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of religion, of which it would appear during the the houses where they are to be found, and their thirteenth century to have formed part. He gives appearance and song are hailed with satisfaction in four beautiful plates fac-similes of two com- as an omen of “good luck.” It would be conplete versions, and a fragment of another. Some sidered very improper to kill or harm one, and years ago M. Ferdinand de Guilhermy was pre- the same feeling prevails as regards the grassparing a monograph on the subject of the Sibyls. hopper in the fields. Something more on this Has it yet appeared ?
subject would be interesting, no doubt to many The mystery closes with another appeal to the as well as to
S. REDMOND. Jew
Liverpool. “Still, thou unbelieving Jew,
PEN-TOOTH.—A Huntingdonshire labourer was Canst thou remain such, since all this is true?
telling me that the parish doctor had just drawn followed by the “ Benedicamus," which opens
one of his teeth. I asked him if it was a double thus :
tooth ? He replied, “No, it was my pen-tooth." “Let us sing in joyful measures,
I asked, “Which was the pen-tooth ?” and he Let us spend in harmless pleasures,
explained that it was the last of the single teeth, This, the natal day of Jesus,
nearest to the double teeth. Whence the derivaFrom our sins and woes who frees us."
tion of pen?
CUTABERT BEDE. Such is this curious relic of the piety of the Middle Ages. It was a compendium, in fact, of the earliest civilisation seem to have travelled
GENJI, Jin, GENIUS, YIN.* — The traditions of the Evidences of Christianity, and, though not from the farthest East. such as Paley or Whately would have approved Germanic † languages, we find words which have
Hence in the Indofor severity of logic in our own day, must have served the same purpose, with the additional ad- apparently been derived from sources scarcely yet vantage of dramatic effect to render it impressive. which signifies a powerful being, forming a link, Whether or not the dramatic element has been to too great an extent abandoned in the services of and endowed with a longevity just short of im
as it were, between man and the angels and devils, the Church of England, is a question we need not its value as a medium of instruction in the period hordes that bordered on that ancient region of concern ourselves with here, but it certainly had mortality, may possibly be derived from the Chi
nese yin, "a man"; for to the minds of the savage when it was most flourishing. In the words of M. Didron (Iconographie Chrétienne, vii.) “ L'art knowledge and power, its inhabitants must have graphique et l'art dramatique étaient le livre de seemed something more than human. In fact, in
oriental romance, the Genii are frequently receux qui ne savaient pas lire." And there is force in the criticism of M. Maguin
(Origines du presented as connected with that distant empire. Théâtre Moderne, i. xviii.), that the offices of reli
If, as is generally supposed, the Chinese, at an gion are themselves really of a dramatic character. extremely remote period, possessed the knowledge
of gunpowder, the fulminating Jins of Eastern JOB J. BARDWELL WORKARD, M.A. fable are easily accounted for ; while their supe
rior knowledge of the secrets of nature; their irreligion, and their cruelty, in connection with
human weaknesses, are quite reconcilable with FOLK LORE.
the effect which that powerful, peculiar, and exTHE GRASSHOPPER AND CRICKET.-There is a clusive people must have produced on their igbelief in Ireland that the cricket, which is to be norant and superstitious neighbours. found in all houses in rural districts, and small
The length of days of the Genii also corresponds towns and villages adjoining, during the winter, with the fabulous longevity of the earliest soveis the grasshopper from the summer fields. Whe- reigns of China ; and their capacity for telegraphic ther this be correct or not, the following would rapidity of communication may have originated seem to favour the notion :- Both insects are in the early knowledge of writing and even printmuch alike in appearance, but different in colour. ing possessed by the Chinese. The analogy might The dusky brown or ash bue of the cricket, is be still further carried out, if necessary. SP. caused by its proximity to the fire, which in most
FRENCH FOLK LORE. A French man and houses consists of peat. It is stated that, on the
woman were engaged to be married. The former approach of winter, the grasshopper emigrates to the houses to spend the winter, after enjoying the • The Chinese for Genii is Se-ën. A man is Jin or summer sun and verdure of the grassy fields. Yin. The Chinese words Yan or Jan, and Foo jan, a The chirruping, or song, of both insects, taking woman, are suggestive (vide S. jani, H. Nani (grandtheir different habitations into account, may be mother) &c., &c., also, Miu, a cat'; Keaou, the mythical
dragon peculiar to meadows and marshes. said to resemble each other in no small degree.
† This distinction is introduced to simplify the folCrickets are held in respect by the inhabitants of lowing remarks.
1. MACKINLAY AND THE LAIRD OF LARGIE.
afterwards refused to fulfil his engagement, and MACKINLAY AND THE LAIRD OF LARGIE.the woman sued bim for breach of promise before
THE CHIEFTAIN AND HIS FOOL. the court of New Amsterdam, as the city of New York was called in 1656, when possessed by the
(Western Highland Legends, hitherto unpublished.) Dutch ; and this case is recorded. One of the The following legends are thoroughly genuine, reasons the man assigned for his refusal was, that and were collected for me by a dweller in Can. the woman " is capable, or able, to kill any man tire, Argyleshire, who noted them down from the who happens to know her, as she hath a wbite oral recitation of the Gaelic-speaking tale-tellers, lung" (vermits un witte longh heeft). Though the and then translated them for my especial benefit
. record is in Dutch, that being the language of the They have not yet appeared in print; and I country where they sojourned at the time, I infer communicate them to the Christmas Number of that the superstition was French, the parties in “ N. & Q.” with the hope that they may prove the suit having been natives of France.
appropriate to its pages, and acceptable to its
E. B. OʻC. readers. Other legends from the same interesting STEPMOTHER'S BLESSINGS. – The troublesome Numbers of this journal for '61 and '62 ; and
locality were contributed by me to the Christmas splinters of epidermis or scarf-skin, which often upwards of fifty appeared in Glencreggan; or a form at the roots of the nails, are thus designated, upwards of fifty appeared in Glencreggan; or a but why?
CUTHBERT BEDE. St. CLEMENT's Day. — It was, and perhaps is still, a custom in Staffordshire for children to go about on St. Clement's day, November 23, beg- It was at the close of the sixteenth century, ging for apples, in the following uncouth peti- when James VI. of Scotland had banished Angus tion:
Mac Donald, Laird of Largie, Cantire, and had Clemeny, Clemeny, God be wi' you,
given his possessions to Argyll, that there arose Christmas comes but once a ye-ar;
a deadly feud between the Campbells and MacWhen it comes, it will soon be gone,
donalds. At this period, a man named Mackinlay, Give me an apple, and I'll be gone.”
who had reached to middle-age, lived at a short Does this custom still prevail ? for I speak of distance from the Laird's house, with his wife fifty years ago; and has it been in use in other and a grown-up family of strong young men. parts of England ?
F. C. H. The sons were somewhat wild, and did not aladded the following: – The bakers of Cambridge father much uneasiness, as he did not like to bear To the record of Clemmening Customs may be ways behave themselves so well as might have
-a circumstance that caused their hold an annual supper on St. Clement's Day, which supper is called “the Bakers' Clem.” Their the just complaints of Largie and the neighbours. last celebration was (for convenience sake) held But Mackinlay was a favourite with the Laird, on Saturday evening, Nov. 21, 1863.
who, on his account, was disposed to overlook the CUTHBERT BEDE.
faults of his sons.
It was on a New Year's Day, when the young CHILTERN Customs: Egg HOPPING. — There is men had gone away to their sports, that Mackinlay a sport widely practised by the boys in this part and his wife contented themselves at home, feastof these bills, which they call “ Egg Hopping": ing on a shoulder'of mutton. Now, the transpa.
At the commencement of summer the lads rent shoulder-blade of a sheep has always been forage the woods in quest of birds' eggs. These, superstitiously used in Cantire ; for, in its faintly, when they have found, they place on the road at traced lines and marks, future events are sup distances apart in proportion to the
rarity or posed to be indicated to those who have the skill abundance of the species of egg. The Hopper is to read " them. And, in addition to " reading then blindfolded, and he endeavours to break as the bone,” the Western Highland fortune-tellers many as he can in a certain number of jumps. I were accustomed to exercise their arts by "readcannot find the practice mentioned any where, nor ing dreams,” by cup-tossing, and by “ reading can I glean whence it originated. Yet the uni- the palm." versality of the game, and the existence of various When Mackinlay and his wife had ended their superstitions, as raising the devil by repeating the New Year's dinner by eating the last bit of mutton Lord's Prayer backwards, combined with their re- from the shoulder-blade, Mackinlay began to fusal to part with the eggs for money, would war- Read the Bone. And, when he had passed some rant a supposition that some superstition is con- time in so doing, his wife asked bim what he saw nected in some way with it. I should be glad to in it? but as he did not give her a satisfactory learn if the custom exists anywhere else, and if answer, she said to him angrily, “ Throw it from any reason is known for its performance. you to the dog!" As he was doing so he said,
JNO. BURHAM SAFFORD. ** If we shall see the end of this year together,
II. THE CHIEFTAIN AND HIS FOOL.
we shall see many years afterwards; but I see a face the Sea Captain. And, on a day, they had calamity coming this way." By this time, the their trial of strength; and Mackinlay put the Laird had walked into Mackinlay's house, bidding stone the furthest, and beat the Captain. The him a good New Year. Mackinlay was afraid Captain looked upon him with admiration, and that his sons had committed some misdemeanour, asked him if he would go to sea with him, proand was prepared to take their excuse; but the mising, if he would do so, that he would make Laird said that such was not the reason for his visit, him a gentleman. but, that his friends in Islay were robbed and Then Macalriocgh said to Argyll, “ If he comes murdered by the Campbells ; and that, as he was back a gentleman, he will have the means to going over to avenge his friends, he wished Mac- avenge his father's death. It were best to bang kinlay to accompany him.
the whelp, and make an end of the family. Mackinlay made answer, "You have seen the Argyll took his counsellor's advice, and young day when I was of some use ; but now my limbs Mackinlay was hung forthwith. And thus it was are growing stiff. But take my sons with you ; that the family of Mackinlay was exterminated ; they are young and strong; and they will aid you and the calamity came to pass that Mackinlay better than I can." “I have seen your strong had foreseen when he read the bone on New arm," said the Laird, “and I will yet trust more
Year's Day. to it than to all your sons' sinews.” So Mackinlay went with the Laird ; and a boat was prepared, and the Laird collected all those whom he thought best worthy of trust; and they left the In olden times the Highland chiefs and landed shore of Largie to cross the Channel to Islay. proprietors were wont to amuse themselves by They tried to land about the middle of the island; retaining in their service Poets, Musicians, and but the wind blew from the south, and the cur- Jesters, and oftentimes the Fool was the wisest rent was strong, and they were driven up to the as well as the wittiest of them all. Sound of Islay, where lay Mac Callain's war There was a chieftain in Cantire who had a ship. Mac Callain saw the Laird's boat, and, Fool to whom the people came for advice. Now well knowing that he was coming to fight the there was a young man who wished to get himself Campbells, he gave him chase with his swift-sailing married; but he had three ladies in view, and he vessel
, well-manned with soldiers, and apprehended did not know which of them he should choose. the Laird at Eilein-mor-maialiairmie, an island So he came to the Fool for advice. And when off the shore of Knabdale. There he hanged the he came, he found the Fool riding on a large spar Laird, with Mackinlay, and all his men ; and then or branch of a tree, in the same way that
a little went to Largie, burning and killing the people boy rides on his father's staff
. throughout that district. There he apprehended “What do you want here?” said the Fool. the sons of Mackinlay, and hung them all
, save “ I want your advice,” replied the young man; one, who chanced to be sick. Him he took with " for I want to get myself married.” him to Inverary, where he clapped him in prison " To whom?" asked the Fool. till he should get well, when he intended to bring “ To a rich widow,” replied the young man. hiin forth and hang him.
“ I do not like to hear prayers for the souls of At that time, Argyll had a counsellor of the the departed,” said the Fool. And the young name of Macalriocgh, who told him, that, if he man understood him to mean, that if he married would leave alive one of the Mackinlays, he would the rich widow, and she should become displeased be sure to take revenge for the death of his father. at any time, she would fall to speaking of her Just at the same time, a Dutch ship sailed to In- deceased husband; and the young man thought verary; and its Captain, coming on shore, chalo | that he should not like to hear his wife praising lenged the Inverary men to a trial of strength in another above himself. So he determined to disputting the stone: but the Captain could not get miss the rich widow from his thoughts. a man that would hold to him. Argyll was Then the Fool came capering round on his angered at this, and asked his counsellor what stick; and the young man said, “ I am going to they would do to wipe away the affront that the get myself married.” Dutch Captain had put upon them. Macalriocgh “To whom ? " asked the Fool. answered, that he thought, if young Mackinlay “ To a learned lady,” replied the young man. had not been sick, he would have been the Cap- “Take care my horse does not give you a kick!" tain's master. Argyll said, that if young Mac- said the Fool, as he went galloping away on his kinlay would beat the Dutchman, he would get stick. And the young man understood that the his life with him.
Fool did not approve of his second proposal ; and So it was agreed to this, and they went to he himself would not wish to be thought an Mackinlay's prison and told him what was pro- ignorant fellow by his wife. So he dismissed the posed; and the young man said that he would learned lady from his thoughts.
Again the Fool took his round, leaping and said, “ See! there is gold !” but the chief's Foo! lashing his wooden horse ; and the young man replied, “When we are gathering gold, let us said, " I want to get myself married.”
gather it, but, when we are sent for Maórach, " To whom?” asked the Fool.
let us go for it." So they both went their way " To a servant girl," replied the young man.
for the shellfish; and hence arose the proverb – “Oh!" said the Fool; * alike to alike."
Whatever we are doing, let us do it. So the young man understood that the Fool But this Chief's Fool was always very ready approved his choice; and he thanked him for his with his answer. One day he met two young advice, and went home and married the servant gentlemen, who had found a horse-shoe on the girl. And a very good wife she made him. road, which they showed to him, saying, “ See
There is another tale told of this same Fool. here! we have got a horse-shoe!” Now, what He was amusing himself at the side of the river, a fine thing is learning!” said the Fool. “ You when a gentleman rode up, on the opposite learned gentlemen can tell this at once to be the side, and called to him to show him the safest shoe of a horse ; but I, who am but a poor fool, ford across the water. The Fool asked him could not for my life tell but that it might be the whither he was bound; and the gentleman told shoe of a mare.' him, naming the Fool's master. The Fool inquired of the gentleman if he intended to make any stay with his master; and the gentleman re
“ THE WONDER OF ALL THE WONDERS THAT plied, Yes, he did, for he had not seen the Chief
THE WORLD EVER WONDERED AT." for a long time. Now, the Fool knew that his master was ill prepared to receive any guest; so I beg to send you, Mr. Editor, for your Christhe thought that it would be doing him a kindness mas Number, one of the Curiosities of Literato prevent this gentleman from going to his house. ture, published under the title of " Hore SubTherefore, when the gentleman a second time seciva" in the Dublin University Review, in 1833, asked him to show him the safest ford, the Fool vol. i. p. 482, by the late Dr. West, of Dubdirected him to the very deepest spot in the river. lin: Accordingly, when the gentleman rode into the
“ Among Swift's works, we find a jeu d'esprit, entitled river, he had not proceeded far from the bank • The Wonder of all the Wonders that the World ever when down plumped the rider and his horse over Wondered at,' and purporting to be an advertisement of head and ears in the water. They would have a conjuror. There is an amusing one of the same kind been drowned to a surety, had not some people Lichtenberg, which, as his works are not much known
by a very humorous German writer, George Christopher chanced to come by at the moment, and with some
here, is perhaps worth translating. The occasion on difficulty they rescued the gentleman. He was which it was written was the following. In the year no sooner safe on the bank than he ran up to the 1777, a celebrated conjuror of those days arrived at GötFool to give him a lashing.
tingen. Lichtenberg, for some reason or other, did not "Why did you lead me to such a deep place?” wish him to exhibit there ; and, accordingly, before the he said.
other had time even to announce his arrival, he wrote this
advertisement, in his name, and had it printed and posted Truly," was the reply, “I am but a poor Fool, over the town. The whole was the work of one night. and how was I to know that the place was so The result was, that the real Simon Pure decamped next deep? for are not the legs of your honour's borse morning without beat of drum, and never appeared in far longer than the legs of my master's goose, who Göttingen again. Lichtenberg had spent some time in hath crossed this place in safety over and over
England, and understood the language perfectly, so that
he may have seen Swift's paper. Still, even granting again ? "
that he took the hint from him, it must be allowed he So the gentleman laughed'; and, instead of has improved on it not a little, and displayed not only giving the Fool a lashing, he gave him a piece of more delicacy, which indeed was easy enough, but more money and told him to lead the way to his master's house, and to bear in mind that he rode a horse and not a goose.
". The admirers of supernatural Physics are hereby There is yet another tale told of this same informed that the far-famed Magician, Philadelphus Fool.
Philadelphia (the same that is mentioned by Cardanus, He was once sent, together with another laird's
in his book De Natura Supernaturali, where he is styled Fool, to gather shellfish, or “ Maórach." Their days ago by the mail
, although it would have been just
“ The envied of Heaven and Hell,") arrived here a few masters had laid a bet which of the two Fools was as easy for him to come through the air, seeing that he the more foolish ; and so, to try them, they left a is the person who, in the year 1482, in the public market piece of gold by the side of the road along which
at Venice, threw a ball of cord into the clouds, and climbe the Fools would have to pass; and then, con
upon it into the air till he got out of sight. On the 9th of cealing themselves behind a bush, waited to see
January, of the present year, he will commence at the
Merchant's-Hall, publico-privately, to exhibit his one which of the two Fools would pick up the piece dollar tricks, and continue weekly to improve them, till of gold. When they came to it, the other Fool he comes to his 500 guinea tricks; amongst which last
are some which,' without boasting, excel the wonderful and inserting it into a wide-mouthed bottle half full of itself, nay are, as one may say, absolutely impossible. ether, and shaking it gently up and down for a minute.
* • He has had the honor of performing with the greatest On its removal, the stains will be found to have disappossible approbation before all the potentates, high and peared. The ether rapidly evaporates from the paper, low, of the four quarters of the world; and even in the and a single washing in cold water is all that is afterfifth, a few weeks ago, before her Majesty, Queen Oberea, wards required. at Otaheite.
“While I recommend sulphuric ether especially, it is " . He is to be seen every day, except on Mondays and useful to know that it is not alone in possession of the Thursdays, when he is employed in clearing the heads of power of removing oily stains. Mineral naphtha and the honorable members of the Congress of his countrymen berzoline possess with it the property of dissolving oils, at Philadelphia ; and at all hours, except from 11 to 12 fixed and volatile, tallow, lard, wax, and other substances in the forenoon, when he is engaged at Constantinople ; of this class. Naphtha is an excellent solvent, and much and from 12 to 1, when he is at his dinner.
cheaper than sulphuric ether; but unless it is exceed". The following are some of his common one dollar ingly pure, it is apt to tint the paper. Your other cortricks; and they are selected, not as being the best of respondent · Papyrongos,' by the use of ether, will be them, but as they can be described in the fewest words : enabled at all times to detect a doctored paper mark or
** • 1. Without leaving the room, he takes the weather- date.”—Le Bibliophile Illustré for Sept. 1869, p. 27. cock off St. James's church, and sets it on St. John's, and
J. C. LINDSAY. vice versa. After a few minutes he puts them back again in their proper places. N.B. All this without a inagnet,
St. Paul, Minnesota. by mere sleight of hand. * *2. He takes two ladies, and sets them on their heads
“ Stir-up ” Sunday.-This name is given by on a table, with their legs up: he then gives them a school-girls and boys to the 25th Sunday after blow, and they immediately begin to spin like tops with Trinity, from the opening words of the Collect incredible velocity, without breach either of their headdress by the pressure, or of decorum by the falling of not yet been recorded in these pages ; and may
for the day. It is a bit of semi folk-lore that has their petticoats, to the very great satisfaction of all pre
now serve as an excuse for the quotation of the “«3. He takes three ounces of the best arsenic, boils it following introduction to the noble Stirring-up in a gallon of milk, and gives it to the ladies to drink. letter of S. G. O, in The Times for Nov. 25 : As soon as they begin to get sick, he gives them two or three spoonfuls of melted lead, and they go away in high
“Stir-up' Sunday is a day associated in the minds of spirits.
many of our fellow-creatures with feelings peculiar to “* 4. He takes a hatchet, and knocks a gentleman on
itself. The school sons and daughters of the well-to-do the head with it, so that he falls dead on the floor. When in the world hail this collect of the Church as a pleasant there, he gives a second blow, whereupon the gentleman
witness to the fact that the weeks of the passing halfimmediately gets up as well as ever, and generally asks year are drawing to a close, the day for home is rapidly what music that was.
approaching. By Stir-up' Sunday the drapers of “• 5. He draws three or four ladies' teeth, makes the country towns provide the exhibition of blankets and company sbake them well together in a bag, and then flannels, ready against the demand for clothing clubs, puts them into a little cannon, which he fires at the tempting to those who now meditate warming gifts to aforesaid ladies' heads, and they find their teeth white
the poor and the cold. Parish clerks seek the order of and sound in their places again.
the church wardens for coals for the church stove, always “66. A metaphysical trick, otherwise commonly called lit after Stir-up' Sunday. Sunday-school children, Tây metaphysica, whereby he shows that a thing can
itching with early chilblains, repeat this collect as, in actually be and not be at the same time. It requires their minds, a proclamation that winter is come, just as great preparation and cost, and is shown so low as a
they hail the cry of the cuckoo with childish glee as the dollar, solely in honour of the University.
voice that says winter is gone. The wealthy now finally 7. He takes all the watches, rings, and other ornaments settle the programme for Christmas; who will be the of the company, and even money if they wish, and gives guests, and what is to be done in preparation for the holyevery one a receipt for his property. He then puts them
days of the juveniles. Every newspaper now puts forth all in a trunk, and brings them off to Cassel. In a week
its advertisements of the fashions for the coming winter; after, each person tears his receipt, and that moment
especially about Stir-up' Sunday do those gentlemen finds whatever he gave in bis hands again. He has
who have to sell cheap, uinder money difficulty or being made a great deal of money by this trick.
ordered to a warm climate,' the beautiful, scarcely worn « « N.B. During this week, he performs in the top room fur cloaks and rugs, put forth their bait to wealthy seekers at the Merchant's-Hall; but after that, up in the air over
of defence against winter's cold. the pump in the market-place ; for whoever does not pays Sunday a peculiar and most seasonable feature of intel
“Of late years I have observed that about “Stir-up' will not see.'
ligence' and argument developes itself in The Times. However interesting the current political events of the day may be, whatever the demand upon space, from the
law courts at home, from foreign action of national inMinor Notes.
terest to ourselves, from the correspondence of writers
who are exponents of valuable opinions on any of the REMOVING OIL-STAINS om Books.—The fol. great controverted questions of the hour, room is found lowing directions for removing oil-stains from most liberally for those who, acting in harmony with the books seems to me worthy of preservation in the petition of the beautiful · Stir-up collect, seek to point
out the good works' by which the charitable may offer pages of “ N. & Q.”:
to the Deity acceptable fruits of Christian, charitable “ The remedy is sulphuric ether.
. . If the stains deeds." are extensive, I am in the habit of rolling up each leaf