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presbyterian seceders, Struthers was the only one in His birth and marriage are not given in the account of Edinburgh who was entitled to the praise of eloquence. his life in Charnock's Biographia Navalis, v. 380-383. I know no other person of the class who attracted people The Rt. Hon. William Windham was born at Fellof good taste, not of his community, to his church, merely brigge-hall, Norfolk, on the 3rd of May (old style), for the pleasure of hearing him preach. His last chapel 1750. He married Cecilia, the third daughter of Commowas in College Street, but before it was built be preached dore Arthur Forrest on July 10, 1798. Mr. Windham in the Circus, a place of theatrical exhibition at the head died on June 4, 1810, and was buried in the family vault of Leith Walk. "It was strange to see the pit, boxes, and at Fellbrigge. Prefixed to his Speeches in Parliament, 3. galleries, filled with devout worshippers, and to detect vols. 8vo, 1812, is some Account of his Life by Thomas the edges of the scenes and other vestiges of the Satur- | Amyot, Esq. The biography of him in the Gent. Mag. day night, while a pulpit was brought forward to the rol. lxxx. pt. i. p. 588, was written by Edmund Malone, front of the stage on which there stood a tall, pale, well- Esq.] dressed man, earnestly but gently alluring the audience to religion by elegant declamation. However, as my coun- PRIVATE SOLDIER.—Can any of your numerous trymen have no superstition about the stone and lime of readers throw light upon the origin of the word the temple, it did very well. Struthers was not of any “private" when
applied to the phrase "private superior talent or learning, but as a pleasing, and elegant soldier ?" Is it from his having been the private preacher he was far above any presbyterian dissenter then in Edinburgh.”]
property of him who raised the regiment to which SAMUEL SMITH.
he belonged (and who were then termed re"David's Repentance, or a plaine and familiar Exposi- tainers), in contradistinction from the soldier who tion of the 51st Psalme, by Samuel Smith, late Preacher
was found by the state who would then be termed of the Word of God at Prittlewel, in Essex, author of The "public ? "
R. N. Great Assize." The of this work which I have in my pose the meaning of the word "private” as applied to
Will you be kind enough to inform me what is copy. session is the 30th edition, published 1722. The
a soldier ?
G. W. BARRINGTON. author displays great piety and good sense, and to my mind, the book is well adapted for readers
Travellers' Club. of the present age. I should like to be informed [Two simultaneous queries respecting the word "priin what year the first edition appeared, and whe- vate” as applied to a soldier, one referring to the origin ther a reprint of the work has been made of late the supposition that the question is raised in connection
of the word as so applied, the other to its meaning, lead to years ? Some account of the author will oblige.
with some matter now in discussion; and before venturC. K.
ing to give an answer that might be brought to bear on [Samuel Smith, the son of a minister, was born at or such discussion, one would wish to know exactly the near Dudley, co. Worcester, in 1588; studied at St. Mary point at issue. We limit ourselves therefore to a general Hall, Oxford; became Vicar of Prittlewell, Essex, and reply: afterwards Perpetual Curate of Cressedge and Cound,
With regard to the meaning of the word as applied to a Shropshire, whence he was ejected for nonconformity in soldier, we presume we are correct in saying, that by a 1662. Wood says he “was living an aged man near “private” is generally understood a common soldier; Dudley in 1663." He appears to have been one of the as distinguished from an officer commissioned or nonmost popular writers in divinity in his day, as the forty
commissioned. “Was he captain in that regiment ?" seventh edition of his Great Assize was published in “No, a private." “ Is he a corporal?” “No, a pri1757, and David's Repentance, first published we believe in 1618, is said by Calamy to have been printed forty As to “ the origin of the word “private' when applied times. Of the latter work there was a trick of trade to the phrase “private soldier,'” we would suggest that it played off upon the public about the year 1765 by a book- must be traced to the much earlier use of the same word seller at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who published another as applied to civilians, “a private man or citizen," one work with the same title and name as the thirty-first edi- not invested with public office or employment. So Blacktion. Vide Wood's Athena by Bliss, iii. 656,
and Calamy's stone: "A private person may arrest a felon.” Nonconformists' Memorial, edit. 1803, iii, 144.]
The epithet being thus applicable in common parlanco
to any civilian not holding office, has by a slight extenFORREST: WINDHAM. Commodore Arthur sion of meaning, been used to signify soldiers not possesForrest died in command of the fleet off Jamaica sing rank.] some time in the latter part of the last century. Can the date of his birth, marriage, and death be
SIR HENRY CAVERLEY. – MS. Addit. 10,410 is. given ?
described as Sir Henry Caverley's Remarks in his Can it be ascertained when the Right Hon. Travels begun Feb. 17, 1683, fol. imperf. Who William Windham, Secretary of State, was born, was Sir. Henry Caverley ?
S. Y. R. when he married, and when he died ? A. R. F.
[This imperfect MS. volume, formerly in Heber's col[Commodore Arthur Forrest died May 26, 1770, whilst lection, is by Sir Henry Calverley (frequently spelt Cacommander in chief at Jamaica. The following lines verley), whose Common Place-Book of '1657-8 is now in on his death appeared in The Scots Magazine, xxxii. the library of Sir Walter Calverley Trevelyan of Walling388:
ton, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Vide'" N. & Q.” 2nd S. viii. "Is Forrest dead? Death, thou hast fellid an oak
(whose kind courtesy I again thankfully acknow
ledge), to the extent of making a thorough search SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.
for the baptism of Mary Newman, which may (34 S. iii. 506 ; iv. 189, 241, 271, 330.)
possibly be in the register; although I was not
fortunate enough to make the discovery. In Pending the solution of the difficulty created turning over the pages with this view, the followby the fact, that Lady Mary Drake's burial is ing note caught my eye under an entry, August recorded alike at Plymouth and St. Budeaux, the 15, 1549 :following particulars may be of some service. “ The same daye were the Rebells driven out of PlyThey are the result of an examination which I mouthe, and lxxx of them taken prisoners.' have made at both places, in consequence of the And here I venture to interpolate the expresNote contributed by G. P.
sion of a regret that the clergy-at least, those The volume, containing the two entries which in charge of rural parishes-do not more freformed the subject of my first notice, is, I find, a quently constitute themselves local chroniclers : copy of the original register which was rewritten, an office which, from their position, knowledge of in 1610, by “ Laurence Kinge, Minister of St. daily events, and in-door pursuits, they have the Budiox;"as set forth on the first page at the end of power of filling with considerable usefulness. a prefatory paragraph, in which is stated the rea- Albeit, I should hesitate to recommend the parish son for making the copy, namely, that the eccle- books for the reception of notes, as happened at siastical laws require parish registers to be kept St. Budeaux during the incumbency of the Rev. on parchment. The task bad fallen into con- Thomas Alcock - a man of ability, but of eccengenial hands. Method, order, and accuracy, are tric habits, that are even now remembered. He apparent on every page; and the work has evi- held the living for a period exceeding sixty-five dently been a labour of love to the writer, who years,* from the year 1732 to 1798; and filled performed the duty which had devolved upon him whole pages of the register with local memoranda. in the best manner. I mention these details, be- Some information which he thus conveyed recause by them is measured the degree of reliance specting the original foundation of, and benefacto be placed on what is, after all, only a copy; tions to, the charity schools in this parish, is to be and so far, therefore, inferior in authority to the had, I am told, from no other source. To him I actual original. The register so produced, apart am disposed to attribute the two marginal referfrom its worth as a public document, is valuable as ences above-mentioned. a manuscript: the folios fair and crisp, and the The register of St. Andrew's, Plymouth, has character a beautiful specimen of the writing of every sign of being original—the pages disco, that period.
loured, the leathern covers much worn, and metal The entry, which stands at the head of the first clasps broken. The entries, here also written part under “ Baptisms," is dated January 7, 1538. excellently, well, occur in symmetrical arrange It may be worth while, though at the risk of ment: each page divided by double lines into repetition, to give literally and exactly as they three columns, and each column has its approare written the entries connected with Drake.
priate heading. The item, copied by G. P., stands Marriages :
exactly thus: -
Burialls January 1582
25. The Lady Marie the wiffe
of Sr Frauncis Drake knight. “ 1582, Januarie xxyth. Marye Drake, wyfe of Sr ffrancis D., Knight.”
It will have been noticed that, at St. Budeaux, On the margin is a cross reference to “Marriages, 1569."
no burial entry occurs again until the month of I have already said (antè p. 241) that the year uary, and several under every successive month.
July ; whereas, at Plymouth, more follow in Jan1582 is 1582-3. As Mr. Prideaux had made However unaccountable the record at Plymouth (p. 272) some remarks on the burial of Sir F. may be, except as that of an actual interment Drake's wife having occurred during his mayor- there, it seems even more difficult to understand alty, I took particular notice of the date. On for what earthly reason the minister of St. Buthis there can be no lingering doubt, as the im- deaux (served, as it would appear, from St. mediately succeeding entry is “ Julye, 1583." I felt that I could scarcely avail myself of the
Andrew's,) should have selected this particular gratuitous inspection allowed me by the vicar
* This clergyman furnishes an instance to be added to
that mentioned in “ N. & Q.,” under “ Longevity of la* Not rector, as I before called him.
cumbents,” 3rd S. iv. 370.
death for notice, if the deceased lady was really But be this as it may, that sluggish tipple, of buried elsewhere. With reference to G. P.'s final which Henricus Abrincensis oddly enough writes, question, I can only say that the vicar knows of
“Nil spissius illa, no tomb or grave that can be associated with Dum bibitur; nil clarius est, dum mingitur: Dame Mary Drake at St. Budeaux; and I can hear
Unde constat, quod multas fæces in ventre relinquit," of none in St. Andrew's Church.
is certainly not the same drink that inflamed with John A. C. VINCENT.
a maddened patriotism the drooping souls of the Numantians in the memorable siege, B.C. 133
(Paulus Orosius, H. c. 7), or filled the fierce POTHEEN.
followers of Odin with frantic joy, in anticipation
of immortal symposia (3rd S. iv. 188, 278, 399.)
Where, from the flowing bowl, In the epigram of the Emperor Julian, he pro
Deep drinks the warrior's soul.” poses to alter the cognomen of Bacchus, Bpoulds, to Bpouds, oats—and to encircle the brow of the writes of the Danes :
Again, Ion Isaac Pontanus (Danie Descriptio) jolly god with corn instead of the vine. The cereal liquors of ancient times seem to
“ Destinata morte in prælium ruerent, quum se prius have been of two descriptions: one of a partial epulis, quasi inferiis, implevissent carnis semicrudæ et fermentation, in which some vegetable bitter was
In the Chronicle of the Monastery of Abingdon, infused, and the other similar to the modern alcoholic spirit. See Æschylus, as quoted; Ari- published by direction of the English Master stotle, De Ebrietate ; Herodotus, lib. ii. sect. 77 ; of the Rolls, curious notices are found of the Diodorus Siculus, lib. iv. c. 1; Pliny, lib. xiv. c. of these heathen buccaneers, when under the
“ rabies debacchantium” and “bovina ferocitas" 22. The bitter ingredient used by the Egyp
J. L. tians was the lentil: “madida sociata lupino" malignant inspiration of the celia.
Dublin. (Columella, x. 116). The two cereal liquors, in the manufacture of which Osiris was stated to This word is pronounced poth-thdeen, very soft. have instructed the Egyptians, were termed zy. Whilst on this subject, may I ask if it were known thum and curmi. The zythum or zitum, “quem to the ancient Hebrew people? My reason for the nos cerevisiam vocamus," as Diodorus writes, query is the reference to strong drink, wbich Sarah was made “ex bordeo et herbis.” Again, leav- was forbidden to drink. This could not be wine, ing southern climes for the colder north, Sui- for “other strong drink” is expressly mentioned. das alludes to the stronger tipple, wine made
S. REDMOND. from barley; and Cæsar declares (De Bell. Liverpool. Gall.) that the Britons preferred cereal to grape wine. So also Tacitus, respecting the Allophyl.
ROBERT DEVERELL. lian tribes ; and Priscus mentions an intoxicating drink, used by the ancient Hungarians, termed (1st S. i. 469; ii. 61; ix. 577; x. 236; 2nd S. v. 466.) camus; likewise Dioscorides, in the first century This very eccentric author, originally Robert of our era, terms the liquor made from grain Pedley, was the son of Simon Pedley of Bristol, curmi—a word identical with the Egyptian term, and was born in that city. After being educated and found also in the Welsh language. Paulus in the school there under Mr. Lee, he was adOrosius, and after him Isidorus, derive celia from mitted a pensioner of St. John's College, Camcalefacio, in allusion to the heat evolved by fer- bridge, June 27, 1777, æt. 17, his father then mentation. This Ion Isaac Pontanus, in a subse- being dead. He proceeded B.A. 1781, and was quent age, flatly denies, claiming for his national seventh wrangler and second chancellor's mebeverage an origin anterior to the foundation of dallist. Rome: that “gratissimus potus,” termed oel, or õl, and by the Angli, äel (Daniæ Descriptio). prize for a Latin essay, the subject being “Utrum
The Bpurdy of the Pæonians, alluded to by ad emendandos magis, an corrumpendos, civium your correspondent (from Bpów, to bubble up) mores conferat Musica ?” was certainly a cereal liquor, and probably similar On March 30, 1784, he was admitted a Fellow to the beoir of the Danes (3rd S. iv. 229, 310, of St. John's, on the Lady Margaret's foundation, 382). The Celtic bior, a spring, has the same as a native of Gloucestershire, and in the same pronunciation ; and the philologist may trace the year commenced M.A. identical word in the Hebrew and Arabic, as in- He subsequently changed his name to Deverell, dicating a spring. The term is perhaps an imita- and was in 1802 elected M.P. for Saltash, being tive labial from the bubbling sound, and thus it seems a Whig, but an advocate for the slave came to be applied to liquor presenting the same trade. He died at New Norfolk Street, London, phenomenon in fermentation.
November 29, 1841, aged 82.
of a In the following year he obtained the member's
Sir Robert Heron (who was admitted a fellow “We believe we need make no apology for inserting commoner of St. John's in 1783) says:
the following Letter and Verses from a Genius which has “Sir Richard Heron consulted the present Lord Har- lately favour'd the Publick with some curious Essays of
the Poetick Kind, that have been very acceptable to rowby, who had just left Cambridge, for a tutor for me.
many of our Readers." He could not entirely recommend any, but, on the whole preferred Mr. Pedley, afterwards Deverel. He had some Owing to some inaccuracy in the index to the learning and much ignorance, but being a little mad, his Gentlenian's Magazine under the head of “Bowstrange ideas taught me to think for myself. We spent den,” I am unable to ascertain whether any actwo summers together in France, Germany, and Holland." count of Dr. Samuel Bowden appears in that Notes by Sir Rob. Heron, Bart., 3rd edit. 291. publication.
'Alleus. Under the erroneous date of 1842, Sir Robert Dublin. thus records his tutor's death :
There was published by R. Janeway, in 1704, an “ This year died my old tutor, Robert Deverel, for 8vo, entitled." Divine Hymns and Poems on several merly Pedley. He wrote works which decidedly proved Occasions, 8c. By Philomela and several other insanity, and his conduct was also, sometimes, such as to admit of no other excuse; yet, he was the best tutor
ingenious persons;" with a dedication to Sir R. I could have had; for, with a private education, without Blackmore, and Preface. This last extends to companions of any ability, I was in need of his strange ten pages, in which the author supplements the and active imagination to excite my reasoning faculties.” | attacks of Jeremy Collier upon the profane poets
Notes, 263, 264.
of the day; and, although without signature Sir Robert also states that Deverell was in some or initials, is by J. Bowden, upon the authority of degree connected with the Beckfords, his brother that name in a contemporary hand being found subhaving had the management of their estates in scribed to it in a copy of the book shown to me by Jamaica, and having recently died, leaving behind a friend.* The lines quoted by your corresponhim an estate of at least 10,000l. per annum, in- dent would seem to fit the Mr. Bowden of this herited by a niece.
Miscellany, whose acknowledged poetical contriThis brother we take to have been James Pedley, butions are a “ Hymn to the Redeemer of the who was elected M.P. for Hindon, 1802.
World," and a Dialogue between a good Spirit With regard to the alleged suppression of De- and the Angels;” the first extending to thirtyverell's Discoveries in Hieroglyphics, we have four stanzas, and the last occupying eleven pages, doubts, for the library of this University contains both often reprinted. a copy marked “ second Edition," and having the The Philomela of the title is of course Miss date 1816.
C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. Singer, afterwards Mrs. Rowe, whom the bookCambridge.
seller may have considered the most attractive of bis “ingenious persons " for that position, being a
lady then in high repute, and characterised by DANCING IN SLIPPERS (3rd S. iv. 351, 437.)- Dunton as the Pindarick Lady, and the She-Wit Surely there can be no difficulty in understanding of his Athenian Society.
A. G. what is meant by the phrase "dancing in slippers.” The Rev. John Bowden, respecting whom your If so, since when did the word “slipper ” disap- correspondent J. S. inquires, was pastor of a pear from the English language, as meaning a Presbyterian (now Independent) congregation at shoe worn by ladies for dancing? Witness “ Cin. Frome from, I think, the year 1707 until his derella and the glass slipper.". Have we left off death, which took place in 1748. For the last speaking of a " satin slipper" since white boots
seven years he had various assistants, I presume came into fashion ? John A. C. VINCENT.
on account of age and declining health. Two BOWDEN OF FROME (3rd S. iv. 431.) – There compositions of his are now before me; one, An was a Dr. Samuel Bowden, who contributed poeti- Exhortation to the Rev. Thomas Morgan at the cal pieces to some of the early volumes of the close of his Ordination to the Ministerial Office, Gentleman's Magazine, among which are —
delivered at Frome, Sept. 16, 1716. The other, A “ To the Rt. Hon. Lord Viscount Weymouth, on his late
Funeral Sermon on the Death of George I., preached Marriage with Miss Carteret. By Dr. Bowden, Author
June 18, 1727, and dedicated to Dr. Benjamin of the Poetical Essays lately publish’d,” Aug. 1733, pp. Avery. The Rev. Thomas Morgan just named 431.
subsequently adopted deistical sentiments, and “The Prayer of Cleanthes; translated from the Greek by Dr. Bowden,” Oct. 1735, pp. 609.
gave to the world his Moral Philosophy. “ Te Deum: from the Latin of Dr. Alsop," Feb. 1736,
If J. S. or any of your correspondents can tell “To Mr. Samuel Hill on board the Salisbury Man-of
Referring again to the book cited, I find I have not War, in Pursuit of the Algerines in the Year 1734,"
a full warranty for this; the Editor's initials only, J. B. March, 1736, pp. 130.
being there written. This Collection of 1704, which went This last is prefaced by the following introduc- Mrs. Rowe's independent Poems by Philomela, printed b;
through several editions, is not to be confounded with tion by the editor :
Dunton in 1696.
me whether the author of the book named below HEDINGHAM REGISTERS (3rd S. iv. 430.) – A was a relative of the Rev. John Bowden or not, I crisom, or more properly a chrysom, child, has been shall be obliged :
supposed to mean one who died unbaptized. Our “Poems on Various Subjects, with some Essays in old dictionaries agree in stating that this name Prose, Letters to Correspondents, &c.; and a Treatise on was given in the bills of mortality to those chil. Health. By Samuel Bowden, M.D., of Frome, Somerset- dren who died within a month from their birth ; shire,” Printed at Bath, 1754, 8vo.
X. A. X.
but they are not agreed as to whether it applied
to those who had been, or had not been baptized. LADY RERES (3rd S. iv. 395.)– There is an al Bailey says that infants dying before Baptism lusion to this lady in Douglas's Peerage of Scot- were called chrysoms ; but he prefaces this with a land, vol. i. p. 143, ed. 1813. Speaking of the tale of an ancient custom of a cloth with some consort of the fourth Earl of Athol, who was a unguent being worn on the head by the child till it daughter of Lord Fleming, it is added,
was deemed strong enough to endure baptism; and “An opinion was generally prevalent that this Countess so derives the name from the child's dying before of Athol possessed the powers of incantation, and it is that cloth had been left off. This, however, is said that when Queen Mary lay in of James VI. she cast all the pains of childbirth on Lady Reres.”
without any foundation ; and must be a mere
blundering about the Chrismale, or cloth laid on Certainly a most convenient plan! H. S. the child's head, after it has been anointed with
THYNNE's WILL (3rd S. iv. 365, 439.) – F. C. holy Chrism in Baptism, which has always been H. may be assured that I had no polemical animus practised in the Catholic church.
In Dyche's in referring to Thynne's Protestantism, as evi- Dictionary, we find that “such children as die in denced, according to my judgment, by his will
. the month are called chrisoms ; " but he gives a I referred to it in a purely dispassionate spirit, as more valid reason, deriving the name from the an historical (or biographical) fact, or at least as
cloth laid over the child's head, when it was bapa fair presumption from the evidence. I am not tized, which he properly calls the Chrismale. convinced to the contrary by F. C. H.'s remarks. I Johnson gives as the meaning of Chrisom, am quite willing to believe that on all those impor leaving the question of its baptism undecided,
cbild that dies within a month after its birth," munions think very much alike in the main, and Now it seems most probable that the name, therefore that William Thynne's will and epitaph being evidently derived from the cloth called might suit a good Catholic as well as a good Pro- Chrisom or Chrismale, would have been applied testant. But the absence of reference to the to such children as bad recently worn that cloth, Virgin and Saints, the prominence given to the rather than to such as died without having redoctrine of justification by faith, as well as the ceived it; and therefore that orisom children were omission of all mention of an obit, taken toge
those who died shortly after their baptism. ther with what Francis Thynne records of his
L. A. M. also inquires, What is a " pepperal?" father in the Animadversions upon Speght's Chau- whose baptism is found is the same Register of cer, are to me very fair proofs that Thynne's mind Castle Hedingham. If that spelling is correct, was affected by those changes in religion that the term is unintelligible. I can only suggest were inaugurated by Cranmer, and subsequently that it may have been intended for puerperal, adopted by the Church of England. That 'l'hynne meaning a child whose mother died in childbirth; commenced his epitaph in the ancient form
or it may be perperil, a child baptized in immeeven if not as a mere formula—is no evidence in diate danger of death. These are mere conjecF. C. H.'s favour, because praying for the dead tures, but the only ones which occur to was one of the last of the ancient practices which
F. C. H. the Reformers succeeded in abolishing, since it The chrisom was a white vestment put upon chilwas without doubt one of the last which most dren at the time of their baptism. It took its name people educated in the old religion, and seeking from the chrism with which the child was then comfort under bereavement, would be likely to anointed. Anciently, the newly baptised appeared surrender.
in church robed in these vestures during the I write this note not without a misgiving that solemn time for holy baptism; and when they laid I may have exceeded your rule as to subjects of them by, they delivered them to the church to be controversy, but I trust that I have sufficiently hereafter produced against them, should they indicated the spirit in which I write ; and I can sully the purity of their baptismal innocence by assure F. C. H. that I would not willingly put a the commission of sin. Hence, the Church of word to paper which would be likely to give England ordered that women, when they came to offence to any reader of “ N. & Q.,” much less to be churched, should offer the infant's chrisom, if one whose contributions have so much interested the child were still alive. If, however, the child and instructed me as his have done.
died between the time of its baptism and its Juxta TURRIM. | mother's being churched, it was wrapped in the