the Cursitor Baron, as they are stated by MR. STEVENS. Birch was included in the batch of serjeants called in June, 5 Anne, 1706 (see Wynne's Serjeant-atLaw, p. 95, quoting Gazette of June 9, 1706; and of Lord Raymond, p. 1261); and he was appointed Cursitor Baron on December 11, 1729, on the resignation of that office by Sir William Thomson, who was made baron of the coif on November 27, 1729 (see Pat. 3 Geo. II. p. 1.)


KOHL (3rd S. iv. 166, &c.)-Lane, in his Modern Egyptians, calls kohl an impalpable powder, that which I have is a solid greasy substance. Is this the substance used by the Egyptians, or another form of it (it has been in London thirty-six years) such as used by the Hindoostanees as mentioned by MR. WOOD? (3rd S. iv. 239.) JOHN DAVIDSON.

THE REV. PETER THOMPSON (3rd S. iv. 289, 337.)-I am greatly obliged to T. B. for his offer to lend the volume to which he has referred. The information he has given being, however, amply sufficient for my purpose, it will be unnecessary to S. Y. R. avail myself of his kindness.

PATMOS (3rd S. iii. 347.)-I am sorry I did not before see the inquiry as to Patmos. The best way of reaching it is to go to Smyrna by the weekly Marseilles or Trieste mail steamer, and then proceed by mail trains to Ephesus station, and so by posthorse to Skala Nova, fifteen miles. From Skala Nova the mail is carried by boat or steamer to the town of Vathi, in the island of Samos. From Samos a boat can be obtained to the neighbouring island of Patmos. Samos can be reached from Smyrna in the evening. Since the railway has been opened there has been no steamer from Smyrna to Skala Nova or Samos. HYDE CLARKE.

Smyrna, Oct. 9, 1863.

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4, Castle Street, Abergavenny.

Submerged Towns (3rd S. iii. 362, 439, 479.)— Llangorse Pool or Llynnsavaddan, or Brecknockmere, about five miles in circumference, has also a legend of a town being swallowed. (Rees's South GLWYSIG. Wales, p. 47.)

SHAKSPEARE JUBILEE (3rd S. iv. 264.) -- Some account of the Jubilee at Stratford-upon-Avon is to be found in Davies's Life of Garrick, chap. xlv. The Jubilee was afterwards brought out at Drury Lane, and in the list of Garrick's dramatic works, at the end of Davies's book, is the following article:

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THE EARL OF SEFTON (3rd S. iv. 317.)- MR. REDMOND has made an unfortunate reference to the first Earl of Sefton, who was not a Roman Catholic priest, but a Protestant layman. R. W. D.

THE MONOGRAM OF CONSTANTINE (3rd S. iv. 235, 259, 314.) — Constantine certainly used the monogram on some of his coins. I have it represented over and over again, and I wonder none of your correspondents have said that they have such coins. I have one such, a small copper piece found by myself a quarter of a century ago, on the site of a Roman station, and it has not been out of my possession since. It is slightly injured on one side, otherwise distinct enough. Óbv. head of Constantine, and in the exergue CONST....NUS MAX. AUG. Rev. two armed warriors, one on each side of the labarum; in the exergue GLORIA EXERCITVS. The x of excrcitus falls exactly over the centre of the labarum or ensign, which is suspended upon an ornamented staff, and bears in the field a well-known form of the monogram of Christ, .

I beg to inclose an impression of this, that there may be no doubt concerning it. Other brass coins of Constantine in my possession have as unmistakably pagan emblems; one, for example, a naked figure of Apollo, with a globe in his hand, and the motto soli invicto. B. H. C. That it was not the sign of the cross, but the symbol of the name of Christ that was seen by Constantine, if indeed there was a celestial vision at all, is very evident from the testimony of Lactantius, which seems most decisive:

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"Constantine was warned in a dream to make the celestial sign of God upon his soldiers' shields, and so to join battle. He did as he was bid, and with the transverse letter X circumflecting the head of it, he marks Christ on their shields.”—De Montibus Persecutorum, xliv. p. 565.

Now this "letter X" is the initial of Xplords, and it was in that sign or symbol displayed on his banners that he was to be the victor.

This fact is also manifest from an inspection of the plates in Elliott's Hora Apoc. where the Greek P appears in the middle of the X, making CHP. Constantine's standard was thus a literal embodiment of the expression of the Psalmist, "In the name of the Lord will we lift up our banners;" and no doubt on this its first appearance on the Roman vexillum, it nerved the Christian soldiers in his army with more than usual fire to fight and conquer at the Milvian Bridge.

H. W.

THIRD BUFFS (3rd S. iv. 287, 337.)-Am I

to understand that the Third wore leather accoutrements from their first formation as a regiment by Charles II., or merely that they were the first to wear leather belts, &c.? I have had the fol

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NUMISMATIC QUERIES (3rd S. iv. 199.) The subject of HERMENTRUDE's inquiry is a common denarius of the Nævia family, struck probably about B.C. 74, and, as usual, serrated. The head upon it is that of Venus and not of Cleopatra, and the legend is c.NAE. BALB (Caius Nævius Balbus).

The other pieces described by HErmentrude (3rd S. iv. 28), and B. H. C. (3rd S. iv. 218), with different abbreviations of AVE MARIA GRATIA FLENA upon them, are merely counters such as were in general use for accounts until they were superseded by the introduction of Arabic numerals. JOHN EVANS.

SIMON WADLOE: John Wadloe (2nd S. iv. 207.) London Scenes and London People is a book full · of the grossest blunders, and totally unworthy the notice of an antiquary. Simon Wadlow's name appears for the last time as a licensed vintner in the Ward Mote return of December, 1626; and the burial registers of St. Dunstan's notices, "March 30, 1627, Symon Wadlow, vintner, was buried out of Fleet Street." The widow Wadlow's name is returned for the last time by the Ward Mote on December 21, 1629.

The name of John Wadlow, apparently the son of old Simon, appears firstly as a licensed vintner in the Ward Mote return on St. Thomas's day, December 21, 1646. After the Great Fire in September 1666, this John Wadlow rebuilt the Sun Tavern behind the Royal Exchange; and he appears to have been sufficiently wealthy to have advanced money to the crown. His autograph was attached to several receipts among the myriads of Exchequer documents recently destroyed.

I derive the above dates from Mr. J. H. Burn's Catalogue of the Beaufoy Tokens, second edition, 1855, p. 104, et seq. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

TAYNTING (3rd S. iv. 373.)- This means, I think, any guard, or binding, or stiffening. In all the instances in which I find any word like It is taint, tent, tainct used, it is in this sense. always easy to distinguish between the derivatives of tingo and tendo. J. D. CAMPBELL.

JACK THE GIANT KILLER (3rd S. iv. 306.) — The earliest edition of this popular romance of the nursery with which I am acquainted is the following:

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The History of Jack and the Giants, 12mo, n. d. "The Second Part of Jack and the Giants, giving a full Account of his victorious Conquests over the North

Country Giants, destroying the Enchanted Castle kept by Galligantus, dispers'd the Fiery Griffins, put the Conjuror to flight, and released not only many Knights and Ladies, but likewise a Duke's Daughter, to whom he was honourably married." 12mo, Newcastle, 1711.

It is accompanied by rude woodcuts, representing the principal events related in the history, evidently of a much earlier period than the date of the book. The story is probably of remote antiquity, and may be traced among the legends of other countries. See your valued correspondent MR. KEIGHTLEY's Tales and Popular Fictions, 1834. Mr. Halliwell, in his Catalogue of ChapBooks, Garlands, and Popular Histories, printed for private circulation in 1849, has some very interesting remarks upon the Newcastle edition of Jack the Giant Killer. EDWARD F. Rimbault.

"ANNE BOLEYN A TERM OF OPPROBRIUM (3rd S. iv. 245.) It is not so much sympathy with Catharine of Arragon, nor any virtuous moral indignation against "Anna Bolena," which makes the name of the latter a word of opprobrium in Spain and Italy, as the fact that she is supposed to have caused the Reformation. You are told in Sicily, that the noise and flame of Mount Etna are caused by the throes and struggles of an English queen, who has been placed there for having introduced heresy into that country, one queen Anna; and that, like Enceladus of old, whom she has now superseded in the notions of the people,

"quoties mutat latus, intremere omnem Murmure Trinacriam, et cœlum subtexere fumo."

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valuable mass of illustration to the more popular work on the Reign of Elizabeth, just published by Mr. Froude, is to be found in the present volume- -a volume which reflects great credit upon the care and learning of Mr. Stevenson.

Memorials of the Abbey of St. Mary of Fountains. Collected and Edited by John Richard Walbran, F.S.A. (Published for the Surtees Society.)

This volume, for which the antiquarian public is indebted to the Surtees Society, is the first endeavour to record at length the history of the Abbey of Fountainsnow as remarkable for the beauty of its extensive ruins, as it was formerly for its position and influence among the monastic institutions of the country. Mr. Walbran, to whom the Society has entrusted the duty of editing the vast mass of curious and interesting documents here collected together, has brought to his task great zeal and intelligence; and the result is a book, in which we get so many interesting particulars of the more eminent members of this institution, and so many curious details as to the sources, management, and application of its revenues, as to throw great light upon the history and social influences not only of Fountains Abbey, but of all similar institutions.



AN ESSAY ON THE STATE OF LITERATURE UNDER THE ANGLO-SAXONS, by T. Wright, M.A., &c. London, 1839, published by C. Knight. *** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to MESSRS. BELL & DALDY, Publishers of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186, Fleet Street, E.C.

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are given for that purpose:


POEMS, SONGS, AND SONNETS, by Thomas Carew. Edited by Lord Dundrennan. Edinb. 1824, 8vo.

Wanted by Mr. James Yeowell, 4, Minerva Terrace, Barnsbury, N.

PRINSEPS'S USEFUL TABLES, published in Calcutta.
Wanted by Mr. G. Packer, Bookseller, 23, King Street, Portman
Square, London.

Notices to Correspondents.

We are compelled by want of space to postpone several Notes on Books.

MR. WALTON'S Experimental Theosophy will appear in our next.

C. D. (Oxford) The canons of the Council holden at Hertford, A.D. 673, originally appeared in Bede's Ecclesiastical History, book iv. ch, v., which has now become a common book. The locality of Cloveshoo is a disputed point. See a curious paper respecting it in the Gentleman's Mag. for August 1844, p. 153. The writer conjectures that it was Clifton Hoo in Bedfordshire.

DAVID GAM. The query respecting the Bishop noticed in the Cautions formed clergyman: see" N. & Q." 1st S. x. 306, 393. The reply appears to have been satisfactory, as no exception was taken to it at the time, not even by Archbishop Whately himself, who was a reader as well as an occasional contributor to our pages.

Calendar of State Pepers, Foreign Series, of the Reign of for the Times has already appeared with a reply to it from a well-inElizabeth, 1558-1559, preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty's Public Record Office. Edited by the Rev. Joseph Stevenson, M.A. Under the Direction of the Master of the Rolls, &c. (Longman.)

This goodly volume of between 600 and 700 pages contains Abstracts, more or less full, of upwards of fourteen hundred Documents connected with the Foreign Relations of this Country during the first two years of Elizabeth's reign. They are introduced by a Sketch of the Life of Elizabeth up to the time of her Accession to the Throne, in which the Editor certainly exhibits no strong prejudices in her favour. Many of the more important documents are given so fully as to render further reference to the originals almost unnecessary; and, this being the case, our readers will at once see what an in

OXONIENSES. See our 1st S. iv. 91, for the probable origin of the aphorism," Fiat justitia, ruat cœlum."

ERRATUM. 3rd S. iv. p. 338, col. i. line 26, for "Wemur" read "Wemme."

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is also issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES for Six Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the Halfyearly INDEX) is 118. 4d., which may be paid by Post Office Order in favour of MESSRS. BELL AND DALDY, 186, FLEET STREET, E.C., to whom all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed.

Full benefit of reduced duty obtained by purchasing Horniman's Pure Tea; very choice at 38. 4d. and 4s. "High Standard" at 48. 4d. (for merly 4s. 8d.), is the strongest and most delicious imported. Agents in every town supply it in Packets.

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NOTES: Experimental Theosophy.-'Singular Relation,' 405- Misuse of Words, 407-Andrew Hart, &c., 408The old Lady, her Umbrella, and the Electric Telegraph, Ib.

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MINOR NOTES: Curious Circumstance - Inedited Culloden Dispatch-The Rev. John Johnson, M.A., and the Rev. John Johnson, LL.D.-Cheap Publication in the 16th Century - The George and Blue Boar, 409. -QUERIES:-Auctions in Cumberland - Barrett and Harris Family Choak-Jade at Newmarket Charles II. Eleanor Cobham-Dr. Croly-Dighton the Caricaturist Dutch Delf- Mrs. Fitzherbert, &c. Ganymede The Heart of St. George-" Josephine's Address to Napoleon"-" King's College Magazine"-Knock-out-Making Claret-" Memoirs of Nine Living Characters" - Moorgate and Finsbury Court House" Parvæ Accessiones"-The Rev. John Platts - Charles Price alias Patch-Prince of Wales's Feathers, &c., 410.

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:- Dr. Lambe: Madame Davers Merchants and Tradesmen's Marks Pennsylvanian Bonds - Storm Signals - Quotation, 413. REPLIES:- St. Anthony's Sermon to the Fishes, 414Long Grass, 415-Mrs. Cokayne of Ashbourne, Ib. -Christian Names, 416- Maps - Clerk of the Cheque - Anthony Young-Signet assigned to Mary, Queen of Scots-"Pallas Armata"- Inkstand- Duke of Kingston's Regiment Devil, a Proper Name St. Peter's-in-the-East "Cleanliness next to Godliness"- Foxhangre-St. Mary Matfelon-The Prince Imperial descended from Blanche de France - Rob Discovery of the Tyrian Purple Bishop's Dress-Mutilation of Sepulchral MonumentsObscure Scottish Saints-Roger Kenyon, &c., 417. Notes on Books, &c.





FREHER, the learned commentator upon the writings of Jakob Böhme (N. and Q. 2nd S. 20 and 26), a native of Norimberg in Germany,* after spending some years in Holland, in intimacy with Gichtel (the editor and publisher of the first uniform edition of Böhme's works, A.D. 1682), with Poiret, and other famous spiritual persons of that age abroad, came over to this country about the year 1694; as it would appear, to investigate the nature of the Philadelphian Society,' then instituted in London, and to converse with its chief spiritual head, Mrs. Jane Lead, whose mystical writings in part had been translated into the German tongue; and he remained here until his decease in the year 1728, aged 79 years. His 'Elucicidations of Böhme's Philosophy and Theology,' contained in the first five volumes, lettered A, B, C, D, E, were composed by him, between the years

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* Dr. Francis Lee, in his Apologetical Letter to Henry Dodwell, A.D. 1701, thus mentions Freher:-"I know (says he) a person of great accuracy of thought, and coolness of mind, as well as of a most holy and primitive life, who is undertaking to render Böhme intelligible, by a true and genuine representation of his principles, both of divinity and philosophy, after having read all his books in the original more than ten times, though not without the greatest disgust imaginable in the beginning."-Memorial of Law, p. 206.

1699 and 1705. In the E volume of these Discourses, which is thus intituled, 'Of the Eternal Word's becoming Flesh; or, Of the pure Immaculate Conception and Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the Womb of the blessed Virgin Mary, (which is in the handwriting of the author himself, and now before me,) I find the following' singular relation,' which may be worthy of a place among the collected curiosities of the pages of N. and Q. In Freher's MS. Index to these volumes, the account is inserted Historical Relation of N. S. Freher's works, it is to be observed, were left all in MS., in the possession of his private friends; who at their decease bequeathed them to their successors, or transferred them to assured guardians of them, and thus they have been preserved down to the present day. They are, with two exceptions, in English.

GICHTEL died in the year 1710, and his Letters to his friends were afterwards collected, and published in six volumes, A.D. 1722; to which, as a seventh volume, was appended his life, thus intituled The Wonderful and Holy Life of John George Gichtel.' This entire publication was termed "Theosophia Practica," (See 'N. and Q.' p. 373, suprà.) The Memoir was drawn up under the general direction of Gichtel's surviving friend and intimate companion, Ueberfeldt, who had resided with him for many years, and up to the close of his life. He supplied the chief information for the work; but, as his own name would often have to appear on its pages, though it is now distinguished only by the letter U, he declined the task of personally inditing it, which was composed by another, who was a stranger to Gichtel personally. This Memoir, it will be observed, was published near twenty years after the Singular Relation' had been narrated in the private MS. treatise of Freher. In the published Life, this Singular Relation' is found inserted, though somewhat varied from the narrative of it by Freher. The transaction, according to the published account, took place in the year 1672; but the party it refers to, is there named as one 'Gabriel M-s,' and not one 'N. S.' as designated in Freher's own index. Freher's relation of it is as follows:

But further, though it is firm and solid enough, that the soul in its spiritual figure is a globe, not a triangle nor a square, but a perfect globe, I cannot nevertheless but confirm this saying of our author (Böhme), by relating faithfully a most considerable thing, happened to a certain person whom I know, having heard a full account thereof, not once or twice but several times from his own mouth. And this the rather, because it will be most proper for this place; for it will declare several important things concerning the soul, considered purely as to itself; and moreover it may leave behind it some or other benefit, if it can be believed and received, as it easily can if Böhme's ground is understood, and if a middle state is owned between hell and


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